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Environnements et Paléoenvironnements Océaniques (Talence)

Overview
Works: 153 works in 153 publications in 2 languages and 153 library holdings
Roles: Other
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Most widely held works by Environnements et Paléoenvironnements Océaniques (Talence)
Étude de la composition isotopique moléculaire (delta13C) comme traceur de source qualitatif et quantitatif des hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques (HAP) particulaires dans l'atmosphère by Amélie Guillon( )

1 edition published in 2011 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) are carcinogenic compounds, present in all the compartments of the Environment. In the atmosphere, their sources are both from natural (biomass burning, volcanic emissions...) and anthropogenic (transport, industry, residential heating...) origins. Once emitted in the atmosphere, PAH are distributed between the gaseous or particulate phases and may be involved in different physico-chemical processes such as photodegradation, radical-initiated oxidations... Due to their carcinogenicity, PAH emissions are nowadays subjected to various regulations from France and more largely, European Union. In the atmosphere, benzo(a)pyrene has been selected as representative of the PAHs because of its high toxicity. In order to improve regulations involving emission reductions, several methodologies have been developed to perform source apportionment. The most commonly used in the literature is the molecular approach, based on molecular profiles and particular ratios. Nevertheless, conditions of PAH formation and physico-chemical processes affect these characteristic values. The main objective of this work was to develop a new methodology of particulate-PAH source tracking based on the molecular isotopic composition. The development of analytical procedure was performed to determine 13C/12C of PAHs by GC/C/IRMS. The study of the impact of PAH reactivity in the presence of O3, NO2, OH and/or solar radiations shows that no significant isotopic fractionation is induced on their isotopic compositions. Molecular isotopic approach was applied on natural particles, collected at different specific sites: 13C/12C of PAHs and molecular data allow differentiating particulate-PAH sources. Therefore, determinations of molecular and isotopic characteristics have been undertaken by applying this methodology on particulate-PAHs emitted during the combustion of fifteen Mediterranean woods. Finally, molecular approach coupled with different parameters (back-trajectories, oxidant concentrations, wind roses...) enables to measure the levels of PAH concentrations in the atmosphere in order to evaluate their impacts as a source of pollution in the Arcachon Bay
Décontamination métallique et capacités de récupération de deux composantes biologiques d'un hydrosystème naturel (biofilms diatomiques et bivalves filtreurs) après remédiation d'un site industriel by Adeline Arini( )

1 edition published in 2011 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Situé en France dans l'Aveyron, le bassin minier de Viviez a été soumis pendant plus d'un siècle à des rejets métalliques (principalement Cd et Zn) et est à l'origine de la contamination de l'estuaire de la Gironde, mise en évidence dans les années 1970. C'est dans ce contexte de pollution avérée que d'importants travaux de remédiation des sols ont été entrepris dès 2007. Les principaux objectifs de cette thèse résidaient en la caractérisation des premiers impacts de la remédiation sur l'amélioration de l'état chimique et écologique de l'hydrosystème via l'étude des biofilms périphytiques et des bivalves filtreurs Corbicula fluminea. En prévision des effets à plus long terme de la remédiation, il s'agissait en second lieu d'évaluer les capacités de décontamination des deux modèles biologiques et de s'intéresser à la restructuration des communautés diatomiques en réponse à une levée du stress métallique par transplantations in situ ou en laboratoire. Le suivi des bioaccumulations métalliques in situ réalisé entre 2008 et 2010 a révélé la rémanence d'un très fort gradient de contamination, à l'origine d'importants clivages communautaires dans les biofilms diatomiques. De plus, une augmentation de la pression métallique a été mesurée in situ en aval du site industriel en 2010 certainement en relation avec les travaux d'excavation. Des études de décontamination ont été menées en laboratoire après l'exposition des organismes in situ au cours de deux saisons. Chez Corbicula fluminea le Zn a été très rapidement dépuré, tandis que 15 mois n'ont pas suffi à obtenir la décontamination totale du Cd, estimée complète par modélisation après 740 à 1360 jours en fonction des saisons d'exposition. Bien que le potentiel de récupération des biofilms soit apparu rapidement en conditions naturelles après transplantation, les études de laboratoire menées sur plusieurs semaines en canaux n'ont pas abouti à une décontamination complète du Cd après 100 jours, qui a été estimée totale après 150 à 450 jours en fonction des saisons d'exposition. Malgré des prémices de restructuration, aucun retour vers des communautés de type témoin n'a pu être mis en évidence. Ces études ont souligné l'importance des phénomènes de migration d'espèces dans le potentiel de récupération des biofilms. Enfin, une étude portant sur les tératologies de diatomées a révélé leur maintien prolongé dans la population malgré l'arrêt de la contamination. L'ensemble de ces études a mis en évidence la complémentarité de l'utilisation des deux modèles biologiques, capables d'intégrer et de réguler différemment les contaminants, pour évaluer leur potentiel de récupération dans un contexte de gestion corrective de l'hydrosystème
Impact des obstacles aquatiques sur la migration des jeunes stades d'Anguilla anguilla by Tomasz Podgorniak( )

1 edition published in 2016 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The European eel Anguilla anguilla is a catadromous fish with a large scale migration loop including the Sargasso sea, Europe and North Africa. In the last 30 years, drastic declines of abundance have been observed and the species is currently considered as critically endangered. One of the main causes of species decline is habitat fragmentation, which prevents migrating fish accessing growth zones.We studied whether aquatic obstacles can enact selectively on migrating young eels. We applied a no a priori approach to detect any traits involved in the process of obstacle passage. We used a microarray analysis for gene expression screening in three tissues (brain, liver, muscle) of young eels sampled in different sections of an impounded watercourse (article 1). The only differences detected between groups of fish concerned the brain tissue, and the detected genes were related to synaptic plasticity. We also found that transcription levels of genes related to neural activity, oestrogen and thyroid metabolisms were different after two months of common garden (article 2). Finally, we studied the relationship between the gene transcription and climbing behaviour (article 3). Upstream fish showed the highest climbing tendency. Moreover, we found that the 'climbing' leaders showed lower transcription levels of cognition-related gene than fish following them. We suggest that leaders can enact as bold and proactive individuals, in contrast to reactive followers.The implication of our results is discussed in an ecological context, where the presence of water obstacles can modify the distribution of different phenotypes in the upstream and downstream parts of the water axis
Contribution relative des forçages climatiques et des processus sédimentaires dans la répartition spatio-temporelle des sédiments des mers nordiques (mers de Norvège, du Groenland et de Barents) by Marjolaine Sabine( )

1 edition published in 2021 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

This study focuses on the study of the Middle Pleistocene to Late Quaternary sedimentation patterns and palaeoenvironmental conditions of the Nordic seas (Barents, Iceland, Norwegian and Greenland seas), which mark the transition between the North Atlantic and the Arctic oceans. It is based upon a compilation of acoustic data (bathymetry, multibeam imagery) and sedimentological data (calypso piston cores) retrieved during two cruises leaded by the Shom institute. Sedimentary records showed a large variability of the sedimentary processes at play in those seas, depending of the climatic stages and, thus, of extension or decay conditions of the surrounding ice-sheets. Glacimarine, contouritic, hemipelagic and gravity sedimentary facies are recorded in those sedimentary archives. High resolution stratigraphy was obtained using a combination of radiocarbon datings, XRF geochemistry, oxygen isotopic data and biostratigraphy. This allowed to investigate the sedimentary inputs and processes occurring in those seas from the Middle Quaternary (the beginning of the Mid-Pleistocene Transition) to the Late Holocene. It also allowed a better characterization of the variation in the boreal ice-sheet extension, and to identify periods of Atlantic Waters influence over the core sites
Etude expérimentale des effets des conditions environnementales (température, oxygène, polluants) sur la survie, le développement et le comportement des stades embryo-larvaires d'esturgeon européen, Acipenser sturio by Nicolas Delage( )

1 edition published in 2015 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The European sturgeon Acipenser sturio is a diadromous species which has exibited a drastic decline during the 20th century. Its last population lives in the Gironde-Garonne-Dordogne (GGD) catchment where the last documented reproduction occured in 1994. Individuals released in the context of restocking actions are expected to re-enter the system for reproduction in the next few years. Because of global changes and human activity evolution, environmental conditions have changed from the last reproduction. Improved knowledge on the sensitivity of the European sturgeon to temperature, dissolved oxygen and pollutant is required to evaluate its capacities to recolonize the GGD catchment. Sentivity to present and future, considering global changes, oxygen and temperature conditions were evaluated as well as quality of the substratum of potential spawning grounds. The sensitivity of the early stages toward a mix of pollutants found in the GGD catchment was evaluated. Results obtained show a high sensitivity of the young stages of this species to oxygen concentration. Thermal optimum, optimal and critical tolerance windows were determined. Sensitivity to pollutants mixtures found in the GGD was relatively low. Dordogne river substratum was globally more toxic than Garonne river substratum. Beauregard and Pessac-sur-Dordogne were tested respectively as the best and the worst potential spawning ground for the development of the European sturgeon early stages according to their toxicological effects. Current conditions in the GGD catchment seems to be sustainable for European sturgeon early stages. Data from this study would be useful for further restocking programs in the historical european sturgeon reproduction area
Étude de la sensibilité des juvéniles de moule perlière (Margaritifera margaritifera) à une contamination métallique, aux nutriments et à la température by Tiaré Belamy( )

1 edition published in 2021 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Margaritifera margaritifera ou la moule perlière est un mollusque bivalve d'eau douce aujourd'hui en danger critique d'extinction en Europe. La pollution environnementale est considérée comme l'un des facteurs majeurs impliqués dans la disparition des populations de M. margaritifera. Cette thèse vise à étudier l'impact d'une contamination métallique (aluminium Al, arsenic As, cadmium Cd, cuivre Cu et nickel Ni) et des nutriments responsables du processus d'eutrophisation (nitrates NO3- et ortho-phosphates PO43-) sur le stade juvénile de M. margaritifera, considéré comme l'un des stades les plus sensibles de l'espèce. Afin d'appréhender les potentiels effets du changement climatique, l'effet de la température a également été étudié. Dans un premier temps, les seuils de toxicité aigüe des différents contaminants et nutriments, ont été déterminés. Les résultats ont montré une grande tolérance des juvéniles à des concentrations en contaminants largement supérieures à celles retrouvées dans l'environnement, et dépendante de l'âge des individus. Les effets des différents facteurs étudiés seuls ou en mélange ont ensuite été évalués lors de tests de toxicité chronique par le biais de plusieurs biomarqueurs : l'expression des gènes, la bioaccumulation des métaux et le comportement des organismes, dont la méthode a été développée dans cette thèse. Au niveau moléculaire, la contamination métallique a révélé un impact sur la modulation des gènes de plusieurs fonctions biologiques comme l'apoptose, la détoxication, la réparation de l'ADN ou encore le métabolisme mitochondrial. De plus, ces travaux ont permis de confirmer la capacité des juvéniles à accumuler ces éléments traces métalliques (ETMs), notamment le Cd, le Cu et l'Al, contrairement à l'As qui s'accumule peu dans les tissus. L'impact des nutriments au niveau moléculaire n'est observé que lorsqu'ils sont étudiés en combinaison et notamment à une température de 22°C, soit 6 degrés de plus que la température moyenne annuelle de la Dronne. L'effet de la température étudiée seule, a montré un impact sur l'expression des gènes en relation avec le stress oxydant et la réparation de l'ADN lorsque les juvéniles sont exposés à une température de 26°C, alors qu'à 21°C, aucune modification n'a pu être observée. L'exposition des organismes à plusieurs contaminants en mélange (As, Cu, Al, NO3- et PO43-) combinée à différentes températures (16, 26 et 30°C) a permis de mettre en évidence l'impact d'une augmentation de la température sur l'expression des gènes du métabolisme mitochondrial, du stress oxydant, de la détoxication et de l'immunité, et sur le comportement des juvéniles, en termes de distance parcourue. Finalement, cette étude a permis d'évaluer la sensibilité des jeunes stades de vie de la moule perlière et d'améliorer nos connaissances sur l'impact de certains ETMs, des nutriments responsables de l'eutrophisation des milieux aquatiques et de la température sur cette espèce, à différentes échelles de l'organisme. Ces travaux suggèrent que l'augmentation de la température causée par le changement climatique, combinée à la présence de contaminants dans les cours d'eau pourrait accentuer le déclin des populations de moule perlière
Développement et applications de l'analyse dirigée par l'effet pour la recherche et l'identification de contaminants à risque pour les écosystèmes aquatiques by Caroline Gardia-Parège( )

1 edition published in 2015 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

To date, environmental risk assessment is based on targeted chemical analyses. These analyses allow the detection of known active compounds and this preselected set does not often explain the observed toxic effects in complex environmental samples (e.g. unknown compounds, transformation product, cocktail effect...). For an integrative contamination assessment, a multidisciplinary approach, Effect-Directed Analysis (EDA) was developed. This approach combining biological tools and chemical analyses allows determining active compounds and identitying them in such environmental complex mixtures. EDA aims at the establishment of cause-effect relationships by sequential reduction of the complexity of environmental mixtures, eventually to individual toxicants. The aims of this thesis were (1) to develop and to validate the EDA-based strategy on various environmental complex samples; (2) to set up an identification strategy for identifying non targeted or unknown molecules using high resolution mass spectrometry; (3) to prove the usefulness of EDA approach for the identification of active compounds in environnemental complex samples. This thesis work provides to a complet bio-analytical approach from the preparation step of samples to the identification of molecules. The potential of this tool was fully confirmed on various environmental studies. These investigations allowed establishing a list of non-target compounds which can represent a risk for the environment
Morphodynamique littorale haute fréquence par imagerie vidéo by Rafael Almar( )

1 edition published in 2009 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

This thesis presents a study on short term (day to month) beach dynamic. Until the emergence of video systems, and despite its major role, this dynamic remained mainly unknown due to the lack of a suited observation technology. The new possibilities allowed by video imagery, comprising high-frequency observation, are revolutionary. In this thesis, a tool is introduced that, from the measure of nearshore hydrodynamics, estimates accurately nearshore topography for a large area (km) and at high frequency (day). This thesis shows that nearshore sand features interact and cannot be studied in isolation. We show that sand features dynamic can be dominantly non-uniform in the longshore direction, even for large waves. This dynamic is crucial because it contributes to cross-shore sand exchanges. For a double-barred beach, more than wave height, tidal range variations drive inner bar dynamic during stormy conditions. Our results suggest that a large part of the beach temporal variability is short term
Distribution des faunes vivantes, mortes et fossiles de foraminifères benthiques sur la marge portugaise : impact des apports fluviatiles et de la qualité de la matière organique by Pierre-Antoine Dessandier( )

1 edition published in 2015 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The Iberian Margin is a highly productive system driven by coastal upwelling and river inputs. Benthic foraminifera are marine protists particularly sensitive to environmental conditions. Hence they appear well suited bio-indicators for such environment. In the framework of this thesis, living, dead and fossil benthic foraminifera were analized on 23 surface sediment cores and two piston cores essentially from locations off the major rivers of the Portuguese Coast (Douro, Mondego, Tagus and Sado). This faunal analysis, combined with sedimentary and geochemical measurements allow thhe identification of the impact of fluvial exports and organic matter quality during the late winter period. The comparison of dead and living communities, on the first few centimeters of the sediment, shows the seasonal variation of faunas controlled by upwelling activity and riverine discharges intensity. The impact of taphonomical processes on the preservation of these bio-indicators is also investigated in the perspective of a better understanding ofthe fossil signal of these faunas. The paleoenvironmental application of these bio-indicators was then conducted on a 10 m long core from the Tagus shelf that allows paleoreconstruction for the last 5,700 cal. yr BP. The fossil benthic foraminifera record shows that some periods were characterized by intense river runoff and others by variable intensity of the seasonal upwelling
Étude des effets et du rôle des herbiers à Zostera noltii sur la biogéochimie des sédiments intertidaux by Marie Lise Delgard( )

1 edition published in 2013 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The aim of this study was to improve our understanding of the influence of the Zostera noltii meadows of the Arcachon Bay, a seagrass meadow affected by a severe regression since the 2000's, on the biogeochemical dynamic of the intertidal sediment of this lagoon. In such a changing coastal environment, it was important to characterize this influence on a wide range of spatial (i.e. from roots to the ecosystem) and temporal scales(i.e. tidal, diurnal, seasonal and inter-annual). In situ voltammetric measurements of the composition of porewater in an intertidal unvegetated sediment showed that (i) the vertical distribution of reduced species varied with tides and (ii) the oxygen dynamic in response to tidal and diurnal cycles was controlled by the photosynthetic activity and vertical migrations of microphytobenthos.The study of the influence of seagrasses on this dynamic by radial oxygen loss around roots was initiated with measurements of oxygen concentrations inside the lacunae of these plants. The organization of the lacunae of Zostera noltii is presented for the first time inthis study. The vertical distribution of porewater nutrients in vegetated and unvegetated sediments was characterized during the growth period of seagrasses. The presence of Zostera noltii induced a strong vertical zonation related to the depth-evolution of the balance between nutrient production stimulated by the root exudation of labile organic matter (source) and the root uptake of nutrients (sink). This study revealed the occurence of a root uptake of dissolved inorganic carbon and dissolved silica. Measurements of benthic oxygen exchanges on sediments colonized or not by Zostera noltii enabled the characterization of the seasonality and spatial heterogeneity of benthic metabolism (respiration and gross primary production) related to macrofaunal and macrophytic distribution. In vegetated sediments, the spatio-temporal variability of this benthic metabolism was highly controlled by leaves biomass. At the lagoon scale, our calculations showed that the regression of Zostera noltii meadows induced a significant decresase of mean annual respiration and production rates of the intertidal area of the lagoon.The inter annual evolution of the biogeochemistry of sediments colonized by Zostera noltii was studied in 2006 and in 2010/2011 in an area of the Arcachon Bay highly affected by the seagrass decline. In contrast to the healthy meadow in 2006, the declining meadow has increased nutrient release in sediments stimulating the production of ammonium or the dissolution of particulate phosphorus. This study shows that seagrass decay may result in a significant supply of phosphorus to the water column of a magnitude comparable to annual inputs to the lagoon from the rivers and the tidal pump
Mise en oeuvre d'une démarche intégrée pour identifier des contaminants pertinents dans l'environnement by Laura Fuster( )

1 edition published in 2017 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

To date, environmental risk assessment is based on a restricted number of molecules assessed by targeted chemical analyses. However, this approach give a partial picture of co-occurrence of known and unknown compounds. Moreover, in the aquatic environment, chemicals are not completely mineralized and are subject to abiotic and biotic processes. Transformation products (TPs) can be more toxic and more persistent than the parent compound. However, TPs are not typically included in classical monitoring and risk assessment. Because of complexity and variability of these matrices and the restricted number of molecules focused in targeted chemical analyses, selection of relevant molecules for environmental monitoring is often laborious.In this context, an integrative approach was used in order to identify chemicals of concern for a classical monitoring. This work has been realized on environmental complex samples and on laboratory-generated samples. A combination of targeted, non-targeted analyses and in vitro bioassays was performed and allowed to: (1) identify polar chemical of concern in the Seine estuary on the basis of occurrence and persistence, (2) identify new transformation products and (3) identify compounds responsible of biological activity observed in complexes matrices
Quantification et spatialisation de la contamination en éléments traces métalliques du système fluvio-estuarien girondin by Aurélie Larrose( )

1 edition published in 2011 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The Gironde estuarine system is impacted by historic polymetallic pollution due to mining and smelting activities in the upper watershed. Based on a high spatial resolution sampling strategy, wepropose the first maps of trace element (TE) contamination in the surface sediment at the estuarine scale. The highest TE concentrations occurred in the North Channel in the downstream estuary and inthe island zone in the upper estuary. Estimation of potentially releasable TE fraction, of enrichment factors and a comparison between measured TE concentrations and sediment quality guidelines allow us to class a major part of the estuary as a low to medium priority zone in terms of potential toxicityfor aquatic organisms.The TE contamination in the intra-estuarine watersheds included in a project of water quality management of the Gironde estuary (SAGE), was assessed for 57 watersheds by coupling into GIS,typological characteristics of the watersheds and geochemical analyses of stream sediments. Highest anomalies were found for urban watersheds for which urban tracers were identified as Ag, Cd, Cu, Hg,Sb and Zn, and for vineyard watersheds with Cu. A study of temporal and spatial variations of TEconcentrations in two small agricultural watersheds lead us to identify inputs from point and diffusive sources, especially for Ag, As, Cu and U related to anthropogenic activities. Marsh areas also play an important role in TE reactivity mainly due to organic matter transformations. In laboratory experiments simulating the transportation of TE from agricultural soils to aquatic systems and the maturing process of soil particles in the stream help us to identify processes responsible for TE release in the environment. Long term release of copper was mainly attributed to organic colloid transformation which implies an increase in the mobility, and consequently, the potential bioavailability/toxicity of Cu for aquatic organisms
Développement et applications environnementales des échantillonneurs passifs pour la surveillance des écosystèmes aquatiques by Angel Belles( )

1 edition published in 2012 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Pour une meilleure compréhension en gestion de la qualité de l'environnement le dosage des contaminants dans les différents compartiments naturels reste un premier pas vers l'élucidation de la dynamique des polluants et de leurs impacts sur les écosystèmes. Cependant les stratégies d'échantillonnage usuellement utilisées n'ont pas changé depuis l'avènement de la chimie analytique. Ces techniques consistent en général à prélever une certaine quantité de l'échantillon (eau, air, solide) afin d'en extraire les substances d'intérêt pour les doser. La question de la représentativité de telles pratiques se pose alors ; en effet pour un site donné la contamination peut être très variable au cours du temps et sur de faibles distances. La compréhension fine de la contamination d'un milieu en utilisant de telles techniques impose alors la multiplication des prélèvements dans le temps et l'espace.Depuis les années 80 mais surtout depuis le début des années 2000, des outils d'échantillonnage passif ont été mis au point dans de nombreux domaines permettant d'avoir un suivi de la contamination intégré dans le temps à moindre coût. Ces nouvelles approches consistent à prélever l'échantillon en continu et in-situ sans apport d'énergie, fournissant ainsi une valeur moyenne de la contamination.Afin de pouvoir utiliser ces dispositifs, un certain nombre de développements en laboratoire doivent être au préalable menés afin de déterminer les constantes cinétiques nécessaires pour déduire la contamination du milieu échantillonné à partir des résidus séquestrés par les échantillonneurs. Ainsi, dans le cadre de ces travaux, une sélection d'échantillonneurs existants ont été testés et adaptés en laboratoire puis évalués en conditions réelles sur divers sites environnementaux.Les développements en laboratoire ont eu pour objet de mettre au point différentes configurations d'outils dans le but d'être applicables au plus grand nombre de molécules et ce de la manière la plus quantitative possible. A titre d'exemple, des dispositifs adaptés ont été mis au point pour l'échantillonnage de molécules très polaires qui auparavant n'étaient pas efficacement échantillonnées par les dispositifs existants. Sur site, les outils d'échantillonnage ont principalement été mis en œuvre dans le cadre de programmes de recherche plus vastes et ont à ce titre pu être testés sur de grands terrains d'étude (Bassin d'Arcachon et Estuaire de la Gironde) et être comparés aux techniques d'échantillonnage ponctuels qui font actuellement référence. Les résultats fournis par les outils sont proches de ceux obtenus par échantillonnage ponctuel. Cependant l'aspect quantitatif apparaît probablement encore améliorable soit par l'usage de nouveaux composés référence de performance soit par mise au point de dispositifs plus robustes et faiblement impactés dans leurs performances par les conditions environnementales
Evaluation de la contamination en pesticides des tributaires du Bassin d'Arcachon et développement d'un échantillonneur passif spécifique des herbicides anioniques by Vincent Fauvelle( )

1 edition published in 2012 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Le Bassin d'Arcachon souffre depuis le début des années 2000 de crises environnementales qui ont engendré la régression de l'herbier de zostères et la mortalité épisodique des naissains d'huîtres. Dès lors, la pression toxique et notamment phytosanitaire a été mise en cause et a fait l'objet de plusieurs suivis environnementaux dans la lagune et ses principaux tributaires depuis 2005. L'étude présentée ici porte sur le suivi des apports en pesticides vers le Bassin d'Arcachon par les eaux continentales. Sa plus-value réside dans l'élargissement du panel de molécules suivies, notamment avec la prise en compte des composés acides ; dans l'utilisation d'échantillonneurs passifs de type POCIS (Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampler) ; et dans l'acquisition d'une chronique pendant près de deux ans. Du fait de l'inadéquation du POCIS (et des autres échantillonneurs passifs aquatiques disponibles actuellement), une stratégie d'échantillonnage ponctuel mensuel a été mise en place pour le suivi des herbicides organiques acides. La mise en évidence par la suite de la prédominance de ce substances dans la contamination des tributaires du Bassin d'Arcachon a constitué une avancée majeure dans la caractérisation de la pression toxique du milieu, et a par ailleurs montré les besoins en matière d'échantillonnage passif pour ce type de contaminants. Par conséquent, des outils adaptés à leur échantillonnage ont été développés, en se basant sur des dispositifs préexistants. Le caractère intégratif de l'échantillonneur a été optimisé soit en adaptant la géométrie, soit en modifiant la nature de la phase réceptrice. Ensuite, l'aspect quantitatif des dispositifs a été amélioré en adaptant l'approche PRC (composé de performance et de référence), ou bien en utilisant un gel diffusif
L'argent : sources, transfert et bioaccumulation : cas du système fluvio-estuarien girondin by Laurent Lanceleur( )

1 edition published in 2011 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Silver (Ag) emissions into the environment from former mining activities and various industrial applications (e.g. jewellery, medicine, photography, electronic products and more recently nanotechnology) make Ag both a historic and an emergent pollutant for which information on its transfer and toxicity in aquatic system are scarce. This work provides a first assessment of Ag sources, transfer and bioaccumulation in the Gironde fluvial-estuarine system. The Lot-Garonne-Gironde River continuum, known for its polymetallic pollution (e.g. Cd, Zn) derived from the Decazeville basin, is a model system for studies on metal transfer from watersheds to the ocean. The relationship between historical records (~50 years) of Ag concentrations in sediment cores from the Lot River, upstream (Ag: 0.3 mg/kg) and downstream (Ag: up to 7 mg/kg) of the Decazeville basin and those of Cd constitutes evidence of a common source and transport/settlement processes due to industrial activities until 1986. High particulate Ag (AgP: 260 mg/kg) and dissolved Ag (AgD: 1,260 ng/l) concentrations in the Riou-Mort River were attributed to current leaching and erosion of slag heaps by rainwater. Those concentrations were 2 to 3 orders of magnitude greater than typical values in the Gironde watershed. However, the Riou-Mort River contribution to the Garonne River Ag fluxes (AgD: 0.008-0.041 t/a; AgP: 0.306-2.44 t/an; 1999-2009) remained low (AgP: <11%; AgD: <6%). The Garonne River provided the quasi totality (63-83%) of Ag inputs to the estuary, mainly in its particulate form (96±2%). The regional geochemical background (AgP/ThP=0.026) was useful to estimate (i) the natural contribution (20-65%) to total AgP fluxes and (ii) the anthropogenic specific fluxes of AgP (15±10 g/km²/a and 0.24±0.16 g/hab/a) in the Garonne watershed (La Réole). In the estuarine salinity, chloro-complexation desorbed ~60% of AgP, causing maximalum AgD concentrations (6-8 ng/l) at salinity 15-25 (addition to the dissolved phase). This quantity was similar to the potentially bioavailable or reactive fraction (i.e. extracted by HCl 1 M). The first estimations of net fluxes suggested that 50-80% of the Ag annual export to the coast occurred in the dissolved phase (0.64-0.89 t/a in 2008 and 0.56-0.77 t/a in 2009). Even if the ionic form Ag+ (the main form in freshwater) is considered as the most bioavailable form, Ag accumulation in estuarine organisms (oysters, shrimps and eels) reflected the higher exposition pressure in brackish water. In-situ caging of European Eels (recommended species for the biosurvey of aquatic systems; European Water Framework Directive) in key sites of the Gironde Estuary during 3 months, highlighted the direct and trophic pathways of Ag contamination at the environmental level. The historical record of Ag contamination of the Gironde Estuary oysters (1979-2007, French Mussel Watch, RNO) indicated that the Decazeville basin was a major Ag source until ~1988. However, the maximum Ag accumulation in oysters after 1993 (from ~40 to more than 100 mg/kg, dry weight) suggested an increasing contribution of additional and contemporary Ag sources like photography, cloud seeding (30-63 kg/a) or Toulouse and Bordeaux wastewater effluents (42-57 kg/a). This work is a basis for future work on Ag (including nanoparticles) cycles and related risks in aquatic systems (quantification, transfer and toxicity)
Modélisation des processus biogéochimiques dans les sédiments variablement saturés soumis au forçage de la marée by Romain Chassagne( )

1 edition published in 2010 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

For a better understanding of the complexity of the biogeochemical processes in coastal re-gion, a 2D model has been developed. This model couples hydrodynamic forcing generated bythe tide and the transport-reaction processes of biogeochemical species. Di- scharge of the tideinto the variably-saturated porous media is modelled by Richards equation. Some numerical me-thods are required for solving this kind of complex problem, as Streamline Upwind Petrov Galerkin(SUPG) method and shock capturing method. The highly dynamical site of the Truc-Vert beach hasbeen chosen as reference field, mainly because of avalaible biogeochemical and hydrodynamicalstudies. The input parameters of the model come from these field data (ANR PROTIDAL and MO-BISEA projects) and from the bibliography. The validation of the model was made in regards oftwo case studies from published hydrodynamic simu- lations under tidal forcing and from avaliabletransport-reaction solutions. A first version of the model has been declined to describe silicic acidevolution into porous media under tidal forcing. The flux of the silicic acid to the ocean and theresidence time of silicic acid into permeable sandy sediments were estimated. After some days, weobserve the formation of a lens of low silicic acid concen- tration in the upper part of the intertidalzone. This lens is the main imprint of the tidal forcing. We studied also variations of the lens geo-metry and the residence time under influence of model parameters, such as the beach slope, the tideamplitude and the dispersion coefficient. A second version of the model describes the organic mat-ter degradation , and simulates the concentrations of oxygen, nitrates and phosphates. The modelreproduces the spatial (2D) and temporal distribution of the concentration of these different che-mical species into the sediment. Nowadays environmental problems are fondamental for our societyand the understanding of the sediment-ocean interactions is a crucial step. The new model allowsus a better understanding of the tidal impact on biogeochemical processes in permeable sediments and offers a quantitative approach on biogeochemical processes that occur into variably-saturatedsandy sediments. The model also offers a useful tool to optimize sampling strategy for field studies
Remotely-sensed rip current dynamics and morphological control in high-energy beach environments by Isaac Rodriguez Padilla( )

1 edition published in 2021 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Understanding the surf zone circulation and the morphological changes within the nearshore is essential for both scientific and societal interests. However, direct measurements with in-situ instruments are logistically challenging and expensive. The development of optical remote sensing techniques in combination with low-cost image platforms and open-source algorithms offers the possibility of collecting large amounts of information at a reasonable instrumental and computational cost. This work builds on existing and new video monitoring techniques to remotely sense the nearshore bathymetry as well as the surf zone circulation in a high-energy meso-macro tidal beach environment, including storm events. The methods are validated against a dense data set acquired during an intensive field campaign conducted at Anglet beach, SW France. For the first time the temporal and spatial variability of concurrent nearshore bathymetry and surface currents are addressed under high-energy wave forcing
Caractérisation et modélisation numérique des transferts gravitaires de la plate-forme au bassin en contexte carbonate by Jean Busson( )

1 edition published in 2018 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

This PhD thesis focuses on the controls of the gravitational processes transferring the carbonate production of the platform towards the basins. This work consists in 1) a geological synthesis of the gravity-driven sedimentation in carbonate systems and a typology of favorable configurations for the distal transfer of coarse material 2) an innovative numerical modeling workflow combining the forward stratigraphic modeling and the computation of the mechanical stratigraphy. It estimates the instability mechanisms during the evolution of the system. This work is based on two Plio-Quaternary analog cases: The Great Bahama Bank (GBB) Western leeward slope and the Exuma Sound/San Salvador deep basin and major canyon system, which constitutes an exceptional conduit of distal transport of carbonate sands to the abyssal plain. A common characterization of gravitational transfer processes was established for these two zones. Oedometer and triaxial tests were conducted for the determination of geomechanical parameters of the sediments. The numerical modeling workflow was applied to a 2D transect of the western slope of the GBB over the 1.7-0 Ma interval. It precises the progradation mechanism of the leeward margin related to the development of marginal cemented lowstand wedges. The modeling of the mechanical stratigraphy underlines the control of the gravitational instabilities by the geometry of the platform and fluid overpressures. The latter develop under the effect of transient piezometric head in the emerged platform, promoting the destabilization of the platform margin
Développement méthodologique pour l'analyse d'une large gamme de composés dans le milieux aquatiques by Daniel, siao-Loung Leonco( )

1 edition published in 2017 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

It is now widely recognized that contaminants present in aquatic environments can be toxic at traces or even ultra-traces level. Therefore, it is important to develop efficient and sensitive analytical methods to reach these levels of concentration. In that respect, chromatographic techniques coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS and LC-MS / MS) are commonly used for the analysis of organic pollutants. The substances encountered in aquatic environments display a large range of physico-chemical properties, from apolar to very polar. Thus, developing a simultaneous analysis for all these molecules represents an analytical challenge. In this pHD work, several steps of the analytical process have been investigated: sample preparation by solid phase extraction (SPE), chromatographic separation and the detection by mass spectrometry. A list of model compounds commonly determined in aquatic environments was established to conduct the tests. Solid phase extraction methods, offline and online, were developed in a multiresidue analysis aim at traces level. Chromatographic methods, gaseous and liquid, coupled to mass spectrometry were studied to obtain an exhaustive and sensitive analysis. The last part consisted to apply the developed methods for a non-targeted analysis approach
Modèle stratigraphique et processus sédimentaires au Quaternaire sur deux pentes carbonatées des Bahamas (leeward et windward) by Ludivine Chabaud( )

1 edition published in 2016 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

This study proposes a reconstruction of the quaternary sedimentary history of two Bahamian slopes (leeward and windward). This work is based on the stratigraphicand sedimentary analysis of 34 marine cores recovered mainly from the CARAMBAR oceanographic cruse (2010). A high-resolution stratigraphic study was conducted by coupling several tools including ecostratigraphy based on planktonic foraminifera assemblages, which allowed dating all sedimentary sequences despite early diagenesis processes. The sedimentary analysis of the marine cores proposes a new classification for carbonate sediment. It characterizes the dominant particle distributions at the time of deposition and allows for discriminating the fine sediments and for determining the depositional processes such as off-bank transport, contouritic or gravity deposits, and slightly altered sediment. Off-bank transport is the mainprocess responsible for high-accumulation of platform carbonate ooze (aragonite needles and silt) on the Bahamian slopes. It predominates during major flooding of the platform, so during the last 4 ka cal BP, the MIS 5e and at the on set of the MIS11. Intra-slope erosion, bottom currents, and early marine diagenesis processes have also been highlighted. The leeward slope is characterized by a high accumulation of wackestone sediment where as the windward slope preserved its Pliocene morphology with local quaternary sediment accumulation (wackestone to packstone)
 
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UMR 5805

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French (18)

English (2)