WorldCat Identities

École doctorale Sciences et Environnements (Pessac, Gironde)

Overview
Works: 327 works in 333 publications in 2 languages and 345 library holdings
Roles: Other
Publication Timeline
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Most widely held works by Gironde) École doctorale Sciences et Environnements (Pessac
Influence de l'état sanitaire des populations anciennes sur la mortalité en temps de peste : contribution à la paléoépidémiologie by Sacha Kacki( )

1 edition published in 2016 in French and held by 11 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Génératrice depuis le VIe siècle de notre ère de crises épidémiques récurrentes en Occident, la peste a profondémentmarqué l'histoire des sociétés européennes, tant sur le plan biologique que culturel, économique et politique. Sil'histoire des épidémies qu'elle a engendrées est aujourd'hui relativement bien connue, un certain nombre de questionssur ses caractéristiques épidémiologiques passées demeurent pour partie irrésolues. En particulier, le caractère sélectifou non de la mortalité par peste à l'égard de l'âge, du sexe et de l'état de santé préexistant des individus faitactuellement débat. À partir d'une approche anthropobiologique, le présent travail se propose de contribuer à cettediscussion. Il livre les résultats de l'étude d'un corpus de 1090 squelettes provenant, d'une part, de quatre sitesd'inhumation de pestiférés de la fin du Moyen Âge et du début de l'époque moderne et, d'autre part, de deuxcimetières paroissiaux médiévaux utilisés hors contexte épidémique. Cette étude révèle en premier lieu l'existenced'une signature démographique commune aux séries en lien avec la peste. Leur composition par âge et par sexe,distincte de celle caractérisant la mortalité naturelle, est au contraire en adéquation avec la structure théorique d'unepopulation vivante préindustrielle. L'examen de divers indicateurs de stress suggèrent par ailleurs que les victimes dela peste jouissaient, à la veille de leur décès, d'un meilleur état de santé que les individus morts en temps normal. Lesrésultats obtenus concourent à démontrer que les facteurs causals de ces lésions squelettiques, d'accoutuméresponsables d'une diminution des chances de survie, n'eurent au contraire qu'une influence mineure, si ce n'est nulle,sur le risque de mourir de l'infection à Yersinia pestis. Ce travail livre in fine un faisceau d'arguments convergents quitendent à prouver que les épidémies de peste anciennes furent à l'origine d'une mortalité non sélective, la maladiefrappant indistinctement les individus des deux sexes, de tous âges et de toutes conditions sanitaires
Bioarchéologie des sujets immatures de quatre nécropoles du haut Moyen Âge européen : méthodes d'étude du développement et des interactions biologie/culture by Virginie Garcin( )

1 edition published in 2009 in French and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Thorough bioarchaeological studies of children populations are few, and their integration into the adult population is often limited. Nevertheless, it is well known that non-adult's teeth and skeletal remains give a wealth of information about their brief lives, and on the environment where they grew. This study is based on a large skeletal sample (N= 613 individuals ranging from perinates to late adolescence), dated from the Early Middle Age (essentially 9th-11th centuries AD) and belonging to very different lifestyle populations (urban vs. rural): Cherbourg Notre-Dame, Norroy-le-Veneur (France), Mikulcice Kostelisko and Prušánky 1 (Czech Republic) ; plus the identified collection from Spitalfields (London, UK) used for methodological issues. The topic of the study is threefold: Synthetic, comparative, and methodological, in order to give a global point of view on the children in a given bioarchaeological context. The biological patterns studied (age at death, intra- and inter-population variability, skeletal growth profiles) do not demonstrate significant differences between lifestyle, whereas non-specific stress indicators, caries lesions, and funerary practices do and can describe the environment where the children grew. It has also been possible to detect and demonstrate biological patterns within archaeological samples, which is a great result, totally unexpected considering all the biases of such studies. Finally, new methodological approaches have been built (secondary age estimation, dental mineralization sequences, skeletal growth profiles with the transition analysis), allowing a better integration of the immature individuals among large population syntheses. They highlight the non-adult part of population's great contribution to bioarchaeology
Impacts des changements globaux sur la distribution des poissons migrateurs amphihalins : une approche par modélisation à l'échelle continentale by Géraldine Lassalle( Book )

2 editions published in 2008 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Les poissons migrateurs amphihalins évoluent dans un environnement qui est perturbé, à l'échelle globale, par le changement climatique et à l'échelle régionale, par les pressions anthropiques telles que les barrages et la pollution des cours d'eau. Cette étude, menée à l'échelle continentale, avait pour objectif d'évaluer, de comprendre et de prédire les impacts de changements globaux sur la distribution de ce groupe. Afin de répondre à cette problématique, des modèles empiriques de distribution ont été construits pour chacune des 28 espèces étudiées. Leurs distributions ont été décrites au début et à la fin du XXème siècle, en termes de présence-absence et de classes d'abondance. Les variables explicatives potentielles étaient de type physique, climatique, biotique et anthropique. Dans un premier temps, il a été mis en évidence que la répartition vers 1900 des poissons migrateurs amphihalins était fortement contrainte par leur histoire biogéographique et par les conditions thermiques et hydrauliques de l'habitat continental. La projection de ces distributions, à la fin du XXIème siècle, dans le contexte du changement climatique, a montré la forte sensibilité de ce groupe aux modifications du climat. Bien que spécifiques à chaque espèce, les réponses ont pu être classées en trois catégories : expansion de l'aire de répartition, contraction de l'aire de répartition et peu ou pas de changement. Dans un deuxième temps, pour la première fois à l'échelle continentale, l'importance des grands barrages et de la densité de populations humaines pour expliquer la distribution actuelle de ces espèces a été démontrée. Les relations sont apparues complexes et dépendantes des caractéristiques écologiques des espèces, notamment de la position de leurs habitats de croissance et de reproduction le long du réseau hydrographique et de leur place au sein du réseau trophique
Hommes et hyènes face aux recompositions des communautés d'Ongulés (MIS 5-3) : éléments pour un cadre paléoécologique des sociétés du Paléolithique moyen et supérieur ancien d'Europe de l'Ouest by Emmanuel Discamps( Book )

2 editions published in 2011 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In Europe, climate is often considered as a key factor in explaining the events of the Middle-to-Upper Paleolithic transition (e.g. Neandertal extinction, development of innovations characteristic of “modern” behavior). However, the exact impact of Upper Pleistocene global climatic changes on terrestrial ecosystems is still poorly documented. This study proposes to place the evolutionary history of hominids from MIS 5 to 3 (before, during and after the Middle-to-Upper Paleolithic transition) within a paleoenvironmental and paleoecological context. Reconstruction of past terrestrial communities is here performed both on an ecosystem scale (changes in herbivore communities, fluctuations of ungulate biomass, paleodemography of cave hyenas) and on an intra-guild scale (interspecific competition between hominids and hyenas). This multi-scaled study is permitted through taphonomic, spatial and paleoecological analyses of two hyena dens with traces of human occupation (Camiac and La Chauverie), coupled with analyses of several databases of archeological and paleontological sites with a wide array of methods (archeostratigraphy, GIS, Bayesian and multivariate statistics). At the ecosystem scale, changes in herbivore communities are reconstructed for southwestern France. Fluctuations in ungulate biomass are noticeable, with an increase at the end of the Mousterian and a significant crash at the beginning of the Aurignacian. These changes had a pronounced impact on large predator populations, as can be shown by the high correlation between reconstructed hyena paleodemography and variations in ungulate biomass. At the intra-guild scale, interspecific competition between hominids and hyenas is shown to vary across time periods and regions. Niche overlap is at some times significant (as at the end of the Mousterian) in terms of resource exploitation (species of prey, population segments targeted, subsistence strategies), but total niche overlap is never observed. The nature of hominid-hyena interaction in caves is also discussed within the framework of an interdisciplinary analysis of the faunal and lithic collections of Camiac and La Chauverie. The model built in southwestern France is then compared with the specificity of other regions of Western Europe, by utilizing an extended database. These comparisons highlight the significant differences that exist between terrestrial communities regarding their responses to global climatic changes, depending on their geographical setting. These results bring new insights to the Middle-to-Upper Paleolithic transition: notably, it appears that environmental and ecological factors cannot fully explain the dramatic biological and cultural events that occurred during this time period
Dynamique des populations de palourdes japonaises (Ruditapes philippinarum) dans le bassin d'Arcachon : conséquences sur la gestion des populations exploitées by Cécile Dang( Book )

2 editions published in 2009 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) was introduced into Arcachon Bay at the beginning of the 1980s for aquaculture purposes. It rapidly naturalized in all intertidal flats of the lagoon. Nowadays, Arcachon Bay ranks at the first French place in terms of exploitable stock. However, recent stock assessments have shown an unbalance size structure with a deficit in juvenile and adult clams (> 38 mm shell length). These alarming patterns asked many questions on the sustainability of Manila clam populations within Arcachon Bay and have motivated the present thesis. This study aimed to better understand the population dynamics of this species and also some factors controlling this dynamic. The final objective was to improve the Manila clam fishing management with a model raised with results of the study. Von Bertalanffy growth parameters (K and L8) were both determined by a field survey of populations and by a tagged-recapture experiment during two years. Growth appeared slow with a homogeneous K within the bay and different L8 according to the sites. This study also evidenced a normal natural mortality and an inefficient reproduction (low condition index, low recruitment). Among the factors that could explain these dynamics, different pathogens were monitored during two years: digenean trematodes, brown ring disease and perkinsosis. Moreover, an emergent pathology (brown muscle disease, BMD) has been discovered. Only perkinsosis and BMD revealed high prevalences and intensities. Perkinsosis induced mitigated effects on growth whereas BMD-infected clams rise to the surface of the sediment and died. Trophic sources were also important to explain growth and were studied with carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes. This study displayed a heterogeneous repartition of Manila clam trophic sources within the bay and a phytoplankton dominated diet. The proportion of ingested phytoplankton was correlated with L8. Growth and mortality parameters were integrated in a management model. If no new management measures were taken, the clam stock will continue to decrease. Different management situations have been simulated and new measures have been adopted by administrator organisms
Le vivant dans le discours sur la pluralité des Mondes : l'exemple de l'oeuvre de John Wilkins (1614-1672) by Claire Bouyre( Book )

2 editions published in 2015 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In 1638, a book is published in England by John Wilkins (1614-1672), dealing with the plurality of Worlds, and more specifically the discovery of a New World: the Moon. With a dialectical reasoning, the author tries to show the similarities between the Earth and the Moon. For this he uses the Copernican model and astronomical observations of Galileo. From these similarities, Wilkins suggests the idea that the moon could be harboring living beings like Earth and then conjecture on the nature of its inhabitants, the Selenites. He writes that it may be possible one day to reach the Moon and trade with its inhabitants. The purpose of our work is to study the living in the discourse on the plurality of worlds, and observe its place in the work of Wilkins
Pratiques funéraires et identités biologiques à Berytus et à Botrys à l'époque romaine (Liban, Ier siècle av. J.-C. - IVème siècle apr. J.-C.) by Nada Elias( )

2 editions published in 2016 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

During the first century B.C., with the rise of the Roman Empire, the Levant became the scene of cosmopolitanism where many heteroclite cultures would coexist. The new cosmopolitan society had Rome as its capital (Caput Mundi), and roads drawn up by the army linking the rest of the empire to its capital. Recent rescue excavations (since 2005) in Berytus (Beirut) and Botrys (Batroun) have revealed a considerable amount of unpublished data on populations who lived in the region during the four centuries of the Roman Empire until the early centuries of Christianity. Following an archaeo-anthropological approach, this thesis presents an assessment of eight funerary sites (n= 290) from the cities of Colonia Julia Augusta Felix Berytus and Botrys. Significantly, Botrys, unlike Berytus, did not have the status of a Roman colony. This research seeks to contribute to the history of these two cities. The purpose is to understand the populations of the past through the study of the skeletons, rituals and funerary practices as well as the organisation of funerary spaces. This study primarily reveals a cultural and biological cosmopolitanism illustrated by variability in funerary practices and in biological characteristics. These results suggest that at least two different groups or more coexisted in the Colonia Julia Augusta Felix Berytus. On the contrary, the biocultural data of Botrys skeletons reveal a less cosmopolitan city with less diversity shown on different anthropological and cultural levels. Indeed, the similarity of funerary practices, body treatments, grave goods and the organisation of the funerary space and biological homogeneity are indisputable in Botrys. Comparative analysis between Berytus and Botrys highlighted an existing biological heterogeneity at different scales between individuals of both cities. However, this diversity is contradicted by the homogeneity of the females of both cities during the 2th and the 4th century A. D
Itinéraires et transformations du silex : une pétroarchéologie refondée, application au Paléolithique moyen by Paul Fernandes( Book )

2 editions published in 2012 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The characteristics of their initial crystallization and the evidence for subsequent alterations present on the surfaces of prehistoric flint artifacts are the result of a range of interdependent physical, chemical and mechanical phenomenas. Once decoded, the information retrieved allows us to assign a genetical/stratigraphical position to the flint as well as a post-genetic paleo-geographical location. Both data sets reveal the story ofan objects successive residential contexts. This petro-archaeological analytical methodology, is based on anoptimization of the optical techniques commonly used in petrography, mineralogy, micro-palaeontology and morphoscopy using a range of magnifications is a simple tool for classifying objects and identifying the source of lithic raw materials. The limitations of the methodology are determined by the experience of the operatorand the geographical spread of available reference collections. A study of the various alterations to which lithic raw materials were subjected and which are recorded within their surface characteristics allows connections to be made between the lithic objects and the surface exposures where these characteristics manifest in the lithics rather than just seeing the objects from a perspective that does not connect them with landscapes and specific resource localities. Thus, the methodology used here allows the comparison of flint objects within the context of time and space, and within which the genesis of each object can be followed, thus resulting in a greater understanding of where, why and how, it was collected during prehistory. The geographical extent in which this research has been undertaken is wide and includes parts of Moroccoand the southern part of France and has taken place within broad investigations into lithic raw materials being conducted by a number of members of a research team. A trial of the methodology over such a broad spectrum of site locations has allowed an improvement to be made in the reliability of the analytical techniques that are required. This work aims to aid in the characterization of the lithic tools as they describe and catalogue the properties of palaeo-environmental changes that can be read on the surface of the flint. The outcome of this work is that it produces a greater understanding of the many physical, geological and environmental processes to which lithic objects have been subjected both before gathering by humans and after discard in the archaeological site. This helps for a more precise location of gathering areas and a better evaluation of the archaeological layers integrity. These results are expressed on large scale maps and stored in an indexing system which catalogues the varied characteristics of a large number of types of flint found in the South of France and the west central region of Morocco
Niche écologique de l'alose pendant la reproduction : conséquences au niveau de la population dans un contexte de dérèglement climatique by Alexis Paumier( )

1 edition published in 2019 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Cette thèse se place dans un contexte de dérèglement climatique (IPCC 2018) et de déclin généralisé des espèces de poissons. L'objectif de cette thèse était de définir le contrôle environnemental sur la reproduction de la grande alose. A l'aide de 4 études principales avec plusieurs outils de modélisation (l'indice de Manly, le modèle BRT, le modèle HoOS et le modèle flirtyShadBrain), nous avons étudié ce contrôle environnemental et évalué l'impact futur du dérèglement climatique.La première étape pour évaluer l'impact des changements d'habitat a été de tester l'influence des facteurs environnementaux sur la reproduction de l'alose (papier #1, papier #2 et le modèle flirtyShadBrain). Nous avons d'abord exploré l'influence de la température, puis nous avons testé plusieurs facteurs environnementaux sur la reproduction de l'alose. Concrètement, nous évaluons que l'alose est une espèce photopériodique. La durée du jour est peut-être la donnée saisonnière qui déclenche la migration, et la température et le débit sont utilisés pour les décisions à court terme (choix final de se reproduire avec les repères sociaux). Nous avons utilisé ces connaissances pour explorer l'impact potentiel du dérèglement climatique. Selon nos projections multifactorielles, il semblerait que les géniteurs de grande alose ne seront pas touchés par le futur réchauffement de la planète pour le scénario RCP 2.6, et que même dans le pire des scénarios (RCP 8.5), la favorabilité de l'habitat devrait même augmenter avec toutefois une période favorable plus précoce. Ainsi, le changement climatique n'apparaît pas comme une menace majeure pour cette espèce
Proteomic study of wood formation in maritime pine by Marcelo Arnoldo Garcés Cea( )

1 edition published in 2008 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Wood properties in maritime pine are highly variable at chemical, anatomical and mechanical levels. Six types of wood can be found in a single tree, early wood, late wood, crown wood, base wood, compression wood and opposite wood. In this thesis report, we tested the hypothesis that the observed variability at the phenotypic level, can be bound to the differential expression of proteins during the process of wood formation. We use the tools of proteomics, Bidimensional electrophoresis and LC ESI MS/MS for the discovery of 165 proteins differentially expressed in a cambial age gradient, (from base wood to crown wood), an 93 overexpressed proteins in a seasonal gradient (from early wood collected at the beginning of the growing season, to late wood, collected at summer) Complementary, chemical characterization of the samples was performed using analitycal pyrolisis. Our results showed that the secondary xylem formed at the beginning of the growing season, and the xylem formed by a young cambium, present a overexpression of proteins participating in the intense cell division, characteristical of those tissues, e.g. Biogenesis of cytoskeleton and hemicelluloses, RNA transcription, synthesis, folding and modification of proteins. In the xylem formed at the base of the trunk and at the end of the growing season we have found an over-expression of proteins from cell defense (they role will be to delay programmed cell death) and cell wall formation related proteins e.g. lignin biosynthesis. This study contributes to reinforce our knowledge over the molecular actors involved in the xylogenesis process. It opens, in another hand , research guides for the detection of genes involved in the genetic control of wood properties towards an objecive of marker assisted selection
Understanding local adaptation and phenotypic plasticity in fitness-related traits across the European beech range : implications under climate change by Homero Alejandro Garate escamilla( )

1 edition published in 2019 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Climate change is modifying the distribution ranges of species worldwide. To better understand and more realistically predict future species ranges, it is critical to account for local adaptation and phenotypic plasticity in populations' responses to climate. This is challenging, however, because local adaptation and phenotypic plasticity are trait dependent and because traits co-vary along climatic gradients across the range, with differential consequences for fitness. One way to address this challenge is to build models with empirical data from large-scale common-garden experiments such as those that have been established in past decades for some forest tree species. This thesis used individual measurements of several fitness-related phenotypic traits (vertical and radial tree growth, spring and autumn leaf phenology and recruit mortality) of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) recorded in the frame of BeechCOSTe52, the largest network of tree phenotypic traits measured in common gardens throughout Europe (>150,000 trees) for modeling the species' likely response to recent climate change. Specifically, I pursued the following objectives: (i) to quantify range-wide variation and co-variation of local adaptation and phenotypic plasticity for four major phenotypic traits related to fitness (vertical growth, radial growth, survival, and leaf flushing phenology), and to project its species range under current and future climate based on this information (chapter 1); (ii) to quantify variation among populations in spring and autumn leaf phenology and the resulting growing season length, and to predict their patterns at the range-wide scale under current and future climate (chapter 2); and (iii) to quantify phenotypic plasticity at different development stages for vertical growth, radial growth, survival, and spring and autumn leaf flushing phenology, and to determine the extent to which inter-annual climate variation during the 20th century is related to variation in phenotypic plasticity across the species range (chapter 3). After setting up the required databases, I performed different types of linear mixed-effect models that related trait variation and co-variation to local adaptation (i.e., trait variation related to the climate of the planted populations' origin) and phenotypic plasticity (i.e., trait variation related to the climate of plantation site). Finally, I calculated a phenotypic plasticity index for populations based on their reaction norms (i.e., the shape or specific form of the phenotypic response to the environment of an individual or genotype). My results revealed that: (i) the contribution of plasticity to intra-specific trait variation is always higher than that of local adaptation, suggesting that beech is less sensitive to (moderate) climate change than previously reported; (ii) different traits and underlying climatic drivers constrain beech populations in different parts of the species range; (iii) considering trait co-variation improves predictions based on single traits; (iv) growing season length will increase under climate change in northern beech provenances but shrink in populations from the core and the southern range; (v) northern beech populations show high phenotypic plasticity for the investigated traits; and (vi) phenotypic plasticity tends to increase with age in growth-related traits. My results underline that population responses to climate across large geographical gradients are trait-dependent, suggesting that a complete set of fitness-related traits is required to fully understand species sensitivity to climate change
Isotope hydrogeology and geothermal applications to clarify the origin, the sustainability and the character of groundwater flow : examples of the Bohemian and Aquitaine sedimentary basins by Hana Jiráková( )

1 edition published in 2011 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Les études isotopiques couplées avec des informations géothermiques peuvent constituer des outils pertinents pour l'exploration des eaux souterraines en tant que ressources en eau potable ou géothermiques. Ce travail combine les deux approches, isotopes de l'environnement et radioactifs associés à des données de température sur des aquifères profonds, dans l'objectif d'enrichir et d'améliorer la connaissance des mécanismes de recharge (Bassin d'Aquitaine, France) ainsi que des mécanismes de recharge et du potentiel géothermique (Bassin Crétacé de Bohème, République Tchèque).Les isotopes stables (18O, 2H, 13C) utilisés conjointement avec des radioisotopes (14C, 3H) sont utilisés pour estimer l'époque de la recharge ainsi que les conditions climatiques qui prévalaient lors de l'infiltration depuis la fin de Pléistocène jusqu'à nos jours. Définir le type de recharge et les conditions d'écoulement est nécessaire pour parvenir à modéliser de façon satisfaisante et fiable les grands systèmes aquifères profonds. Trois types de recharge ont été définis en Europe - (i) continue, (ii) interrompue lors du dernier maximum glaciaire (LGM) - un troisième type (iii) correspond à des situations particulières de recharge.Les conditions géographiques et climatiques très différentes rencontrées en France et en République Tchèque ont engendrées une importante hétérogénéité des conditions et processus de recharge. Le sud de la France, avec un climat relativement doux depuis les derniers 40 ka BP, n'a pas enregistré d'interruption de la recharge. Le temps de séjour des eaux souterraines en Bohème est estimé à environ 11 ka BP au maximum. Cependant, l'appauvrissement des teneurs en isotopes stables enregistré suggère une recharge liée à la fonte de la calotte glaciaire Nord Européenne après le dernier maximum glaciaire (LGM), autour de 18-20 ka BP. Des investigations sur les isotopes du carbone minéral dissous des eaux souterraines du bassin de Bohème ont montrées d'importantes interactions avec différentes sources de carbone qui ont été identifiées.Pour le site d'étude tchèque, les informations apportées par la géochimie ont été complétées par des données géothermiques afin d'améliorer la connaissance des flux et de la dynamique des eaux souterraines. Plus d'une centaine d'enregistrements diagraphiques de température ont été utilisés pour estimer le gradient géothermique. Plusieurs phénomènes viennent perturber le gradient géothermique de la région. Les flux d'eau souterraine verticaux et les variations lithologiques et topographiques sont à l'origine d'une distribution complexe du flux de chaleur, étant majoritairement conditionné par les écoulements souterraines. Les discontinuités peu profondes et les nombreux pointements volcaniques exercent aussi une influence importante sur l'écoulement souterrain et donc aussi sur le potentiel géothermique du réservoir. Les investigations sur la géothermie ont ainsi fourni des informations fondamentales sur le potentiel géothermique mais aussi sur les conditions d'écoulement des eaux souterraines. La prise en compte de ces informations s'avère nécessaire afin de proposer des modèles mathématiques d'écoulement réalistes
The Emergence of Symbolically Mediated Behavior in Eastern Europe by Ana Majkic( )

1 edition published in 2017 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Différents modèles ont été proposés pour expliquer l'émergence de capacités cognitives complexes et de cultures modernes. Un nombre croissant de preuves révélant un comportement complexe et innovant au moyen Age de la Pierre en Afrique, mais aussi dans les cultures néandertaliennes, ont déclenché plusieurs changements de paradigme dans ce domaine au cours des dernières décennies. Une grande partie du matériel potentiellement pertinent pour ce domaine doit encore être documenté et étudié dans l'optique d'évaluer son importance et implication dans le débat sur les origines du comportement symbolique (SMB). L'Europe de l'Est (EE) en est un bon exemple. Bien que de découvertes aient été faites en EE, le matériel archéologique pertinent pour l'étude des origines du comportement moderne n'est généralement pas systématiquement et spécifiquement traité comme tel. Cette thèse représente une tentative globale de documenter et d'évaluer ce matériel, permettant une vue plus claire de la disponibilité de preuves potentiellement pertinentes, comme première étape nécessaire pour comprendre le temps et le mode d'émergence des SMB dans ces régions. Accompagnée d'une base de données décrivant les annales archéologiques, la thèse présente trois études de cas présentant l'analyse des objets ayant des implications pour l'émergence de comportements complexes en EE. Ces études élargissent la vision de l'émergence du SMB en EE. Elles identifient de nouvelles preuves de comportement complexe avant l'UP à partir d'une vaste région encore sous-représentée et apportent de nouvelles approches méthodologiques à leur analyse, contribuant ainsi à l'évaluation des modèles sur l'émergence du SMB
Apports de l'archéogénétique à l'étude des groupes du Second âge du Fer en France : Approche multi-scalaire by Claire-Elise Fischer( )

1 edition published in 2019 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

In Europe, and more precisely in France, the Iron Age is divided into two periods: the First (800-400 BC) and the Late Iron Age (400-25 BC). This one is often associated with Celtic cultures, which have been shown to be unified through the study of Celtic art. But this apparent unity is now being questioned through recent archaeological work. While cultural diversity is well known from an archaeological point of view, it is still poorly addressed from a biological point of view. The aim of this work is to provide an unprecedented palaeogenetic and palaeogenetic analysis of individuals from three necropolises in northern France, distributed along the Seine valley, a major axis of exchange between the English Channel and Burgundy. A total of 106 haplogroups, 87 mitochondrial haplotypes and 15 paternal lines were characterized. Furthermore, 12 genomes with low coverage were obtained. At the local level, a systematic comparison of the data obtained with the available biological and archaeological records was carried out, which revealed different ways of functioning. The necropolis of Urville-Nacqueville (Normandy) appears to have a cosmopolitan population, while the one of Gurgy "Les Noisats" (Yonne) is most likely being used by a local community. The cases of Barbuise "Les Grèves de Frécul" (Yonne) and Urville-Nacqueville also reveal the complexity of the social organization of these Iron Age groups through the organisation of the funeral space. Although these necropolises host diverse communities, they share a high mitochondrial diversity, an absence of grouping based on maternal ties and a low diversity of paternal lines. These results form a cohesive set of evidence supporting a patrilocal matrimonial system and a patrilineal filiation, consistent with the data in the literature. At the regional level, the results show that sites located in the lower Seine Valley share more affinities with groups in the south of England, while those in the upper Seine Valley are closer to the populations of eastern France and occupy an intermediate position between the north and south of France, highlighting a genetic structure of these groups based on their location along this river axis. Finally, on a continental scale, the results show that the Iron Age communities of Western Europe form a consistent genetic cluster and show genetic continuity with the Bronze Age groups. The data obtained are consistent with archaeological hypotheses that focus on an economic, political and/or climatic transition to explain the Bronze Age to Iron Age transition, in agreement with the local evolution of the groups as perceived at the genetic level
Etude expérimentale des effets des conditions environnementales (température, oxygène, polluants) sur la survie, le développement et le comportement des stades embryo-larvaires d'esturgeon européen, Acipenser sturio by Nicolas Delage( )

1 edition published in 2015 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

L'esturgeon européen Acipenser sturio est un poisson migrateur amphihalin qui a connu un fort déclin au cours du 20ème siècle. La dernière population vit dans le bassin Gironde-Garonne-Dordogne (GGD) et sa dernière reproduction connue date de 1994. Les individus relachés lors de repeuplements sont supposés venir se reproduire prochainement. Du fait du changement global et de l'évolution des activités humaines, une meilleure connaissance de la vulnérabilité des jeunes stades de A. sturio vis-à-vis de la température, de la disponibilité en oxygène et des polluants s'est avérée nécessaire. La sensibilité aux conditions oxythermiques actuelles et à venir a été évaluée ainsi que la qualité des sédiments des frayères. Enfin, la sensibilité des jeunes stades de cette espèce à des mélanges de polluants représentatifs du bassin GGD a été également évaluée. Une forte sensibilité des jeunes stades de A. sturio au taux d'oxygène a été mise en évidence. Les fenêtres optimales et critiques de tolérance ont été estimées. La toxicité des sédiments de frayères de Dordogne est globalement supérieur à celle des sédiments de frayères de Garonne. Beauregard et Pessac-sur-Dordogne semblent être respectivement les sites les plus favorables et défavorables aux jeunes stades. La sensibilité de A. sturio aux polluants rencontrés dans le bassin est relativement faible. Les conditions environnementales actuelles du bassin GGD semblent globalement satisfaisantes pour accueillir le développement de jeunes stades de A. sturio. Les données collectées dans cette étude pourront servir pour d'autres programmes de réintroduction de cette espèce
Transferts et accumulations sur les marges du Golfe de Gascogne : architecture, fonctionnement et contrôles. by Sandra Brocheray( )

1 edition published in 2015 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

This work presents an analysis of the morphology and sedimentary dynamic of the Cap-Ferret and Capbreton turbidite systems (south Bay of Biscay), containing the first recognition of the whole Capbreton turbidite system. The dataset comprises subsurface geophysical data (multibeam bathymetric and imagery, Chirp sub-bottom profiler) and piston cores, acquired during the oceanographic cruise Sargass conducted by the Bordeaux University. Studied by morpho-bathymetric analyses, the upstream-downstream evolution of the sedimentary bodies joined to the sedimentological data help to understand the active gravity processes of the systems. In the Capbreton system, a special focus is made on its Holocene gravity deposits occurring at high frequencies. In the Cap-Ferret system, the channel-lobe transition zone has been investigated at high resolution and revealed sedimentary structures poorly documented at this scale of details in recent turbidite systems. The glacio-eustatic and autocyclic forcing are expressed in different ways in each turbidite sytem. A regional sedimentary dynamic model is proposed for the last 50,000 years
Barres d'avant-côte et trait de côte : dynamique, couplage et effets induits par la mise en place d'un atténuateur de houle by Clément Bouvier( )

1 edition published in 2019 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

In recent years, traditional coastal defense strategy has become increasingly unpopular as it is costly and lastingly scars the landscape with sometimes limited effectiveness or even adverse impact. Mimicking natural reefs, submerged breakwaters aims to protect the coast, decreasing wave energy through wave breaking offshore with the advantage of remaining invisible from the beach. The general objective of this work is to better understand the different morphodynamic processes that interact in the presence of these structures, especially for complex beach morphology with highly dynamic sandbars. The observation of the effects induced by a submerged breakwater deployed at the Lido of Sète (Gulf of Lions) on the morphological response is performed using a video monitoring system. Based on an automatic method for image correction developed in this thesis, a video-derived depth inversion algorithm was tested to infer nearshore bathymetry from remotely-sensed wave parameters. Our observations show that the submerged breakwater had a profound impact on the shoreline-sandbar system and suggest that, on barred beaches, the role of the sandbar is critical to shoreline response to the implementation of such a structure. The expected salient formation was not observed and, instead, shoreline coupled to the modified sandbar geometry, which resulted in a slight seaward migration of the shoreline in the lee of the structure. In order to characterize the nearshore circulation induced by these structures and to better assess sediment transport, the morphodynamic model 2DBeach was then implemented on Sète and at another beach in Australia where an artificial reef of different size and shape has been deployed. This work allows a better understanding of the influence of a submerged breakwater on the morphological evolution of sandbars and shoreline on time scales from storm to years, and provides new insight into nearshore system response to better design sustainable management of sandy beaches
Modélisation de l'évolution long-terme du trait de côte le long des littoraux sableux dominés par l'action des vagues by Arthur Robinet( )

1 edition published in 2017 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Les littoraux sableux dominés par l'action des vagues sont des zones très dynamiques où l'aléa érosion menace les activités humaines et la sécurité des personnes. Comprendre et prévoir les évolutions du trait de côte est crucial pour informer et guider les gestionnaires du littoral. Actuellement, aucun modèle numérique ne permet de reproduire les évolutions du trait de côte sur l'ensemble des échelles spatio-temporelles et des configurations de côte requises du fait de limitations numériques et physiques. Cette thèse se concentre sur le développement de nouveaux outils de modélisation à complexité réduite pour simuler les évolutions du trait de côte le long des littoraux sableux dominés par l'action des vagues sur des échelles de temps allant de l'heure à plusieurs décennies avec des temps de calcul réduits. D'abord, un modèle statistique de trait de côte s'appuyant uniquement sur les occurrences saisonnières de régimes de temps est développé. Ce modèle permet de simuler la variabilité du trait de côte à l'échelle pluriannuelle, sans avoir besoin de connaitre les conditions de vagues ou de modéliser le transport sédimentaire. Puis, un nouveau modèle numérique de trait de côte basé sur les vagues (LX-Shore) est développé en intégrant entre autres les forces de certains modèles existants. Il inclut les processus cross-shore et longshore, et couple la dynamique du trait de côte à la propagation des vagues via le modèle spectral de vagues SWAN. Ce modèle permet de simuler l'évolution de formes complexes comme par exemple les flèches sableuses. Ces outils ouvrent aussi la voie vers une meilleure évaluation des évolutions futures du trait de côte, ainsi que de la contribution respective des processus impliqués
Géoressources et expressions technoculturelles dans le sud du Massif central au Paléolithique supérieur : des déterminismes et des choix by Vincent Delvigne( )

1 edition published in 2016 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The petroarchaeology of flint tries to define the origin of flints found in archaeological sites. In view of the recentmethodological advances (definition of the facies always more precise, dynamic vision of the route of the flint inher environment - “evolutionary chain” concept -, precise mapping of the siliceous mineral domains) it isnowadays possible to distinguish not only the formation place of the flint (primary outcrop) but also its retrievalplace (primary or secondary outrcrop).The exhaustive study of archaeological flint collections from the South of the Massif Central of France at varioustimes of the Upper Palaeolithic (recent and final Gravettian: Le Blot and Le Rond-de-Saint-Arcons; Badegoulian:Le Rond-du-Barry and La Roche-à-Tavernat; and Upper Magdalenian: Sainte-Anne II) have permitted thehighlighting of an unexpected diversity of material representative of a huge litho-espace (geographical spaceincluding all the regarded materials). In this respect, we developed a new figuration model of the origin of the rawmaterial discovered in the archaeological site, either in a sito-centred form (like a star), but like a network ofplaces, more in agreement with the ethnographic and geographic data. The presence of different types of flint inthe lithic industries correlated to their introducing pattern on site, allow to distinguish the choices made by theancient men versus the natural constraints they undergone, authorizing consequently the semantic inscription ofthe litho-espace in an attempt of reconstruction of the palaeo-social-space
Etude numérique de la transformation des vagues en zone littorale, de la zone de levée aux zones de surf et de jet de rive by Marion Tissier( )

1 edition published in 2011 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

In this thesis, we introduce a new numerical model able to describe wave transformation from the shoaling to the swash zones, including overtopping. This model is based on Serre Green-Naghdi equations, which are the basic fully nonlinear Boussinesq-type equations. These equations can accurately describe wave dynamics prior to breaking, but their application to the surf zone usually requires the use of complex parameterizations. We propose a new approach to describe wave breaking in S-GN models, based on the representation of breaking wave fronts as shocks. This method has been successfully applied to the Nonlinear Shallow Water (NSW) equations, and allows for an easy treatment of wave breaking and shoreline motions. However, the NSW equations can only be applied after breaking. In this thesis, we aim at extending the validity domain of the NSW model SURF-WB (Marche et al. 2007) to the shoaling zone by adding the S-GN dispersive terms to the governing equations. Local switches to NSW equations are then performed in the vicinity of the breaking fronts, allowing for the waves to break and dissipate their energy. Extensive validations using laboratory data are presented. The new model, called SURF-GN, is then applied to study tsunami-like undular bore dynamics in the nearshore. The model ability to describe bore dynamics for a large range of Froude number is first demonstrated, and the effects of the bore transformation on wave run-up over a sloping beach are considered. We finally present an in-situ study of broken wave celerity, based on the ECORS-Truc Vert 2008 field experiment. In particular, we quantify the effects of non-linearities and evaluate the predictive ability of several non-linear celerity models
 
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Alternative Names
École doctorale 304

École doctorale des Sciences de l'environnement (Bordeaux)

École doctorale des Sciences de l'environnement (Pessac, Gironde)

École doctorale des Sciences de l'environnement (Talence, Gironde)

École doctorale Sciences de l'environnement (Bordeaux)

École doctorale Sciences de l'environnement (Pessac, Gironde)

École doctorale Sciences de l'environnement (Talence, Gironde)

École doctorale Sciences et environnements (Bordeaux)

École doctorale Sciences et Environnements (Talence, Gironde)

ED 304

ED304

Languages
French (21)

English (5)