WorldCat Identities

Labrousse, Loïc (1974-....).

Overview
Works: 18 works in 20 publications in 2 languages and 23 library holdings
Roles: Other, Thesis advisor, Author, Opponent
Publication Timeline
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Most widely held works by Loïc Labrousse
L' exhumation des roches métamorphiques de très haute pression : le cas des Calédonides de Norvège by Loïc Labrousse( Book )

2 editions published in 2001 in French and held by 5 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

L'impact rhéologique de la fusion partielle de la croûte continentale : l'exemple de la Région des Gneiss de l'Ouest, Norvège by Anne-Céline Ganzhorn( Book )

2 editions published between 2013 and 2015 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Occurrence of migmatites within internal core of collision orogens reveals that partial melting of their crustal root occurred during their prograde and/or retrograde pressure-temperature path. If partial melting of the continental crust is generally considered as a weakening process, relationships between partial melting, deformation and mechanical behaviour of migmatites are poorly constrained. This work corresponds to an integrated study from the field to numerical simulations through laboratory experiments. The field approach led to conclude that both gneiss and eclogite facies lenses underwent first water-present and then dehydration partial melting. Field study was coupled with an experimental study of natural migmatite mechanical behaviour performed at realistic temperatures on slightly anisotropic and homogeneous partially molten gneiss. Static experiments revealed that at 750¡C and 300MPa, partial melting reaction of the natural protolith is a water-present reaction. In the presented deformation experiments, the strength drop occurs as soon as 4% of melt proportion, which belongs to the lowest estimates of rheological threshold. The last part of this work deals with numerical modelling using the simulation software ELLE. Coupling between grain-size processes such as boundary migration and viscous deformation reveals that development of microstructures depends on wetting angle and strain rate
Dynamique lithosphérique et architecture des marges du bassin du Levant : approche géophysique intégrée by Lama Inati Smaily( )

1 edition published in 2017 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Significant gas discoveries have been made recently in the Eastern Mediterranean (www.nobleenergyinc.com), which turned the attention of oil companies towards the Levant Basin. This region is considered today as a typical hydrocarbon frontier province. Hence, a considerable amount of geophysical data has been produced and a series of academic and industry-based studies have been performed. Understanding the crustal and sedimentary architecture, the actual and past thermicity of this basin, in particular on the Lebanese continental margin, has major academic and economic interests. This has important implications on understanding tectonic evolution and earthquakes generation and on assessing petroleum systems. Despite numerous old and recent geophysical studies in this region, the deep crustal configuration of the Levant Basin, known to be the site of rifting in the Late Paleozoic and Early Mesozoic, remains enigmatic. The transition from a typical thick continental crust to thinner attenuated crust offshore (possibly even oceanic crust) has been invoked, but not yet proven. Integrated geophysical approaches and modeling techniques are used in this thesis to study the deep structure of the lithosphere underlying the easternmost Mediterranean region.A 2D modeling approach was accomplished at a regional scale (1000x1000 km2) extending from the Nile delta in the south, to Turkey in the north, from the Herodotus Basin in the west to the Arabian plate in the east. The algorithm used is a trial and error method that delivers the crustal thickness and the depth of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) as well as the crustal density distribution by integrating top basement heat flow data, free-air gravity anomaly, Geoid and topography data. Moho depth and crustal thickness were locally constrained by refraction data where available. Three models are presented, two in EW direction (580 and 650 km long) and one in SN direction (570 km long). The models in EW sections show a progressively attenuated crystalline crust from E to W (35 to 8 km). The SN section presents a 12 km thick crust to the south, thinning to 9-7 km towards the Lebanese offshore and reaching 20 km in the north. The crystalline crust is best interpreted as a strongly thinned continental crust under the Levant Basin, represented by two distinct components, an upper and a lower crust. The Herodotus Basin, however, shows a very thin crystalline crust, likely oceanic, with a thickness between 6 and 10 km. The Moho under the Arabian plate is 35-40 km deep and becomes shallower towards the Mediterranean coast. Within the Levant Basin, the Moho appears to be situated between 20 and 23 km, reaching 26 km in the Herodotus Basin. While depth to LAB is around 110 km under the Arabian and the Eurasian plates, it is about 150 km under the Levant Basin and plunges finally to 180 km under the Herodotus Basin.A 3D joint inversion of gravity, geoid and topography data applied on the same region confirmed the results of the 2D modeling. A total of 168 of simulations were run, among which the simulation with the minimal data misfits corresponds to a model where the Moho depth varies between 23 and 26 km in the Levant Basin and becomes deeper in the Herodotus Basin and off the African coast. The LAB is 100 to 150 km deep in the Levant Basin and deepens to more than 180 km in the Herodotus Basin
Modélisation des écoulements de mousse dans les milieux poreux en récupération assistée du pétrole by Omar Gassara( )

1 edition published in 2017 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Conventional techniques of oil recovery consist in injecting water and/or gas into the geological formation to force out the oil. These methods may reveal ineffective because of high permeability contrasts, unfavorable mobility ratio between the driving fluid and the oil in place which generally generates viscous fingering, and gravity segregation. In this context, foam has shown a great potential to overcome all these detrimental effects, and thereafter, to improve the volumetric sweep efficiency. Still some key points need to be addressed regarding the predictive calculation of multiphase foam flow in porous media. Methods for modeling foam flow in porous media fall into two categories: population balance (PB) models and (semi)-empirical (SE) models. On the one hand, PB models describe foam lamellas transport in porous media and predict the evolution of foam microstructure as the result of pore-scale mechanisms of lamellas generation and destruction. Within this framework, the modeling of foam effects on gas mobility is directly related to foam texture (lamellas density) along with the effects of other parameters impacting its rheology such as foam quality and velocity, permeability of the porous media, surfactant concentration, etc. On the other hand, SE models are based on the extension of multiphase classical Darcy's model to describe foam flow in porous media, such that the foam texture effects are described indirectly through a multi-parameter interpolation function of parameters measured/observed in laboratory. Such formulation has to be calibrated from foam flow experimental data on a case-by-case basis, which can turn to be a cumbersome task. Furthermore, SE models involve uncertainty because they are not based on mechanistic laws driving lamellas transport in porous media, and their predictive capacity remains low as too few laboratory data are generally available for their calibration. Nonetheless, the reservoir engineer needs a reliable foam model in order to design, assess and optimize foam enhanced oil recovery processes for field application. Accordingly, this thesis aims at providing further insights into the topics related to the parameterization of (semi)-empirical models through better formulated and calibrated laws in order to improve their predictivity. In this work, we have established the physical basis necessary to validate the (semi)-empirical models. Indeed, we developed the equivalence between SE and PB models achieved through relationships between the parameters of these two modeling approaches (industrial and physical). The equivalence has been established and studied using a pre-calibrated PB model of the literature to fit steady-state foam measurements. In addition, this equivalence allowed us to develop a new procedure to calibrate the (semi)-empirical models in a reliable and deterministic way. This procedure was tested and validated using results from IFPEN core-flood experiments by translating them into steady-state texture measurements. Finally, we proposed scaling laws for empirical model parameters with the permeability of the porous media, by analyzing the fitted parameters on cores of different permeabilities. Different interpretations of the scaling laws are herein provided using theoretical models for lamellas stability. Then, their importance has been demonstrated through simulations on a two layer reservoir cross-section. The simulation results indicate that the predictions of foam flow in a heterogeneous reservoir require a good knowledge of the scaling laws of SE model parameters with permeability
Anisotropie, fusion partielle et déformation de la croûte continentale : étude expérimentale et observations de terrain by Julien Fauconnier( )

1 edition published in 2016 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Strain localization is a necessary feature of tectonic. To be able to localize deformation, rocks must undergo weakening. The main weakening process is weak phase interconnection. For continental crust, weak phases that are the most often responsible of strain localization are micas and melt. Although previous experimental studies exist about rheological properties of micas, none are about the effect of micas on the strain localization in the lower continental crust conditions. Previous experimental studies about the effect of partial melting were always done with isotropic starting material. But continental crust which undergo partial melting is very likely to be deformed before melting and therefore to be highly anisotropic. In the aim to bring new data about mechanical behavior and microstructures of anisotropic continental crust, as well as the effect of micas on strain localization, this thesis propose to conduct a series of experiments in a Griggs apparatus. This experimental approach is also coupled with field work on the Møre og Trøndelag Fault Zone (Norway). This crustal scale shear zone was partially synchronous with partial melting and therefore is well suited for studying relation ship between deformation and partial melting
Enregistrement des fluctuations climatiques au Paléogène aux hautes latitudes en Arctique by Marie Salpin( )

1 edition published in 2017 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The Palaeogene is a period of major climate system disturbances, especially marked by climatic optima recognized in both continental and marine environments. In the context of current global warming, the study and understanding of this period of strong climate fluctuations and transition between a greenhouse and an icehouse world is a major issue. Numerous studies have been conducted on low and mid latitudes, while only few studies focus on high latitudes. In this study, Paleocene-Eocene deltaic successions are used to study the response of the Arctic system to global events, the Paleogene climatic optima (PETM, ETM2, EECO and the Azolla event) and attempt to respond to these questions: did the basin have a specific response to global climate stimuli? Are there coupling / decoupling mechanisms between the dynamics of the Arctic basin and the global ocean? This study is based on multiproxies analysis: bulk and clay mineralogy, Rock Eval pyrolysis, palynology, palynofacies and stable isotopes of organic carbon. The results suggest warming episodes allowing the installation of mangroves in the Arctic Basin in an already warm climate. In the Northwestern Territories, mineralogical results suggest local fluctuations in detritic sources controlled by tectonics and / or eustatism and may overlap with the climate record
Evolution pétrologique et déformation des semelles métamorphiques des ophiolites : mécanismes d'accrétion et couplage à l'interface des plaques lors de l'initiation de la subduction by Mathieu Soret( )

1 edition published in 2017 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Les semelles métamorphiques sont des unités d'origine océanique (≤ 500 m d'épaisseur) situées à la base des grandes ophiolites obductées (≤ 20 km d'épaisseur). Ces unités sont caractérisées par un gradient métamorphique inverse, où les conditions de pression (P) et de température (T) de cristallisation augmentent de la base vers le contact avec l'ophiolite sus-jacente : depuis 500±100˚C et 0.5±0.2 GPa jusqu'à 800±100˚C et 1.0±0.2 GPa. Formées et exhumées au cours des 2 Ma suivant l'initiation des subductions océaniques, les semelles sont des témoins directs de leur dynamique précoce. Les assemblages minéralogiques qu'elles portent et leur déformation fournissent des contraintes majeures, et rares, sur l'évolution de la structure thermique et sur le comportement mécanique de l'interface de subduction naissante. Au terme d'une étude pétrologique, (micro-) structurale et expérimentale sur les amphibolites naturelles de la semelle de Semail (Oman, UAE) et synthétisées en laboratoire, nous proposons un modèle où la semelle métamorphique résulte d'épisodes multiples d'accrétion d'unités homogènes en P-T (donc sans gradient métamorphique) au cours des premières étapes de subduction océanique. L'écaillage subséquent résulte de changements majeurs dans la distribution de la déformation, du fait des variations des propriétés mécaniques des roches à l'interface de subduction lors de son équilibration thermique et de l'augmentation au cours du temps de la proportion de sédiments entrant en subduction. Ce modèle rend compte d'une grande complexité thermique et mécanique à l'interface de subduction, encore insuffisamment examinée dans les études numériques actuelles
Cristallochimie du fer dans les chlorites métamorphiques : approche analytique multiéchelle, expérimentale, et implications pétrologiques by Lorella Masci( )

1 edition published in 2019 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Chorite is a phyllosilicate crystallizing in a wide range of pressure and temperature conditions, among a diversity of rocks : from diagenesis to metamorphic conditions, typically in greenschist facies but also in blueschist and amphibolite facies. Chlorite is useful for metamorphic petrology as a geothermometer, as its composition is sensitive to the temperature of crystallization and chlorite is commonly found within mineral assemblages. Chlorite shows many solid solutions, among which Fe may be incorporated in large proportions in divalent (Fe2+) and/or trivalent (Fe3+) state. Unfortunately current models for geothermometry on chlorite either neglect Fe3+ or require evaluating the thermodynamic properties of Fe3+-rich chlorite for increased accuracy. This study aims at providing new crystal-chemistry data on ferric chlorite from a wide range of composition and origin, and to answer the following questions : (1) how much Fe3+ may be incorporated in chlorite ? (2) what are the cationic substitutions and end-members for Fe3+ incorporation ? (3) how is Fe3+ distributed within the chlorite structure ? and (4) what are the dependencies between Fe3+ in chlorite and the pressure-temperature conditions, and oxygen fugacity, at crystal and mineral scales ? This work investigates the speciation of iron in chlorite with different techniques; X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy at the Fe-K edge (K XANES), and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) combined with electron microprobe major element analyzes. X-ray diffraction investigation brings structural information on the structure of ferric chlorite. This analytical strategy is focused on chlorite from natural rock samples and experimental syntheses made at fixed pressure and temperature, and under buffered oxygen fugacity. A new database on ferric chlorite crystal-chemistry is the major output of this work, which highlights substitutions involving Fe3+. A Fe3+ -rich, vacant endmember is required to account for the di-trioctahedral substitution, and a magnesian end-member with 1 Fe3+ replacing Al for the homovalent Al - Fe3+ substitution. These results are observed in natural specimens and confirmed by experimental synthsesis of ferric chlorite. In addition, chlorite with Fe3+ > 1.5 p.f.u. shows systematic deviation from the ideal O10(OH)8 anionic basis, where proton deficit has been inferred from indirect measurements of H+ content. These results are consistent with the existence of an "oxychlorite" group within the classification of phyllosilicates. At mineral scale, the variations of the oxidation state take place at nanoscale and are unrelated to variations in the amount of Fe. Chlorite crystallized via experimental synthesis shows similar features. These results explain the poor success of geothermometry on some iron-rich chlorite, and allow us to propose improved cation distribution algorithms for geo thermometry. Our study paves the way for future experimental synthesis focused on oxychlorite
Green's function retrieval from noise correlation in multiple scattering media by Aida Hejazi Nooghabi( )

1 edition published in 2018 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Ambient-noise interferometry is an approach to estimate the transient response between two receivers without an active source. The method consists of cross-correlating recordings of ambient vibrations at a pair of passive instruments that act only as receivers. This dissertation contributes to evaluating the robustness and accuracy of Green's function reconstruction by cross-correlation of noise, disentangling the respective roles of ballistic and reverberated ('coda') signals. We focus our study on a strongly reverberating medium. We conduct a suite of experiments on a highly reverberating thin duralumin plate. We find that the coda of the arrivals contribute the most to retrieval of the Green's function. We also develop an analytical model that predicts the dependence of symmetry of the cross-correlations on the number of sources. Next, we focus on a reverberating medium with a scatterer. We passively estimate the scattering strength of the scatterer by implementing ambient-noise interferometry. In the last part, we focus on a reverberating medium with locally resonant scatterers which acts as a metamaterial. Our objective is to assess the behaviour of the cross-correlation in such a medium. We build an example of such materials in the laboratory by attaching an array of rods, arranged in a sub-wavelength order, to the surface of a thin elastic plate. We find different behaviours which are consistent with the regimes that correspond to propagation band and bandgap. We next apply the cross-correlation technique to the real data obtained in METAFORET experiment. Our findings are consistent with the resonating behaviour of trees at the corresponding frequency bands
Évolution structurale et thermique des Calédonides d'Écosse by Ella Jewison( )

1 edition published in 2018 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Les prismes collisionnels ductiles sont classiquement décrits par analogie aux prismes frictionnels superficiels, avec des déformations localisées et en séquence, s'enracinant sur un niveau de décollement basal. Cependant, puisqu'ils se construisent sous la transition cassant-ductile ils impliquent aussi des déformations ductiles distribuées à toutes les échelles. L'accrétion des différentes unités pourrait donc être significativement différente. Pour documenter l'évolution d'un prisme ductile il faut donc étudier finement l'évolution thermique de chaque unité et des zones de cisaillement qui les séparent pour comprendre comment elles s'accrètent au prisme. La présente étude prend pour support l'exemple typique du prisme Calédonien des Highlands et se propose d'utiliser une panoplie d'outils de thermochronologie haute température comme la méthode U-Pb sur apatite, en soulignant l'apport de la datation SIMS pour la détection fine de populations d'âge dans des terrains polymétmorphiques associée à la méthode éprouvée de datation 40Ar/39Ar sur micas. Les résultats U-Pb sur apatite et 40Ar/39Ar sur muscovites montrent que le refroidissement à l'échelle du prisme se produit vers 415-400 Ma. Les résultats des datations 40Ar/39Ar montrent également que les zones de cisaillement majeures dans le prisme ont des activités diachrones. La zone de cisaillement de Naver semble jouer dans des conditions > 500 ̊C seule, et tôt dans l'histoire du prisme, alors que les cisaillements de Ben Hope et du Moine semblent jouer de façon concomitante de 440 Ma à 415 Ma, avant la localisation complète de la déformation sur le Moine, et le refroidissement général et uniforme du prisme
P-T-deformation-time evolution of the Akeyasi HP/UHP complex (SW-Tianshan, China) and implications for subduction dynamics by Zhou Tan( )

1 edition published in 2018 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

This study attempts to characterize key fossil fragments of material equilibrated along subduction plate boundary, now exposed in Chinese SW-Tianshan Metamorphic Belt (STMB). We herein elucidate some subduction zone processes across a critical depth range of ~80km, beyond which geophysicist and modeler infer a change in mechanical coupling and oceanic rocks are usually not recovered. It focuses on an unusually thick pile of HP/UHP metavolcanoclastics, wrapping eclogite slices and preserving pervasive coesite relics, along a ~30km-long transect across the Akeyazi metamorphic complex (AMC) in the Kebuerte valley. Structural studies reveal the current geometry of the AMC is a metamorphic dome with evidence of internal nappe stacking and should be subdivided into several coherent, km-scale tectonic units with distinct P-T-time-deformation histories. At least 4 of 6 sub-units identified here, i.e., the UH (2.75 GPa/480-560°C), EB (2.1/505), MU (1.45/485) and GT units (>0.7-1.0/470-520) were subducted and buried to depths of ~85, 65, 45 and 30 km respectively. Deformation following EC/BS-EC peak burial is marked by pervasive BS facies exhumation-related shear senses with a top to North component. Radiometric constraints yield peak burial ages of 320±1, 332±2, 359±2 and 280-310 Ma, respectively, for the UH, EB, MU and GS facies units, indicating several short-lived detachment episodes of material from the downgoing plate. The tectono-metamorphic evolution from ~12 to 5-7°C/km with time may reflect progressive cooling of the subduction system. Juxtaposition & exhumation of those 4 units to mid-crustal depth, at rates on the order of 1-3 mm/yr, was accomplished around 290-300Ma
Comportement rhéologique de la croûte continentale en conditions HT/UHT : Étude tectono-métamorphique de la ceinture paléoprotérozoïque de la ceinture de Khondalite (Craton de Chine du Nord). by Cyril Lobjoie( )

1 edition published in 2018 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The Paleoproterozoic Khondalite belt exposes a mid to lower continental crust made of HT-UHT migmatites, numerous granite and gabbronorite intrusions. It represents an ancient analogous of the actual orogenic crust involved in large subduction-collision belt and orogenic plateau like the Andes or the Himalaya-Tibet system, respectively. In this PhD thesis, a tectono-metamorphic study of the Khondalite, based on multi-scale structural analysis, P-T modeling and petrochronological new results, is presented. Our results allow to a strong reappraisal of the geodynamic setting of the Khondalite belt and bring new insights to the knowledge of the thermomechanical of the deep and partially molten crust.The structural analysis yields to the recognition of two main deformation events, D1 and D2. The D1 deformation shows a subhorizontal S1 foliation holding a mineral and stretching sub-horizontal to gently dipping L1 lineation, underlined by elongated garnet grains and sillimanite. The D2 deformation is represented by three planar fabrics drawing an anastomosed system with a N70°E trending subvertical S2 foliation and shear zones that trend N90°E (C2) and N120°E (C'2). These C2/C'2/S2 relationships emphasize a bulk dextral progressive D2 kinematics. A microstructural study and EBSD analysis of different garnet-type occurrences show different constrictional and flattening finite strain patterns in abundant garnet bearing migmatites. Within the flat D1 foliation, two main garnet typologies are described characterized by elongated grain with sillimanite, biotite and quartz inclusion or forming a biphased garnet-quartz agregate with poecilithic garnet grains. EBSD result reveals that garnet grains were plastically deformed. Using pseudosection modeling, we characterized low melt amount under UHT conditions during the garnet and garnet-quartz deformation. Power flow laws are used to model the garnet and garnet-quartz aggregate viscous shear strength at HT-UHT conditions. It reveals that garnet was as weak phase as quartz and that garnet-quartz aggregate strength is similar to quartzo-feldspathic assemblage under UHT conditions.The UHT metamorphism of the Khondalite Belt is observed regionally within both S1 and S2 suprasolidus foliations. These UHT conditions were the result of an increase of temperature within the orogenic system in response of juvenile gabbroic injections and asthenospheric upwelling in the continental arc setting. We discovered two novel orthopyroxene + spinel + cordierite and orthopyroxene + spinel + olivine UHT metamorphic assemblages that characterized UHT conditions of ~0.6-0.8 GPa, and a maximum temperature of 1,050°C within Fe-rich migmatites. These assemblages originated from UHT metamorphism of residual granulites in response to gabbronorite intrusions along D2 vertical pathways. Indeed, the structural and petrological results show that during the D2 deformation, melt migration was very efficient with the formation of a melt network within metatexites. The new subvertical S2 foliation facilitates melt migration, with the formation of diatexites and S-type granites in melt percolation domains and of residual granulites in melt depleted domains.The D1 deformation is interpreted as an evidence for mid to lower lateral crustal flow in Andean-type continental magmatic arc setting between 1.94 Ga and 1.90 Ga. The progressive D2 deformation occurs firstly with a mid-ocean ridge subduction responsible for HT conditions within the arc at 1.92 Ga. Secondly, the collision between the magmatic arc and the Fuping continent developed progressively an anastomosed system of shear zones in a bulk dextral transpressional setting at ca. 1.90-1.89 Ga
Evolution géodynamique et paléogéographique mésozoïque du nord de l'Alaska : du bassin amérasien à l'orogenèse brookienne by Nicolas Lemonnier( )

1 edition published in 2015 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The Canadian basin is among the few basins worldwide for which the nature and the geometry of the substratum, and therefore the opening mode, are still unknown. Paleogeographic models based on the few data available are subject to controversy, with different mechanisms and inception ages. According to current paleogeographic models, the margins of Canadian basin either considered as extensional or transform margins. Detailed study of their structures and chronologies is a preliminary exercise to discriminate between permissible models. The most sollicited opening model assumes a change of polarity of the overall subduction south to the canadian basin during the multiphase Brookian orogeny. The Brooks orogen is located north of the alaskan peninsula and south of the canadian basin. It constitutes one of the main assembly stage of terranes in the Northern Cordillera : docking of the Arctic-Alaska-Chukotka terrane with the peri-Pacific arcs system. Its collisional stage is deemed synchronous of the opening of the Canada Basin, which is likely to provide clues about the coupling between tectonics of the north basin and intra-Alaska Cordillera deformation. This orogen has both recorded and influenced the geodynamic history of the Canadian basin. The relative chronology of the development of the two structures is essential and any reconstruction of regional geodynamics must reconcile them in terms of kinematics and boundary conditions
Approches intégrées de construction et d'analyse des modèles de systèmes pétroliers : apports pour l'exploration pétrolière by Mathieu Ducros( )

1 edition published in 2017 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Numerical tools for petroleum system modeling and forward stratigraphic modeling were designed to account for complex processes responsible for hydrocarbon accumulations in petroleum reservoirs. These processes, which extended to new mechanisms and gained details with increasing understanding, involve several geoscience disciplines making difficult the building of models consistent with both data and knowledge. The work performed during this Ph.D. aims at making basin modeling more accessible to geoscientists first by making easier the integration of geological concepts and available data during the process of model building and then by improving quality of forecasts and of risk quantification through sensitivity and risk analysis on maps. In a first section, two methods designed for better and easier estimation of the thermal history and of the distribution of marine organic matter in sedimentary basins are presented. They are based on a similar procedure which uses local data and regional knowledge to assess these two key aspects of petroleum system exploration. An optimization loop is initially performed on input parameters to fit on local data before extrapolating the results to basin scale under the constraint of the regional geological information. Both approaches were patented (Ducros, 2012; Ducros et Chauveau, 2015). The basin of Berkine in Algeria, for which an important set of thermal data is available, was used as an application case study for the method designed for estimating thermal history. The Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin, known for its production of unconventionals, was used for illustrating the estimation of the distribution of organic matter. The second part of the work is dedicated to a new methodology for sensitivity and risk analysis on maps. It is built on a proxy-model of the simulator behavior in the uncertain space to save time during the sampling phase required for providing statistical results. It also uses a principal component analysis to reduce the space dimension when dealing with maps. The approach is illustrated on two case studies: one using a forward stratigraphic model for assessing the position of petroleum reservoirs and one on a petroleum system modeling tool for assessing the maturity of a source-rock in the Levant Basin. These new tools strengthen the integration of data coming from different disciplines to produce more consistent and robust results. They make easier the interpretation of risk analysis provided on a format compatible with classical methods of risk assessment in petroleum exploration such as CRS mapping. The results of this work emphasize the role of these tools for making the link between the different disciplines of geosciences to provide consistent and predictive results. They also give access to powerful risk mapping that can be part of a more general framework, called Common Risk Segment Mapping, used for risks assessment in petroleum exploration
Evolution thermo-cinématique et géodynamique du Brooks Range et du North Slope (Alaska-Canada) by Maelianna Bigot-Buschendorf( )

1 edition published in 2015 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The kinematics and geodynamics associated with the compressional deformation in the Brooks Range and British-Barn Mountains, respectively in Alaska (USA) and North Yukon (Canada), in a back-arc setting has long been debated. In particular, the tectonic history of the Arctic Alaska continental block located in the foreland of the Brooks Range has been diversely interpreted in the plate reconstructions proposed for the Canadian basin. The Brooks Range mountain chain develops from the Lower Cretaceous to the Cenozoic. Constraining its exhumational history and its link with shortening evolution is essential in this arctic area where plate tectonics, associated to the Canadian basin opening in the North, has led to controversial geodynamic models. Tectonic coupling with the active Pacific subduction in the south as well as major seismogenic strike-slip faulting make this orogen a key area where to refine the regional plate reconstructions and understanding of orogenic processes. The Cenozoic evolution of the Brooks Mountains is poorly understood although it is a nearly unique example of arctic orogen, which have potentially recorded major climate changes like Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum, the Oligocene cooling and Quaternary glaciations. This orogen is a key to study and quantify the climate impact on the north-alaskan topographic growth. This study combined low-temperature thermochronometry (FT, U-Th/He) on granitic and sedimentary rocks, which were thermo-kinematically modeled using Pecube in order to define the orogenic evolution of this arctic region since 100 Ma. In parallel, a field-based structural study (North Yukon and Brooks Range) was combined with the analysis of subsurface data. Thermochronological data, coupled to thermometric RSCM analyses and thermal modeling first define a slow exhumation period (0.2 km/Ma) from Upper Cretaceous up to the Eocene. With the Eocene, exhumation rates drastically increased to reach 1.25-1.29km/Ma as the deformation also migrates from SW toward NE. In both alaskan and canadian parts of mountains ranges a clear Oligocene exhumational event is identified. This event is linked to out-of-sequence crustal duplexing in the internal part of the range in the Brooks Range, contemporaneous with the propagation of deformation offshore, along British and Barn Mountains
Geochemical and crystal-chemical processes of scandium enrichment from the mantle to lateritic contexts - Contribution to the understanding of the processes of critical metals enrichment by Mathieu Chassé( )

1 edition published in 2017 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The supply of rare metals has become a great concern due to the combination of geopolitical uncertainties and increasing use in new high-technology materials. However, to secure supply, progress on the understanding of the resource is needed. Among rare metals, there is a growing potential demand for scandium (Sc), resulting from its use in high-performance alloys and solid oxide fuel cells. The current supply is not guaranteed but lateritic deposits are a promising target. Scandium could become a by-product of many nickel laterites, and even the main product of high-grade lateritic Sc ores in eastern Australia. To understand the origin of lateritic Sc enrichment, we investigated the geochemical and crystal-chemical processes forming one of these deposits (Syerston-Flemington, New South Wales). A meta-analysis of geochemical studies on mantle-derived rocks and minerals, which form the parent rocks of all known Sc-enriched laterites reveals that the most favourable lithotypes are cumulates of clinopyroxene or amphibole. It also shows a drastic change in the compatibility of Sc with increasing depth in the mantle, ranging from incompatible in the spinel facies to compatible in the garnet facies. This dichotomy is of great interest for tracing the depth of partial melting of extrusive rocks.Integrated X-ray diffraction, whole-rock and microscopic chemical analyses and X-ray absorption spectroscopy have been used to understand the processes that concentrate Sc during lateritisation. Scandium-rich lateritic profiles result from the dissolution of primary minerals containing slight but significant Sc enrichment, followed by successive trapping by smectite and iron oxides after dissolution of the clay phases. Scandium grades reflect the high capacity of goethite to adsorb this element. Along with mechanisms of dissolution-precipitation forming successive generations of goethite, it preserves Sc immobility while most other elements are leached, leading to high residual concentrations of Sc
Architectures et facteurs de contrôle des systèmes fluviatiles et turbiditiques. De la caractérisation à la modélisation by Rémy Deschamps( )

1 edition published in 2018 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The turbiditic and fluvial systems have similarities, in particular in their morphology (incisions, channels), but many differences are notable, as regards the architecture of the deposits, and the spatio-temporal evolution of these two systems, yet genetically linked. The comparison of these systems concerns the interaction of the different physical processes involved in the origin and the behaviour of these systems, and on the architectures of the preserved deposits. Continental and deep sea systems are characterized primarily by the physical processes leading to the erosion, transport and subsequent deposition of sedimentary particles. These processes are controlled by various local or global forcing, thus shaping their morphologies that evolves in space (along the upstream-downstream profile), and over time. These systems are genetically linked and the "source-to-sink" approach includes all the continental and marine processes that contribute to sediment production, transport and deposition. Understanding these controlling factors is crucial in the understanding and the prediction of sedimentation recorded in basins, at different scales. The allocyclic and the autocyclic controlling factors are responsible for the internal organization of the sandy reservoirs, and the understanding of these different parameters will make it possible to constrain the numerical models, whose objective is, according to the scale considered (basin scale or reservoir scale), to predict the distribution of sedimentary facies (reservoirs, source rocks, seals), or to minimize the risks when producing a reservoir
Seismic stratigraphy of the offshore basins of Argentina : characterization and modeling of the South Atlantic passive margin dynamics by Juan Pablo Lovecchio( )

1 edition published in 2018 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

This work is focused on basin formation and evolution in the Argentinean South Atlantic Margin and the Mesozoic breakup of SW Gondwana. Rifting evolution was studied in the Malvinas and Colorado/Salado basins. Three superimposed rifting events were identified in the latter. The first rifting event is associated with the Late Triassic extensional reactivation of Late Paleozoic thrusts of the Ventania-Cape fold belt. A second and main rifting stage (Early-Middle Jurassic) is related to faults forming the main depocenters and intersecting the older structures. Finally, Early Cretaceous extension linked to the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean focused on the outer continental fringe and produced emplacement of SDRs. The rifting evolution of the Malvinas basin was seismically characterized. New zircon U-Pb ages constrain rifting in the Jurassic. A new model for Gondwana breakup is presented with focus on the evolution of the Mesozoic peri-Atlantic basins. The post-breakup evolution of the Argentinean South Atlantic margin was also studied via seismic interpretation and stratigraphic characterization. Three stages of drift evolution were identified. After the Hauterivian/Barremian breakup, the Cretaceous drift unit is conditioned by the thermal subsidence over the main depocenters. Only after the Maastrichtian-Danian regional transgression, the margin becomes a single continental platform. The Paleogene drift stage is characterized by subsidence and sedimentary input centered in the Salado area, while the Neogene drift stage is characterized by a cylindrical behavior and the remarkable influence of contour currents
 
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Alternative Names
Loïc Labrousse investigador

Loïc Labrousse onderzoeker

Languages
French (15)

English (5)