WorldCat Identities

Avettand-Fenoël, Véronique (1978-....).

Overview
Works: 15 works in 15 publications in 2 languages and 17 library holdings
Roles: Other, Author, Opponent, Thesis advisor
Publication Timeline
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Most widely held works by Véronique Avettand-Fenoël
Total HIV DNA: a global marker of HIV persistence by Christine Rouzioux( )

1 edition published in 2018 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Early diagnosis of HIV-1 infection in newborns, in the context of prevention of mother-to-child transmission with HAART (Perinatal Cohort ANRS Co 01) by Véronique Avettand-Fénoël( )

1 edition published in 2008 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Polyfunctional HIV-specific T cells in Post-Treatment Controllers( )

1 edition published in 2016 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Abstract : To further understand the exceptional HIV-1 control observed in Post-Treatment Controllers (PTCs) from the Virological and Immunological Sustained CONtrol after Treatment Interruption study we investigated their HIV-specific T-cell responses. Polyfunctionality of HIV-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells and the ratios of HIV-specific CD4 T cells per infected cells were similar in post-treatment controllers, continuously early-treated patients and long-term non-progressors Overall early treatment appears to preserve robust HIV-specific CD4 + T cells, which might contribute to the posttreatment control of HIV. Abstract : Supplemental Digital Content is available in the text
Utilisation de l'interleukine-7 en immunothérapie chez des patients VIH-mauvais répondeurs immunologiques et comme adjuvant de vaccination muqueuse chez le macaque rhésus by Sandrine Logerot( )

1 edition published in 2015 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

L'avènement des multi-thérapies antirétrovirales a permis une réduction importante de la mortalité associée au VIH en induisant notamment la chute de la charge virale à moins de 50 copies/mL et une récupération progressive du nombre de lymphocytes T CD4+ (LT-CD4). Cependant, certains patients définis comme mauvais répondeurs immunologiques (MRI) ne parviennent pas à récupérer un taux de CD4 généralement considéré comme « protecteur » (>500cellules/µL). L'interleukine-7 (IL-7), cytokine essentielle à la thymopoïèse et à l'homéostasie lymphocytaire T, a été utilisée en étude clinique afin de restaurer et maintenir le taux de LT-CD4 chez les patients MRI. La première partie de mon travail de thèse visait à évaluer l'impact d'une telle thérapie sur le réservoir viral circulant. Dans l'essai clinique sur lequel nous avons travaillé (INSPIRE 3, Cytheris), des cycles d'administration d'IL-7 ont induit une augmentation significative du nombre de LT-CD4 et CD8 circulants, avec une expansion majoritaire des populations naïves et centrales mémoires. Nous avons montré qu'un cycle d'injections d'IL-7 induisait une augmentation significative de la quantité de cellules infectées circulantes 28 jours et 3 mois post-injection. Cependant, malgré l'accroissement de la fréquence de LT-CD4 infectés 28 jours post-injection, nous avons observé une diminution significative de la charge virale ADN par million de LT-CD4 chez la majorité des patients 3 mois après l'initiation de la thérapie, suggérant une élimination partielle de cellules infectées. Suite au second cycle d'injections, nous n'avons pas observé d'évolution de la quantité de cellules infectées circulantes ni de la fréquence de LT-CD4 infectés, suggérant un impact différent des 2 cycles d'injections sur la dynamique du réservoir viral périphérique. Enfin, certains patients ayant développé des anticorps neutralisants anti-IL-7 (Nab) suite au second cycle d'injections d'IL-7, nous avons cherché à identifier des facteurs prédictifs de l'apparition de ces anticorps ainsi que leurs conséquences physiologiques in vivo. Le seul paramètre caractérisant ces patients est l'amplitude de la reconstitution T-CD4 au cours du premier cycle d'injections d'IL-7. Il semble donc qu'une meilleure réponse à l'IL-7 ait pour conséquence de faciliter le développement de la réponse immune contre cette cytokine. Cependant, ces anticorps ne sont détectables que de façon transitoire chez les patients. De plus, nous avons observé une diminution significative, mais transitoire, de la prolifération des thymocytes chez les patients présentant des Nab, démontrant un impact fonctionnel de ces anticorps sur l'activité biologique de l'IL-7 endogène. L'injection systémique d'IL-7 induit la migration des cellules circulantes vers différents compartiments tissulaires lymphoïdes et non lymphoïdes. Dans une seconde partie de mon travail de thèse, j'ai étudié le pouvoir adjuvant de cette cytokine administrée localement par pulvérisation à la surface de la muqueuse vaginale. Dans le modèle macaque rhésus, nous avons mis en évidence une augmentation de la production d'un large spectre de chimiokines dans le chorion et l'épithélium vaginal des animaux 48 heures après l'administration vaginale d'IL-7. Cette surexpression de chimiokines s'accompagne d'une migration massive de LT-CD4, CD8, macrophages, cellules dendritiques et cellules NK dans cette muqueuse, suggérant l'augmentation de la vigilance immunologique. L'effet adjuvant de cette cytokine a été confirmé par l'analyse de la réponse humorale muqueuse de macaques vaccinés par pulvérisation vaginale d'antigènes 48h après l'administration du spray d'IL-7. Dans les lavages cervicovaginaux (CVL) des animaux traités à l'IL-7, nous avons mis en évidence des réponses spécifiques de type IgA et IgG plus rapides, plus fortes et plus durables que chez les animaux contrôles, démontrant la capacité de l'IL-7 à préparer la muqueuse vaginale à répondre à une stimulation antigénique locale
Long-term Therapeutic Impact of the Timing of Antiretroviral Therapy in Patients Diagnosed With Primary Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection( )

1 edition published in 2017 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Antiretroviral therapy initiation during primary HIV-1 infection optimizes long-term HIV reservoir size and accelerates immune reconstitution but leads to similar inflammation marker levels and ultrasensitive viral load than initiation during chronic infection, after a median of 7 years of combination antiretroviral therapy
Reduction in late onset cytomegalovirus primary disease after discontinuation of antiviral prophylaxis in kidney transplant recipients treated with de novo everolimus( )

1 edition published in 2018 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Abstract: Background: Donor (D)+/recipient (R)− serostatus is closely associated with a higher risk of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and disease. Antiviral prophylaxis is conventionally used in such patients, but late onset CMV infection/disease still occurs after the discontinuation of prophylaxis. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the data of 215 low immunological risk patients who received kidney transplantation in our center between 2011 and 2016. Results: Ninety-seven patients received a combination of everolimus (EVL)/reduced doses of calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) (EVL group) de novo, and 118 received a combination of mycophenolic acid (MPA)/standard doses of CNI (MPA group) de novo. All patients received induction by basiliximab, steroids, and standardized antiviral prophylaxis depending on their CMV D/R serostatus. D+/R− recipients comprised 17% (n=16) of the EVL group and 19% (n=22) of the MPA group ( P =.722). In the D+/R− subgroup, the 1-year incidence of late onset CMV primary disease after the withdrawal of prophylaxis was lower in the EVL group than in the MPA group (6% vs 41%, P =.025) while the rate of CMV disease in the D+/R+ group (8% vs 6%, P =1) and the D−/R+ group (12% vs 9%, P =1) were similar. Kaplan-Meier analysis of 1-year CMV primary disease-free survival in seronegative patients was significantly better in the EVL group ( P =.029, log-rank test). Conclusions: Our data suggest that de novo use of EVL may reduce late onset CMV primary disease after the withdrawal of antiviral prophylaxis in kidney transplantation patients
Poor palatability of the new ritonavir formulation is a major obstacle to adherence to treatment in young children( )

1 edition published in 2018 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Caractérisation quantitative et génétique de la dynamique sanguine et tissulaire du virus de l'immunodéficience simienne chez le macaque cynomolgus en histoire naturelle by Antoine Millet( )

1 edition published in 2018 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) infection persists in the body with infected cells containing the integrated viral genome. These cells called "reservoirs" constitute the major barrier to viral eradication and are focus of interest of new therapeutic challenges. The simian model enables the exploration of tissue reservoirs and viral evolution throughout the whole body. In a first part, the aim of our work was to characterize the dynamics of SIV in the blood and tissues in the absence of treatment. In the P-Visconti program, six macaques were infected by SIVmac251 and were followed 6 months before euthanasia. We developed ultrasensitive assays for the SIV DNA quantification (cell infection level) and cell-associated SIV RNA (caSIV RNA), expressing the transcriptional ability of infected cells. In addition, we developed a high throughput sequencing method and bioinformatics tools for in-depth analysis of more than 60 million reads, describing the evolution and number of viral variants in blood and tissues. We showed that the kinetics of the number of infected blood cells and their transcriptional level reflected the kinetics of plasma viremia. Moreover, the evolution of genetic diversity (number of variants and genetic distance) mimicked the evolution of the two markers. The variants constituting the inoculum tended to disappear as soon as day (D)28 in the plasma but persisted longer in the blood cells. The proportion of major variants evolved over time and, despite identical inoculum, a great heterogeneity of infection levels and genetic diversity could be observed among the monkeys. At 6 months post infection, many tissues were collected at euthanasia. We showed a disseminated and replicative infection over 26 anatomical sites, including skin and adipose tissues. Secondary lymphoid organs exhibited the highest levels of infection and transcriptional activity, which were associated with the most divergent viral quasi-species profiles from the inoculum, highlighting the major role of lymph nodes in the viral evolution. Infection level of many tissues was correlated with that observed in blood at the peak of replication. The different lymphoid tissues and several non-lymphoid tissues shared some major variants, indicating high exchanges of virions and/or infected cells between tissues (Manuscript 1). In a second part, we examined a model of SIVmac infected macaques, and 12 out of 16 animals exhibited spontaneous viral control (Simian "controllers": SIC). No difference of viral level was observed in blood at the peak (D15) between SIC and non-controller macaques. In contrast, SIC had a significantly lower level of infection in the lymph nodes since D15. Moreover, after 18 months, SIV DNA loads appeared lower in all SIC tissues. In addition, immunological studies (C. Pereira et al., I. Pasteur) showed that suppressive activity of SIV-specific CD8+ T cells has been developed over time and was related to lower viral reservoir levels (Manuscript 2). Mathematical modeling combining these immuno-virological data (V. Madelain et al., Univ Paris 7) showed a biphasic decay of SIV DNA after the peak of viremia in SIC, that could be related to 2 cell populations (one with short half-life and the other with a long half-life). These results indicate which cells have to been targeted in the context of remission and/or cure studies (Manuscript 3). All of these data demonstrate the key role of lymphoid tissues in the infection dynamics and in viral variants diffusion and diversification. The strong viral spread highlights the need to use molecules that penetrate throughout the whole body
Ultra-deep sequencing applications in virology research by Thuy Nguyen( )

1 edition published in 2018 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The two RNA viruses HIV and HCV are getting a lot of public health concerns because both of them have overlapping risk factors for transmission through direct blood and sexual contacts. Furthermore, HIV and HCV infections are the leading cause of mortality and morbidity globally due to related diseases. However, with the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for the treatment of HIV infection and direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) for the treatment of HCV infection, patients infected by these viruses are witnessing significant improvement in their quality of life. However, the high replication rate and the lack of error correction mechanism of these viruses result in a diverse viral population referred to as quasispecies. Under drug- selective pressure, the viral quasispecies select resistance variants against corresponding drug and render the therapy ineffective especially in cases an appropriate treatment monitoring is not ensured.To reserve a wide range of possibilities for a life-long ART in HIV-infected patients and in parallel to reduce cost for treatment of both HIV and HCV infection, research focusing on detection, surveillance and transmission of resistance mutations is fundamental to prevent treatment failure on antivirals. In this PhD, we employed the ultra-deep sequencing (UDS) or next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies to look for minority resistant variants (MiRVs) which are conventionally considered to represent less than 15%-25% of viral population and undetectable by Sanger sequencing. The presence of MiRVs at baseline is possibly responsible for the treatment failure and their presence at failure may limit options for subsequent therapies. In this PhD, we evaluated the prevalence and clinical impact of MiRVs on integrase gene in HIV-infected patients failing an integrase inhibitor containing regimen. We also evaluated the impact of MiRVs in HCV genotype 3 and genotype 4-infected patients failing DAAs. Furthermore, we used the UDS technique to identify and characterize the HCV transmission networks among a key population of men having sex with men either co-infected with HIV or at high risk of HIV acquisition. We also discovered several cases of mixed HCV genotype infections in this population probably for their high risk of multiple HCV exposures. The advantages of UDS in virology research and the applicability of this technique in clinic have been questioned and verified throughout multiple types of projects in this PhD. UDS has not been conclusively established to be more interesting and beneficial than Sanger sequencing in prevention of treatment failure in patients infected by HIV or HCV and in identifying the viral transmission networks at large scale if taking into account the experiment cost and time for data analysis. However, the dynamic development of UDS technologies and the continuing attempts in optimizing analysis procedures display a promising role of UDS. And the applicability of UDS in clinical practice still needs to be elucidated in different kinds of research projects
La lipodystrophie des patients infectés par le VIH : étude de l'effet du traitement antirétroviral sur l'expression des gènes du tissu adipeux by Véronique Avettand-Fenoël( Book )

1 edition published in 2005 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

NKG2C+ memory-like NK cells contribute to the control of HIV viremia during primary infection: Optiprim-ANRS 147( )

1 edition published in 2017 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Abstract : Natural-killer (NK) cells are important immune effectors during a viral infection. Latent CMV infection is widely spread and was demonstrated to shape the NK cell repertoire through the NKG2C receptor. An expansion of NKG2C + NK cells has been reported during primary HIV infection (PHI), but their role is not known. We previously found a correlation between the maturation state of the NK cell compartment and a lower viral load by studying patients from the ANRS 147 Optiprim trial. We investigated here extensively the NKG2C + NK cells at the time of PHI and its evolution after 3 months of early antiretroviral therapy (combination antiretroviral therapy (cART)). Multiparametric cytometry combined with bioinformatics was used to determine subsets. NK bright NKG2C + progenitor, NK dim NKG2C + effector and NK dim NKG2C + CD57 + memory-like populations were identified. Two groups of patients were unraveled according to the distribution of the NKG2C + subsets skewed toward either progenitor/effector or memory-like phenotype. Patients with high NKG2C + CD57 + NK cell frequencies showed lower HIV-RNA, lower immune activation, higher pDC counts and reached more rapidly undetectable levels of HIV-RNA at M1 under cART. NKG2C + CD57 + NK cell frequency was the only factor strongly correlated to low viral load among other clinical features. While the patients were cytomegalovirus (CMV) infected, there was no sign of reactivation of CMV during PHI suggesting that memory-like NK cells were already present at the time of HIV infection and constituted a preexisting immune response able to contribute to natural control of HIV. This parameter appears to be a good candidate in the search of predictive markers to monitor HIV remission. HIV: Exposure to CMV offers partial immune protection: Prior infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV) leaves an immune footprint that helps contain HIV in patients undergoing antiretroviral therapy. A team led by Francoise Gondois-Rey and Daniel Olive from Aix-Marseille University, France, studied the white blood cells of 30 patients involved in a clinical trial testing drug cocktails for limiting HIV infection during the period following initial contact with the virus. The researchers measured levels of an infection-fighting immune cell known as a natural killer cell that, in response to prior CMV exposure, expresses a particular surface receptor called NKG2C. They showed that patients with higher levels of these cells had some degree of pre-existing immunity that helped limit HIV viral loads. Levels of this particular immune cell subset may provide a good predictive biomarker of who is likely to achieve HIV remission
Impact of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Minority Variants on the Virus Response to a Rilpivirine-Based First-line Regimen( )

1 edition published in 2018 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Next-generation sequencing retrospectively identified rilpivirine-resistant variants with a 1% threshold in 8.8% and 5.7% of 489 treatment-naive patients according to the ANRS and Stanford algorithms, respectively. Minority resistant variants had no impact on the virological response to a rilpivirine-based regimen
Impact de la variabilité génétique dans la région Long Terminal Repeat et le gène de l'intégrase sur la réplication du VIH-2 by Quentin Le Hingrat( )

1 edition published in 2019 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Le VIH-2 est souvent considéré comme un modèle d'infection rétrovirale atténuée, du fait de sa faible réplication virale, des faibles taux de transmission et de la progression plus lente vers le stade SIDA des patients infectés. Les mécanismes causaux de cette moindre physiopathologie sont encore mal connus. Dans ce travail, nous nous sommes intéressés à la diversité du VIH-2, notamment dans deux régions génomiques : l'intégrase et la région Long Terminal Repeat (LTR). Nous avons tout d'abord amélioré la technique classique d'isolement de souches virales afin de disposer de davantage de souches de VIH-2, en purifiant les échantillons de patients avec des billes anti-CD44. Ensuite, nous avons utilisé ces souches pour étudier la sensibilité aux inhibiteurs de transfert de brin de l'intégrase, ou INSTI. Au cours de ce travail, nous avons mis en évidence un nouveau mécanisme de résistance aux INSTI chez le VIH-2, l'insertion de 5 acides aminés après le codon 231 du gène de l'intégrase. Cette insertion est responsable d'une résistance importante au raltegravir (RAL), à l'elvitegravir (EVG), au cabotegravir (CAB), ainsi qu'une résistance modérée au dolutegravir (DTG). La sensibilité au bictegravir (BIC) était conservée pour certains isolats porteurs de cette insertion. Une insertion de deux acides aminés a aussi été observée transitoirement chez un patient. Nous avons confirmé ces observations phénotypiques en construisant des virus porteurs de ces insertions par mutagénèse dirigée. L'insertion, qu'elle soit de 2 ou de 5 acides aminés, n'était pas responsable d'une perte de capacité réplicative, à l'exception du mutant avec l'insertion GIRGK.En revanche, la structure prédite de l'intégrase est fortement modifiée, avec notamment la perte d'un des deux feuillets bêta composant le tonneau bêta du domaine C-terminal.La sensibilité phénotypique des mutants a été déterminée, pour les insertions de 5 acides aminés, les résultats étaient similaires à ceux obtenus avec les isolats cliniques. Nous avons aussi pu déterminer la sensibilité du mutant avec l'insertion GK, qui était sensible au BIC et au DTG, mais déjà pleinement résistant à RAL et au CAB. Dans la dernière partie de notre travail, nous avons étudié la variabilité dans la région LTR des provirus de 66 patients naïfs d'antirétroviraux, inclus dans la cohorte ANRS CO5 VIH-2. La variabilité génétique était plus importante dans les séquences du groupe B, du fait notamment de nombreuses insertions et délétions dans la sous-région «régulatrice» comprenant l'ensemble des sites de fixation de facteurs de transcription cellulaire. Ces virus du groupe B présentaient une délétion de quelques nucléotides dans la région contenant les sites de fixation PuB1 et pets, causant une perte de ce dernier site de fixation. De plus, 4 provirus du groupe B présentaient une délétion du premier site de fixation du facteur de transcription ubiquitaire Sp1. Cette variabilité entraînait des conséquences sur l'activité transcriptionnelle de ces LTR. Les LTR du groupe A et du groupe B présentaient la même activité transcriptionnelle basale mais, dans les cellules Jurkat, après activation cellulaire, l'activité transcriptionnelle des LTR du groupe B et d'un LTR de groupe A dans lequel la zone contenant la délétion de pets a été insérée était 10 fois plus faible que celle du LTR de groupe A. La délétion du premier site de fixation de Sp1 diminuait l'activité transcriptionnelle basale dans les cellules Jurkat et la réponse à la transactivation par la protéine virale Tat dans les cellules HEK293T
 
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Audience level: 0.93 (from 0.88 for Total HIV ... to 1.00 for Ultra-deep ...)

Alternative Names
Véronique Avettand-Fenoel researcher

Véronique Avettand-Fenoel wetenschapper

Languages
English (11)

French (4)