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École doctorale Sciences de la matière, du rayonnement et de l'environnement (Villeneuve d'Ascq, Nord)

Overview
Works: 1,122 works in 1,272 publications in 2 languages and 1,274 library holdings
Roles: Other, Degree grantor
Publication Timeline
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Most widely held works by du rayonnement et de l'environnement (Villeneuve d'Ascq, Nord) École doctorale Sciences de la matière
Ecologie fonctionnelle des communautés benthiques à Abra alba et Ophiothrix fragilis du bassin oriental de la Manche : variabilité spatio-temporelle et approche expérimentale by Armonie Tous Rius( Book )

2 editions published in 2012 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

La macrofaune benthique joue un rôle majeur dans le fonctionnement biogéochimique et trophique des sédiments côtiers. Ce travail avait pour but d'évaluer le rôle de la macrofaune dans les échanges métaboliques (oxygène/ammonium) à l'interface eau-sédiment au sein de deux grandes communautés macrobenthiques présente en Manche: la communauté des sables fins à Abra alba et la communauté des graviers à Ophiothrix fragilis. Les résultats montrent que les flux d'oxygène et d'ammonium présentent des variations spatiales et saisonnières liées principalement à la granulométrie, à la température et à la modification de la quantité/qualité de la matière organique. Les flux d'irrigation obtenus (sans effet de la température et de la matière organique) sont corrélés aux caractéristiques de la macrofaune et trois hypothèses de fonctionnement s'applique au sein de ces deux communautés: diversité-stabilité, rivet-pop et idiosyncrasie. Les analyses isotopiques réalisées ont montré que les organismes benthiques assimilent le même type de matière organique et que le fonctionnement trophique de ces deux communautés est similaire. La variabilité des flux d'irrigation observée sur les sites étudiés semble être due à la présence de différentes espèces numériquement dominantes ou suffisamment bien représentées au sein des deux communautés. Il est par conséquent difficile d'établir une loi unique de fonctionnement du compartiment macrobenthique de cet espace Manche. En termes de bilan de carbone, la respiration de ces deux communautés macrobenthiques et de la communauté des sables fins à moyens propres (Ophelia borealis) représentent environ 40% de la production primaire pélagique
Apports des approches de génomique ciblée dans l'étude des patrons d'évolution moléculaire du locus d'auto-incompatibilité dans le genre Arabidopsis by Pauline Goubet( Book )

2 editions published in 2011 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Self-incompatibility is a common genetic system limiting inbreeding depression by preventing selfing and mating between relatives in hermaphroditic plants. This system is considered in evolutionary biology as one of the models of frequency-dependant selection, a particular type of natural selection. In the Brassicaceae family, the self-incompatibility system is controlled by a genomic region called the S-locus and comprising two tightly linked genes. The first gene encodes a ligand deposited on the pollen surface and the second its transmembrane receptor. Molecular recognition between these two proteins leads to a cascade of reactions resulting in the reject of self-pollen. If the self-incompatibility genes are becoming well understood, the diversity and dynamics of their genomic region remains poorly described. In this context, twelve genomic sequences of the region comprising the S-locus were obtained in the genus Arabidopsis through sequencing of BAC clones. These sequences highlight the relevance of genomic data in the analysis of regions under such selective constraints. First, the annotation of twelve functional sequences in A. lyrata and A. halleri allows to study the patterns of evolution of the S-locus and its flanking regions. Second, the loss of the system was investigated in A. thaliana, in particular through the occurrence of rearrangements or recombination events in non-functional sequences. Finally, a preliminary analysis of coevolution between pollen and pistil proteins was achieved
Etude comparative du frittage SPS et du pressage à chaud pour la densification de matériaux pulvérulents by Laure Ramond( Book )

2 editions published in 2011 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The aim of this PhD thesis is the evaluation of a new technique of sintering, the spark plasma sintering (SPS), compared to a more conventional one, employed by Saint-Gobain, the hot-pressing (HP). The significant difference between both techniques is the way to heat. By HP, it is done by internal resistances of the HP furnace. The sample is heated by thermal conduction (from the die to the powder compact). By SPS, a pulsed direct current goes trough the compaction system and/or the powder compact. It provides the heating by Joule effect and thermal conduction. The SPS heating rates could reach 600 °C/min, versus 20 - 30 °C/min by HP, reducing drastically the duration of thermal cycles. To highlight a possible current effect, generated by SPS, different pulverulent materials having different electrical conductivities have been selected (soda-lime glass, quasicrystals, doped-zirconia and copper). The comparison between SPS and HP has been done on the microstructural observation of sintered samples and on identification of densification mechanisms. It has been shown that, for materials less conductive than the die in graphite, current goes through the die and has no effect on the microstructure nor on densification mechanisms of the powder compact. For copper, a more conductive material than graphite, both microstructures and densification mechanisms are different for SPS and HP. Current probably goes trough the powder compact
Compoundage et transformation par injection de PLA renforcé par des fibres de cellulose : Analyse de la cristallisation, formulation et propriétés thermomécaniques induites by Rindra Ramy-Ratiarison( Book )

2 editions published in 2010 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The aim of this work was to study the compounding and injection molding of PLA composites based on cellulose fibres. In the first part, the influence of compounding and injection molding on the structure of the PLA is presented. Particularly, the influence of processing conditions on the degradation during extrusion was investigated. The study of the cristallization behavior evidenced an usual dilatation of PLA during cold cristallization in the case of injection molded parts. The optimization of the compounding step of the composites is presented in a second part. The aim was to avoid the degradation during the extrusion process and to optimize the dispersion of the cellulose fibers. A design of experiment was used to define the optimum compounding parameters in order to limit the degradation and improve the dispersion of the cellulose fibers. The optimized compounds were used to study the influence of injection molding conditions on the structure of the composites and its influence on the mechanical properties of injection molded composites. Finally, the optimization of composites thermomechanical properties using formulation was proposed. Particularly, the effect of plasticizing of PLA and the compatibilization at the interface using maleic anhydride grafted PLA are presented
Aux sources d'un marqueur neurophysiologique des émotions : l'activité électrodermale by Pascal Deren( Book )

2 editions published in 2011 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

L'émotion est caractérisée par la mobilisation conjointe du corps et de l'esprit. Ce statut particulier justifie l'attention particulière que lui portent tous ceux qui se consacrent à l'étude de l'homme. Très tôt, les médecins relèvent son influence dans la genèse des troubles hystériques et plus largement des maladies mentales. Ils vont en décrire les effets et chercher à en expliciter les mécanismes pour prévenir ou traiter les troubles qui leur sont associés. Les physiologistes, à leur suite, s'engagent dans l'étude systématique de la physiologie nerveuse. Ils mettent ainsi en évidence les réactions du système sympathique face aux différents modes d'excitation, parmi lesquelles ils identifient les stimulations émotionnelles. Les psychologues, enfin, dans leurs efforts pour comprendre le comportement humain, s'attacheront à étudier des fonctions d'une complexité croissante. Après avoir dégagé les lois des sensations et des mouvements, ils étendent leurs investigations aux fonctions supérieures, cognitives et affectives. Dès la fin du dix-neuvième siècle, le croisement entre ces trois champs de recherche met en lumière les avantages offerts par l'emploi des méthodes physiologiques pour identifier les marqueurs des phénomènes émotionnels. Il faudra cependant attendre les premières recherches psychanalytiques de C.G. Jung pour que le plus efficace de ces marqueurs, la réaction électrodermale, soit identifié et accepté
Influence de la physico-chimie des poudres laitières et des conditions opératoires de dispersion sur la dynamique de réhydratation by Bruno Richard( Book )

2 editions published in 2012 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The analysis of rehydration of dairy powders of different composition and different structure (granulated or not) showed the influence of different operating conditions on rehydration, whether an operational point of view (temperature or speed agitation), as a design point of view (geometry of the stirrer). This study allowed to highlight relationships of processes to anticipate the rehydration time necessary to achieve powder dissolution and to better understand the mechanisms of dissolution of dairy and the steps involved from inserting the powder until the end of dissolution. In parallel, the study of ultrasound enabled the development of tools for predicting the ability of a powder to rehydrate on a simple, rapid, and nondestructive test. This technique can also monitor the aging of a powder, significant theme in the use of dairy and having been a pre-study. Finally, calorimetry, a technique with a growing interest in the field of food powders, was also studied in monitoring the ability of powders to rehydrate faster or slower and aging, and showed its limitations for classifying powders in relation to their dissolution ability
Intérêt des isopodes terrestres dans l'évaluation de la qualité des sols : recherche de paramètres indicateurs de la pollution par des éléments traces métalliques et contribution à la mise au point d'un outil écotoxicologique de terrain by Jean-Philippe Godet( Book )

2 editions published in 2010 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Soil pollution by metals traces elements (MTE) is a worldwide concern in industrialized countries. For biomonitoring, it is necessary to develop indicator tools to evaluate the quality of terrestrial medias. The aim of this thesis was to research in Oniscus asellus and Porcellio scaber (Crustacea, Isopoda), indicator parameters of soil contamination by MTE, and especially of litter, to contribute to the development of ecotoxicological field tool to assess soil quality and terrestrial ecosystems. First, studies performed in situ, have concerned characterisation of woodlouse populations from ligneous habitats (abundance, age structure, reproduction, biometrical parameters, bioaccumulation) with the regard to physicochemical parameters of soil (pH, CaCO3 and MO contents, ratio C/N, Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu concentrations). Secondly, studies ex situ were also performed in controlled conditions in laboratory. Parameters have concerned growth rate, bioaccumulation, behavioural avoidance or population dynamics in P. scaber exposed to field litter contaminated by Cd, Pb and Zn. Field studies didn't show any difference between woodlouse populations from contaminated sites or not. Actually, although MTE body burdens in woodlice from massively contaminated sites were high, it seemed that field populations were physiologically adapted to contaminants. In other hand, laboratory investigations were shown the interest of the use of P. scaber in ecotoxicity tests to assess litter quality. These studies have notably shown the sensitivity of growth rate and behavioural avoidance of P. scaber as endpoints in ecotoxicity tests
Systemic approach of the synergism in flame retarded intumescent polyurethanes by Maryska Muller( )

2 editions published in 2012 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The purpose of this Ph.D work is to present and to understand the synergy observed in the fire performances of intumescent polyurethane (PU) formulations by the addition of nanoparticles (NP). Indeed, it was shown that the addition of ammonium polyphosphate (APP) in PU leads to interesting fire properties that can be enhanced substituting a small amount of APP by NPs (MgO, SiO2, octamethyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (OMPOSS) and gold). The nature and content of the NPs play an important role on the fire retardant properties and mechanisms. First, a thermal stabilization was observed between APP and the different NPs except OMPOSS. The synergy mechanism was thus attributed to a condensed phase action where a range of chemical species, characterized by solid state NMR, are created upon heating the material in different conditions. The char properties, such as thermal conductivity, expansion and morphology, were then characterized using novel techniques (in particular tomography). It was shown that they are linked with the thermal barrier effect of the residual material explaining the good fire properties obtained when combining APP and NPs. The mechanical strength of chars developed in different conditions was also investigated but do not play a significant role on the synergy mechanism
Etude de COV oxygénés et biogéniques en milieu rural : du développement métrologique à l'évaluation de l'impact sur la chimie atmosphérique by Anaïs Detournay( Book )

2 editions published in 2011 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) constitutes a heterogeneous compounds class, which play a significant part in atmospheric chemistry, impacting climate, environment and health. Recent studies have suggested the implication of biogenic and oxygenated VOCs in the formation processes of secondary species, such as ozone or Secondary Organic Aerosols. Little is known about those compounds, well represented in remote areas; mostly toward their ambient levels and diurnal and seasonal evolutions. This thesis' objectives are to improve the current knowledge about their behavior in remote areas, for a better understanding of their part in atmospheric chemistry. The method adopted consisted in metrological development and field campaigns, to constitute a representative data base. Measurement methods were optimized and/or developed for the measure of: 54 NMHCs from C2 to C10, using préconcentration/thermodesorption coupled with GC/FID on-line analysis; 21 carbonyl compounds from C1 to C6, by chemical derivatization and chemical desorption coupled with HPLC/UV analysis; and 5 aromatic compounds, 6 aldehydes from C6 to C11, 6 monoterpenes and 6 alkanes from C9 to C16; by preconcentration coupled with thermodesorption and GC/FID-MS analysis. Those methods were used during two measurement campaigns, in March and June 2009, at the remote site of Peyrusse-Vieille (Gers, France). They permitted to collect an important database, whose analysis allowed determining the target compounds' ambient levels, temporal variations, and the parameters inducing these observations. A thorough analysis then underlined the part transport mechanisms and importance of biogenic species in remote areas
Jean-Baptiste Biot (1774-1862) et la théorie corpusculaire de la lumière : [un savant en un temps où la science était newtonienne] by Frédéric Leclercq( Book )

2 editions published in 2008 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

At the end of the XVIIIth century, the application of the principles of mechanics expressed by a sovereign mathematical analysis allowed Laplace to justify very accurately the movement of heavenly bodies. At that time, it seemed to him necessary to have a better knowledge of terrestrial phenomena. From 1805, Laplace managed to transcribe in mechanical terms some physical phenomena using with the same principles which served to describe heavenly phenomena with accuracy. In 1808, the discovery of the polarization of light by Malus opened a very large field of research. From 1812, Biot, who replaced Malus, managed to describe the diverse aspects of chromatic and rotatory polarizations within the framework of Laplacian physics, by means of specific movements of the corpuscles of light around their center of gravity. The mechanical principles at the basis of this scientific practice appeared satisfactory to justify phenomena, in spite of disparate hypotheses. But, new facts threw the whole thing back into question : the study of crystals with convergent light caused Brewster to criticize Biot's results. The latter's response was quick; he spread the theory of the double refraction of crystals with one axis, elaborated by Malus, to those which have two axes. Simultaneously, Fresnel made the wave theory evolve rapidly on the same subjects : in spite of Biot's perseverance, this theory, in opposition with the corpuscular theory of light, gradually became prevalent
Étude d'un dispositif de traitement de fumées issues de l'incinération de déchets industriels spéciaux by Florent Le Gléau( Book )

2 editions published in 2012 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Thermal valorisation of meat and bone meal (MBM) by incineration generates combustion gases that are treated to respect atmospheric emission regulations. This thesis is about MBM and sewage sludge co-incineration in an industrial plant. Measurements have been made to determine the chemical composition of the gaseous (O2, CO2, H2O, NOx, SO2, HCl, NH3) and solid phases (C, H, O, N, S, Cl, Na, K, Ca, P, Fe, Si) in all inlets and outlets. A mass flow evaluation method is proposed and a material balance is performed. The final wastes of incineration consist of ashes and air pollution control residues (APCR), representing about 25 % of the incinerated mass. The ashes are mainly composed of calcium phosphates and the APCR are mainly Na-based salts. The efficiency of the acid gases and NOx treatment is estimated. The treatment includes sodium bicarbonate neutralisation and catalytic reduction by urea, carried out on two parallel pathways equipped with catalytic or non-catalytic ceramic filters. To complete the understanding of physico chemical reactions in the filtering cake, tests of SO2 absorption by Na2CO3, at 250 °C and 300 °C where performed in a laboratory reactor, showing the influence of temperature and particularly humidity. A modelling of the SO2 absorption by Na2CO3 is proposed, based on an absorption site number decrease with the surface recovering
Étude expérimentale de la réactivité hétérogène de particules ultrafines d'acides gras et modélisation de la composition chimique des aérosols à l'échelle régionale by Maxence Mendez( Book )

2 editions published in 2012 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The intensity of environmental and health impacts of atmospheric aerosol depend on their chemical composition. This composition varies as function of their emission source and transport time in the atmosphere where many chemical and physical transformations occur. The objectives of this thesis are, firstly, to study the initial steps of the atmospheric aging of organic aerosol in laboratory and, secondly, to provide with information on the modelling of the chemical composition of atmospheric aerosol. The first part of this work has been dedicated to the study of the reactivity of model organic aerosol in an aerosol flow tube for two heterogeneous chemical systems: oleic acid + ozone; palmitic acid + chlorine radical. Chemical analyses in both gas phase and particle phase were performed to quantify the products and determine the chemical mechanisms.In the second part of the thesis, we have built a model to generate anthropogenic pollutant emission data for the chemistry weather forecast with the WRF-Chem model. The chemical speciation of primary aerosol permits us to model the chemical composition of aerosol over the French northern region. The model results have been validated by statistical comparison with data coming from measurements network (ATMO Nord-Pas de Calais) and also measurement campaigns performed with an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer
Développement de la méthode Fluorescence Induite par Laser en jet froid pour la quantification d'espèces aromatiques impliquées dans la formation des particules de suie dans les flammes by Maxime Wartel( Book )

2 editions published in 2011 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The emission of PAHs (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons) and carbonaceous particles produced during fuel combustion have a significant impact both on the environment and health. Indeed, soot particles, as ultra-fine particles are easily assimilated by the respiratory system and cause disorders of the body. In addition, PAHs either in the gas phase or adsorbed on the surface of soot are known to be mutagenic and carcinogenic compounds. Understanding of these pollutants formation requires the development of more and more sensitive techniques to allow their detection in flames, a complex environment where many chemical species interact. This thesis aims to develop a new selective, sensitive and quantitative method for detecting PAHs based on the extraction of flame species and their analysis by Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) after cooling within a supersonic jet. By using this method, it is possible to obtain selective spectra of individual PAHs allowing their selective and quantitative measurement in flames.With the development of this method, the measurement of mole fraction profiles of three key species in the mechanisms of PAHs formation (benzene, naphthalene and pyrene) was achieved in a CH4/O2/N2 laminar premixed flame stabilized at low pressure for different pressure and equivalence ratio conditions. In parallel, soot volume fraction profiles were measured in situ using the technique of Laser-Induced Incandescence (LII), highlighting correlations between concentrations of PAHs and soot particles. The obtained database will be useful to develop kinetics modelling of PAHs and soot formation in flames
Caractérisation des dislocations in situ dans les minéraux sous haute pression by Carole Nisr( Book )

2 editions published in 2011 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The Earth mantle and inner core are submitted to large scale movements of solid materials. The physical process allowing the flow of solid materials is connected to plastic properties and, in particular, dislocations. It is the source of seismic wave velocities anisotropy. However, the deformation mechanisms of deep Earth minerals are poorly understood. Deep in the Earth's interior, minerals are under extreme conditions; the temperature reaches several thousand degrees and the pressure is more than one million times the atmospheric pressure. The experimental study of the plasticity of those minerals requires deformation experiments under high pressure and temperature. High pressure phenomena are often determined from experiments using diamond anvil cell to reach the conditions of pressure and temperature of the mantle. The objective of this thesis was to develop a new technique for studying dislocations in situ in grains inside a polycrystal under high pressure, directly from their effect on the X ray diffraction profiles. To do so, we combine three-dimensional X-ray diffraction (3D-XRD) to X ray Line Profile Analysis method (XLPA). The development done in this thesis was applied to post-perovskite, the main constituent of the D'' layer at the core-mantle boundary and to stishovite, present mainly in subducting slabs. The results obtained are useful for understanding and modeling of convection and the development of seismic anisotropy in the mantle
Identification de mécanismes d'apparition de défauts olfactifs dans un emballage alimentaire rigide à base de polylactide : effet de la mise en forme et de l'utilisation by Aurélien Piroelle( Book )

2 editions published in 2012 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The work aimed at studying the formation risk of olfactive defects [Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) or odour emission] along the process and use of PLA-based rigid thermoformed food packaging. Consequently, the polymer was first extruded into sheets, and then thermoformed. Modification of the polymer from pellets, extruded sheets, to thermoformed trays was assessed according to two complementary approaches: (i) evaluation of PLA degradation by different physico-chemical, thermal and mechanical analyses; (ii) analysis of the emitted VOC by HS-SPME trapping method and identification by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This approach was additionally completed by gas chromatography-olfactometry analysis, in order to confirm the sensorial effect of the volatile compounds on PLA odour. Moreover, PLA trays were tested according to EU normalized tests to prove that it can be used as a Food Contact Material This work showed that even a low level of degradation, which is almost undetectable by physico-chemical analyses, could lead to emission of potentially odorous VOCs, mainly lactides, acetaldehyde and 2,3-pentanedione. For a given PLA, the nature and the quantity of VOCs depend on the degradation level induced along the entire life-cycle of the polymer, but also on the thermal and processing history
Exemples d'oscillateurs génétiques : le gène auto-réprimé à dynamique transcriptionnelle lente et l'oscillateur central de l'horloge circadienne de l'algue Ostreococcus Tauri by Constant Vandermoëre( Book )

2 editions published in 2011 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Les gènes situés sur la molécule d'ADN au coeur de nos cellules nonseulement portent une information héréditaire, mais de plusparticipent dynamiquement au fonctionnement de la cellule ensynthétisant plus ou moins activement des protéines. Ces dernièressont susceptibles de nombreuses interactions non linéaires avecd'autres acteurs, menant à la formation de réseaux biochimiques quipeuvent présenter des comportements dynamiques divers et complexes. Enparticulier, la régulation de l'activité des gènes (leur taux detranscription) par des protéines spécifiques peut aboutir à laformation de boucle de rétroaction. Ces boucles tissent des réseauxgénétiques où un ensemble de gènes régulent réciproquement leursexpressions.Des travaux expérimentaux récents ont montré que la régulation del'activité du gène n'est pas toujours instantanée. Nous avons alorsétudié l'influence d'une dynamique transcriptionnelle intrinsèque dansun circuit simple constitué d'un gène réprimé par sa propre protéine.Nous obtenons un critère analytique pour l'apparition desoscillations, qui nous permet de montrer que ces dernières sontfavorisées lorsque le temps de réponse du gène prend une certainevaleur. L'échelle de temps ainsi repérée est pertinente à la fois dansune description déterministe et dans une description stochastique.Ce sont également des réseaux génétiques qui sont à l'origine decertains rythmes biologiques, induisant les oscillations del'expression de protéines clés. Ces réseaux sont alors des horlogesendogènes qui permettent à de nombreux êtres vivants d'anticiper lesmodifications cycliques de l'environnement. Parmi celles-ci, l'horlogecircadienne permet à l'organisme de s'adapter au cycle diurnal enétant entraîné par l'alternance du jour et de la nuit. À partir de données expérimentales, nous avons modélisé l'horlogecircadienne de l'algue unicellulaire Ostreococcus tauri. Lemodèle est basé sur une boucle de rétroaction transcriptionnellenégative impliquant deux gènes se régulant mutuellement. L'accordentre le modèle et les données expérimentales est excellent et met enévidence une absence de signature du couplage dans les données lorsquel'horloge est à l'heure, ce qui révèle une propriété de robustesse aux fluctuations d'éclairement
Photo-croissance organisée de nano-objets métalliques ou semiconducteurs dans les matériaux diélectriques destinés à la photonique by Abdallah Chahadih( Book )

2 editions published in 2012 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The thesis project aims to master the localization and organization of metallic and semiconducting nano-objects formed inside sol-gel silica materials for novel applications. The nanostructuration method used in this thesis is based on the laser irradiation and, if necessary, heat-treatment. The local character of the matter-light interaction leads to the formation of nano-objects only in the irradiated areas. Hence, it is possible to control the spatial distribution of the nano-crystallites as well as their size distribution by varying the irradiation parameters. In this thesis, porous silica monoliths produced via the sol-gel process were doped and densified. Different kinds of semiconductors (CdS, PbS) and metallic (Au, Ag) nanoparticles incorporated inside the porous SiO2 matrix have been precipitated with the assistance of laser irradiation at room temperature or by an annealing process. The local generation of nanoparticles could be performed directly on the surface of the silica xerogel using a visible continuous laser or inside the volume of the matrix by a femtosecond laser irradiation. Moreover, it has been shown that the nanoparticle size could be adjusted by choosing the concentration of the precursors in the post-doping solution, the laser wavelength, the irradiation power and/or the annealing temperature in the case of thermal precipitation. Furthermore, different methods were used to precipitate metallic nanoparticles (Ag or Cu) inside dense silica matrix. Those techniques are based on laser irradiations and/or heat treatments. Under pulsed laser irradiation, the space selective growth of noble metal nanoparticles was achieved in two steps: first, metallic nucleation centres were generated by the pulsed laser (nanosecond or femtosecond) in the irradiated areas; next, the metallic nanoparticles growth was obtained by annealing at 600°C. Besides, the doping of glassy matrices with copper nanoparticles allows foreseeing their use in the core of microstructured optical fibres. First capillary drawings have shown that the copper nanoparticles can be preserved after undergoing a melting at 2000°C
Développement d'un banc plasmonique en goutte et conception de nouvelles interfaces appliquées à la biodétection by Nazek Maalouli( Book )

2 editions published in 2012 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) based biosensors have become very important tools for a sensitive, label-free and real-time detection of biochemical and biological interactions. Different aspects for plasmonic-based sensor have been investigated in this thesis such as the detection system configuration and the way molecules are linked to the SPR interfaces. In the first part of this thesis, the interest of a droplet-based SPR set-up was shown. This approach has allowed studying experimentally, for the first time, the excitation of surface plasmons by a diffraction grating chip, without integrated prisms. In the second part, different surface functionalization strategies have been developed on different thin film of a hybrid SPR interfaces. It was shown that silver-based SPR interfaces post-coated with amorphous silicon-carbon alloy (Ag/a-Si0.63C0.37) could be modified with amine-terminated nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), a strong chelating agent for Cu2+ ions. The interaction with his-tagged peptides could be followed, in an easy manner, by the droplet-based SPR set-up. Motivated by the interest of the glycane-lectin interaction, glycan-modified SPR chips were developed. Alkynyl-terminated mannose/lactose were covalently linked to azide functionalized gold/silicon oxide (Au/SiOx) interfaces using a "click" chemistry approach, the sensing of two different lectins (Lens culinaris and Peanut Agglutinin) was validated. In parallel, "unmodified" glycans were covalently linked to azide-tetrafluorobenzoic acid by a photocoupling strategy. This strategy showed high efficiency in the specific recognition of lectins comparable to the one obtained in the case of "clicked" sugar
Etude du mécanisme d'agrégation de la protéine Tau et son inhibition par des composés polyphénoliques by Anthony Daccache( Book )

2 editions published in 2011 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Tau isoforms are part of the microtubule-associated proteins family, mainly expressed in neurons of the central nervous system. They promote the assembly of tubulin monomers into microtubules and their stabilities, playing a key structural role in neuronal axons. In Alzheimer's disease and other tauopathies, the tau protein aggregates as fibrillar tangles involved in intraneuronal and glial lesions. At present, the process of aggregation present in the tauopathies is not fully understood despite a large number of studies performed in vitro. Most of the work presented in my thesis is based on an in vitro model study using recombinant tau protein with the P301L mutation. This mutant and other fragments of Tau were used to better understand the mechanism of aggregation, such as the role of the cysteines or the proline-rich region. We have shown by measurements of light scattering and fluorescence of Thioflavin S there is a system of aggregation independent of intermolecular disulfide bonds. We also studied the ability of several anti-aggregative natural polyphenols and endogenous. Our attention was particularly focused on three phenolic derivatives obtained from olive oil: hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein, oleuropein aglycone. The latter was found more active than the reference inhibitor of Tau, methylene blue. Similar results were obtained with molecules from DOPAL dimerization. The inhibitory activity of fibrillization of these molecules can reach submicromolar values
Étude du comportement des nano-renforts des matériaux ODS (Oxide Dispersion Strengthened) sous irradiation : approche analytique par des irradiations aux ions by Marie-Laure Lescoat( Book )

2 editions published in 2012 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) Ferritic-Martensitic (FM) alloys are expected to play an important role as cladding material in Generation IV sodium fast reactors operating in extreme temperature (400-500°C) and irradiation conditions (up to 200 dpa). Since nano-oxides give ODS steels their high-temperature strength, the stability of these particles is an important issue. The present study evaluate the radiation response of nano-oxides by the use of in-situ and ex-situ ion irradiations performed on both Fe18Cr1W0,4Ti +0,3 Y2O3 and Fe18Cr1W0,4Ti + 0.3 MgO ODS steels. In particular, the results showed that Y-Ti-O nano-oxides are quite stable under very high dose irradiation, namely 237 dpa at 500°C and, that the oxide interfacial structures are likely playing an important role on the behavior under irradiation (oxide stability and point defect recombination)
 
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Alternative Names
Ecole doctorale 104 SMRE (Villeneuve d'Ascq, Nord)

École nationale supérieure de chimie de Lille. École doctorale Sciences de la matière, du rayonnement et de l'environnement (Villeneuve d'Ascq, Nord)

ED 104 SMRE (Villeneuve d'Ascq, Nord)

ED Sciences de la matière, du rayonnement et de l'environnement (Villeneuve d'Ascq, Nord)

ED SMRE

ED104

Sciences de la matière, du rayonnement et de l'environnement (Villeneuve d'Ascq, Nord)

Université d'Artois. École doctorale Sciences de la matière, du rayonnement et de l'environnement (Villeneuve d'Ascq, Nord)

Université du Littoral-Côte d'Opale. École doctorale Sciences de la matière, du rayonnement et de l'environnement (Villeneuve d'Ascq, Nord)

Université Lille 1. École doctorale Sciences de la matière, du rayonnement et de l'environnement (Villeneuve d'Ascq, Nord)

Université Lille 1-Sciences et Technologies. École doctorale Sciences de la matière, du rayonnement et de l'environnement (Villeneuve d'Ascq, Nord)

Université Lille Nord de France. École doctorale Sciences de la matière, du rayonnement et de l'environnement (Villeneuve d'Ascq, Nord)

Université polytechnique Hauts-de-France. École doctorale Sciences de la matière, du rayonnement et de l'environnement (Villeneuve d'Ascq, Nord)

Languages
French (36)

English (4)