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École doctorale Sciences du sport, de la motricité et du mouvement humain (Paris / 2002-2015)

Works: 68 works in 75 publications in 1 language and 76 library holdings
Roles: Other, Degree grantor
Publication Timeline
Most widely held works by de la motricité et du mouvement humain (Paris / 2002-2015) École doctorale Sciences du sport
Influence des émotions sur la locomotion dirigée au cours de l'ontogenèse et chez l'enfant atteint de troubles autistiques by Sophie Longuet( Book )

2 editions published in 2011 in French and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Voluntary movement would be based on motivation linked to emotions. The current thesis studies emotion influence on goal directed locomotion during ontogenesis and in the child with autism. Aversive emotions would have an influence on planning (goal, trajectory), but not on movement programming (locomotor parameters, balance strategies). The latter, automatic, would be modified by age and by pathology. Two studies on goal directed locomotion were realized: the first comparing the young adult and the elderly, the second comparing the child with autism (autistic) with the healthy child matched by biological / developmental age (toddler). In both experiments, the participants had to walk in order to work on an emotional variable (switching off a positive/neutral/aversive picture or taking a positive/aversive object, located in front of them, at a 45° angle on their right or being moved during movement). The results show an influence of aversive emotions on planning in all participants, particularly in the young adult and in the autistic child. However all healthy participants would be able to forget them in order to answer the given instruction. The autistic child would present altered planning, regardless of emotions, the latter being used as movement-trigger. The programming is not modified by emotions and not much by ontogenesis: only the initial unbalance in the elderly and locomotor parameters in the toddler and the autistic child are modified. A goal directed locomotion would facilitate balance/movement coordination
L'expérience sportive du corps en situation de handicap : approches praxéologique et socio-phénoménologique du foot-fauteuil by Rémi Richard( Book )

2 editions published in 2013 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Powerchair football is the only team sport for people using a powered wheelchair daily. Born in France in the mid 1980s, this practice expanded, and today it is one of the "handisport" activities with the highest numbers of competitors. Paradoxically, it is also one of the least known. The objective of this thesis is to uncover the sports experience of these "severely disabled" athletes. A praxeological view on this practice will enable us to understand one aspect of this experience: the acting body in sporting situation. Then, in a second step, the socio-phenomenological view will be an opportunity to capture the experience "in first person" of these athletes. To do this, we have observed and participated in the life of two football clubs of the Paris area for more than two years. We also conducted 16 in-depth interviews with players and coaches. The phenomenological analysis of these data will allow us to reconstruct the "world" experienced by powerchair football players. Thus, central issues will be highlighted. The problem of classification of the players will be examined. Then, we will pay particular attention to the relationship between the individual and his wheelchair. We finally see that the practice of powerchair football is a particular socialization place, where gender and abled/disabled relationships are questioned
Etude de la relation détente verticale - puissance maximale sur ergocycle : effets de l'ethnicité by Majdi Rouis( Book )

2 editions published in 2012 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The purpose of the present thesis was to study the effects of the ethnic origins upon the relationship between vertical jump (VJ) and maximal power (Pmax) on a cycle ergometre. Study A showed that the mean value of VJ was higher in subjects with West-African origins (WAE) when compared with Caucasian subjects (CE). For a given value of Pmax, VJ was higher in WAE. The hypothesis of a low aptitude for cycling exercises in WAE has not been verified in study A which showed that Pmax was not lower in WAE when compared to CE. The lack of cycling practice often suggested in the literature was not confirmed by the results of a reliability study of VJ and Pmax which showed no training effect in WAE as well as CE. A socio-economical factor cannot explain the inter-ethnic difference in the relationship between Pmax and VJ. Indeed, the same difference in the Pmax-VJ relationship was observed for exercises performed with the arms (cranking exercises), for which a lower practice cannot be evoked for WAE. The hypothesis of differences in musculo-tendinous stiffness as an explanation of inter-ethnic differences in vertical jump was tested in study C which showed that the torque-stiffness depended on the level of VJ performance and the ethnic origins. Finally, we took advantage of the measurement of stiffness in subjects who performed maximal cycling exercise to study the relationship between stiffness and Pmax (study D). This last study showed a significant correlation between the musculo-tendinous stiffness of the triceps surae and Pmax, without an ethnic effect
Métaphore, verticalité et affect : l'influence du mouvement vertical sur le jugement : étude des métaphores conceptuelles relatives à l'affect, aux informations sociales et au langage by Sébastien Freddi( Book )

2 editions published in 2013 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This thesis investigates the influence of motion, as a behavioral component, on the affective judgment in the framework of conceptual metaphor. We hypothesize that vertical motion is an important bodily experience to determine affective judgment about valenced stimuli, social information and linguistic cues. Three researches were conducted. The first research examines the effect of perceived vertical motion on affective judgments of valenced stimuli. Three experiments allow us to confirm that a metaphor congruency effect was brought into play in determining affective judgments about valenced stimuli which were associated to the direction of vertical motion. Our second research studies the effect of perceived vertical motion on affective judgments about social information (competence and warmth). Our results confirm the significance of perceived vertical motion in the functional perspective of social judgment. These experiments highlight the important effect of competence for affective adaptation of individuals when bodily experiences about vertical motion are activated. Finally, our last research investigates that motion, opposed to static, and its vertical direction are bodily experiences allowing us to differentiate affective dimension of dominance and valence, in studying linguistic cues. Our experiments show that the nature of linguistic cues (verbs vs. nouns) favours the activation of dominance, whereas direction of vertical motion, expressed by linguistic cues, favour the activation of valence. So, this thesis corroborates the significance of bodily experiences, and more precisely vertical motion, on emotional and cognitive components of behaviors adopted by individuals
Sportifs et sports en France 1940-1945 by Bernard Prêtet( Book )

2 editions published in 2014 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The purpose of the thesis is to consider the behaviour of sports association stakeholders (players, managers, spectators) under the régime of the French State, the Occupation and its constraints. Research draws primarily on sources from within the sporting world. During the "dark years", french sport was doubly penalised : by scarcity and the Occupation (to which it was by its very essence particularly sensitive), as well as by the Vichy régime's will to use it as a tool serving the "National Revolution". Sport was also a strategic issue for collaborationists. The introduction provides an inventory of sport in 1939. The first part covers activities and representation of sport (heritage conservation, widened participation fostered by the government body responsible for Education and Sport "Commissariat général à l'Éducation générale et aux Sports", impetus given to women's sports, use of sport to serve the "National Revolution", supervisory staff as well as the realities of playing sport). The second part deals with the various reactions of the sporting world to attempts to subordinate and constrain it: favourable minority behaviour, or on the contrary, commitment to the Resistance or refusal and majority behaviour determined by an overriding attachment to sport or the search for an area of freedom. The third part (heritage and remembrance) is devoted to the imprint left by the Commissariat's policy (sports infrastructure, forms of play, sporting hierarchies) and to sportspersons' judgement on those in authority
Contributions à l'étude physiologique des exercices sinusoïdaux de courte période by Badrane Zinoubi( Book )

2 editions published in 2014 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The aim of the present thesis was to study the adaptations of several physiological variables [heart rate (HR), blood lactate [La],oxygen uptake (VO2), ventilatory variables (VE, VE/VO2), rate of perception of effort (RPE), time limit (tlim), critical velocity (CV)] during sinusoidal exercises (S) with short periods (≤ 20 s) compared with exercises at constant power output with the same average intensity either in running or cycling on an ergometre. Three experimental studies (A, B, and C) have been carried out. In study A, tlim at 90, 100 and 110% Maximal Aerobic Velocity (VMA) were significantly shorter for sinusoidal running exercises but critical velocities were the same for both exercise protocols. In contrast with HR, the values of [La] and RPE were higher for exercises S than for exercises C. In study B, cycling exercises were performed either at steady power outputs (160 and 240 W) or according to a square wave protocol with the same average power outputs (80 watts amplitude, 10 second phases or 20 second phases]. In study B, the values of HR, [La] and RPE were higher with protocol S compared with protocol C. In addition, HR and [La] during 20 second square wave exercises were higher than during 10 second square wave exercises at the same power output. In study C, the values of HR, RPE, VO2, VO24mmol and HR4mmol measured after 10 minute running exercises at 65, 75 and 85% VMA were significantly higher with protocol S when compared with protocol C at the same velocity. The running velocity corresponding to 4mmol.L-1 was higher in protocol C. All the results of this thesis focus on the difference in mechanisms of adaptations answers cardio-respiratory and metabolic function in the exercise modality (continuous vs sinusoidal)
Construction d'un modèle intégré : interactions entre émotion et production d'un mouvement volontaire de l'ensemble du corps : application à l'initiation de la marche by Laure Coudrat( Book )

2 editions published in 2012 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

L'objectif de ce travail était d'étudier les interactions entre émotion, cognition et mouvement sous l'angle de la dimension émotionnelle de l'approche-évitement intégrée au processus de production d'un mouvement volontaire de l'ensemble du corps : la sélection et l'élaboration des programmes moteurs de l'initiation de la marche. Pour cela, un modèle intégratif a été construit de manière à articuler quatre théories : celles relatives au contrôle cognitif du mouvement, à l'organisation biphasique des émotions, à la gestion du conflit et à la charge perceptive. Les résultats obtenus permettent tout d'abord de conceptualiser l'initiation de la marche comme un mouvement à valence émotionnelle : la production de ce mouvement est dépendante du contexte émotionnel (plaisant/déplaisant) dans lequel il est réalisé. De plus, cette dépendance est d'autant plus importante que l'influence des émotions sur le temps de réaction et l'amplitude de la réponse motrice sur l'axe médio-latéral n'a pu être modulée par la mise en place de processus cognitif (haut niveau de contrôle cognitif) et perceptif (charge perceptive élevée). Or, dans le cadre de tâches de pression sur un bouton de clavier d'ordinateur, ces processus sont utilisés pour moduler les interactions entre émotions et mouvement. En revanche, le contrôle postural sur l'axe antéropostérieur, axe de la direction d'approche-évitement, semble être spécifique dans la mesure où l'influence des émotions sur son amplitude a pu être modulée (diminuée) par la mise en œuvre de ces mêmes processus cognitif et perceptif
Les determinants psychologiques de la planification des transitions psychosociales : vers une approche dispositionnelle by Virginie Demulier( )

1 edition published in 2011 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Post-transitional adaptation depends on transition planning. However, many people do not plan ahead, exposing themselves to psychological distress following the transition. Thus, this doctoral project thus focuses on mechanisms underlying transition planning and attempts to explain individual differences in terms of planning. More precisely, we support the thesis that dispositional variables determine the processes that explain transition planning. Although personality traits are linked to reactions and adaptation to transition, research evaluating the role of personality in transition planning is lacking. Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1991), Beehr'model (1986), the Social Cognitive Career Theory (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) and the Five Factor Model (Digman, 1990), this doctoral project aims to identify personality factors explaining psychosocial transition planning. It demonstrates that sociocognitive variables contribute to retirement planning from elite sport (study 1). Personality traits influence the planned retirement age from work (study 2). In addition, conscientiousness contributes to career planning among elite athletes through career goals and self-efficacy (study 3). Finally, personality traits predict career planning amongst students (study 4). Overall, this project contributes to highlighting personality traits as determinants of sociocognitive mechanisms of transition planning and further provides a better understanding of processes underlying individual differences in psychosocial transition planning. Finally this doctoral project demonstrates the need to individualize support to better assist individuals in transition preparation
Ajustements posturaux consécutifs lors d'un pas simple : effets de la vitesse et du frottement by Sahel Memari( )

1 edition published in 2011 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

This study aimed to biomechanical characterization of a simple step among normal subjects. To this end, we considered the effect of speed, which has enabled to test the invariance of equality between the disturbance applied to the body during its acceleration and counter- perturbation during its breaking phase (CPA) to return to initial position. Also, the role of CPA is explained.In a second experimental series, we considered the effect of friction at the stop point of movement .The purpose of this series was to characterization of biomechanical characteristics modifications among normal subjects. So, the characterization did not raise any major problems, the effects of velocity is confirmed for both COF considered (Teflon and Tiles). How ever, the differences between biomechanical characteristics are not significant when the COF is different, but by considering the individual results, we have found that the duration of the CPA tends to be systematically higher for Teflon, contrary to the peak amplitude results.These results encourage further study of the effect of friction on the single step.In conclusion, the simple step seems to be a paradigm for obtaining robust results and easily usable to study old or handicapped peoples
Les mécanismes neurocognitifs de l'inscription corporelle dans les jugements de latéralité by François Tariel( )

1 edition published in 2011 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The aim of this thesis was to study the neurocognitive mechanisms implicated in the determination of objects intrinsic handedness. In a first study, we evidenced that distinguishing the left from the right of an object requires a mental projection of the body schema onto the stimulus. This embodiment process occured for human and non human stimuli as well, suggesting that the mere presence of intrinsic axes on stimulus enables the bodily projection. In a second study, we explored the neural mechanisms underlying embodiment in a handedness shape matching task, using human bodies and cubes assemblies as stimuli with different orientations. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) revealed that the left superior parietal lobe participated in the embodiment and spatial transformation of both stimuli. In addition, we observed a contribution of the supplementary motor area for cube assemblies specifically. Therefore, we consider the superior parietal lobe as the neural substrate of an emulator processing the body schema to encode handedness and to predict the visual consequences of a spatial transformation. Besides, the additional contribution of the supplementary motor area probably helped the spatial transformation of unfamiliar shapes by backpropagating a motor command to the emulator to increase cohesiveness of the mentally rotated object. These interpretations support the grounding of cognition in bodily actions
Les activités physiques et sportives en Tunisie : pratiques et valeurs by Monia Kherouf( Book )

1 edition published in 2009 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Modèle computationnel du contrôle auto-adaptatif cérébelleux basé sur la Logique Floue appliqué aux mouvements binoculaires : déficit de la coordination binoculaire de la saccade horizontale chez l'enfant dyslexique by Elham Ghassemi( )

1 edition published in 2013 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

This thesis focuses on the cerebellum. We follow two main lines: in terms of cerebellar functions, we are interested in learning and adaptation motor control ; in terms of cerebellar dysfunctions, we are interested in developmental dyslexia.We focus on learning motor control in order to provide a functional computational model applied to voluntary eye movements. To this end, Fuzzy Logic is one of our valuable tools. We proposed two models. The former is AFCMAC (Auto-adaptive Fuzzy Cerebellar Model Articulation Controller), the result of the integration of Fuzzy Logic in CMAC (Cerebellar Model Articulation Controller) architecture, in order to improve learning speed/time and memory requirements compared to the CMAC. The latter is CMORG (fuzzy logiC based Modeling for Oculomotor contRol LearninG), whose structure is also based on Fuzzy Logic, and in which, the neural network is used as the memory to handle Fuzzy rules. The evaluation results of the proposed (AFCMAC and CMORG) and studied (CMAC and FCMAC - Fuzzy Cerebellar Model Articulation Controller) models via oculomotor data of dyslexic and control groups while reading show that CMORG is the most efficient both in terms of learning speed/time and also memory consumption. Another main advantage of CMORG over the other models is its interpretability by experts. Regarding the developmental dyslexia, we conducted an experimental study on binocular motor control deficits during saccades in six dyslexic children while two different tasks (text reading and character string scanning) and in two viewing distances (40 cm and 100 cm). We corroborate and adhere to the idea that the (bad) quality of binocular coordination of saccades in dyslexic children is independent of reading difficulties, maybe associated with magnosystem and cerebellar deficit hypothesis
Représentations et intégration de quelques adolescents présentant une déficience intellectuelle en éducation physique et sportive (EPS) by Marc Legrand( )

1 edition published in 2013 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

From the situations operated in physical education (PE), what factors determines the social intégration of the teenagers presenting an intellectual deficiency (ID)? Our works lean on an experiment of integration to the middle school with for objective to explore in depth the communication between two subgroups of teenager ID coming from a Medical educational institute and three first classes of the secondary school during physical educational sessions. To do it, considering the representations of the schoolchildren analyzed from a survey by questionnaire and around a behavioral study in the long term, we compare a sociometric questionnaire with an original motor tool (favoring the ambivalence and the instability). The results show that in spite of representations of group rather positive, we notice the effect of a multivariated integration. Certain teenagers DI are appreciated by the sixth of the secondary school whereas of other one are ignored or rejected. The reason result for us on one hand from the structure of the subgroups of teenagers DI and from their appropriate skills. On the other hand the internal logic of certain motor situations, seems to exclude largely the pupils of the medical educational institute. Therefore, a knowledge of these persons and the relations which they develop between them should improve their integration. Furthermore, a control by the teacher about the effects of the sociomotor situations implemented, during the sessions to both populations, will probably be beneficial
Réorganisation du mouvement avec l'apprentissage d'une habileté motrice complexe, la marche athlétique : rôle de l'énergie métabolique et de la perception de l'effort. Effet de cet apprentissage sur les transitions marche-course by Lina Majed( )

1 edition published in 2013 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The first aim of the present work was to investigate movement reorganization with learning a complex motor skill, racewalking. The second aim was to bring more insight into the role of metabolic factors and perceived exertion. To do so, the first two studies analyzed the evolution of a large number of kinematic variables when participants underwent the practice sessions. At the start of each session, three instructions (i.e., biomechanical constraints) concerning the regulations and technique of racewalking were given. The results of the first study put forward a rapid evolution ofcoordination and control (Newell, 1985) that seem to reach a plateau at the fourth session out of seven in total. The second study, that investigated closely these first four sessions, revealed an important role of task constraints on movement reorganization, refuting the existence of general principles concerning the mastery of degrees of freedom (Bernstein, 1967). Furthermore, the first study showed a reduction in metabolic values and peripheral perceived exertion with practice, which were significantly correlated to the global movement reorganization. Overall, the results seem to raise an important role of peripheral sensory information on the adoption of more economical movement patterns with practice. The third study showed that after the seven learning session, participants spontaneously adopted racewalking as a new pattern in the transition test, between walking and running, for non-metabolic reasons. In conclusion, the present work proposes that the movement reorganization accompanying the learning of racewalking is oriented by task constraints on one sideand peripheral perceived exertion on the other aiming for metabolic optimization. Nevertheless, optimization of metabolic factors doesn't seem a priority when the motor system should quickly adapt to a critical level of constraints
Etude ergonomique de la modalité haptique comme soutien à l'activité de déplacement piéton urbain : un projet de conception de produit innovant by Lucie Brunet( )

1 edition published in 2014 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Whether they are occasional or regular travellers, the pedestrians travelling in an urban environment and using public transportation have to face the complexity of the transportation network of large cities. The travelling aids are numerous and varied. They can be stationary or mobile (for example, applications on smartphones). These aids rely mainly on the visual sensory modality, already heavily requested during urban travel. An interesting alternative would be to use haptics (sense of touch). Indeed, this modality enables to convey travel and navigational information to the owner of a haptic device, by drawing discreetly his attention with tactile messages. Joining an approach of prospective ergonomics, this thesis aims to study the contribution of the haptic modality as a support for the activity of urban pedestrian travel. The applied objective is the design of a haptic device as an innovative travel aid, effective and accepted by the future users. This design project took place within the framework of the ANR project Tictact, led by the CEA-LIST from 2011 till 2014. The use of the haptic modality being put as an initial bias, the objective of the project was to determine the form that the assistance and the technology of the travel aid should take.To tackle this challenge, we conducted three successive studies. The first one, aimed at understanding the elementary cognitive activities mobilized when consulting information necessary to the pedestrian navigation. For that purpose, we analysed the behaviour of a pedestrian undertaking an urban travel (in the subway and on foot). The results allowed us to specify the functions that a future device assisting in the travel should include. Completed by a review of the literature on haptic interfaces and their use for assisting travel, these results led us to determine the eligible functions of the haptic modality.The second study aimed at designing the haptic interaction with the haptic interface, in two stages: first develop the concept of the interface and second design the interaction language. An approach of participative design was implemented, supported by the use of a device prototype and creative methods. This approach succeeded in: i) identifying an informative message suitable for each function of the travel; ii) translating this message (using an analogy) into a metaphor; and iii) transforming every metaphor into vibrotactile patterns delivered by a haptic wristband.The third study aimed at evaluating the haptic device (a wristband coupled with a Smartphone) in a real environment. An analysis of the activity of urban travel was conducted, comparing a group having a prototype of our haptic assistant to a group without such prototype. The results confirm the potentiality of the haptic modality to improve the travel performance in particular to enable a more fluid speed of travel and a decrease in the consultation time of an information medium. Our study opens up perspectives for the use of the haptic modality in diverse mobile interfaces (for example a smartwatch)
Méga-événements sportifs et gestion du risque : entre menace, sécurité et liberté. La Coupe du Monde 2006 by Anna Clavel( )

1 edition published in 2015 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

This dissertation addresses the issue of risk management during Sports Mega Events (SME). It deals with the theoretical concepts of configuration and that of governance, and addresses the discussions and impact surrounding these sports events. Organizational aspects are analyzed from a critical angle, making for a better understanding of the equation: security forces, interdependencies, power relations and tensions between the elements that come into play. These dimensions are questioned from the point of view of surveillance and that of social control.This dissertation falls into two parts: first, I develop a theoretical framework and assess the transferability of models in the context of sporting events. I then study the empirical case of the 2006 Football World Cup. How were security policies introduced as part of Mega-Events cultural and social economic policies? Additionally, how were SMEs mobilized to influence national security policies? The German case may lead to future changes in security systems for the organization of this type of event.This study highlights the process of developing safety initiatives during SMEs: from identification of risk as constructed by security managers to the implementation of safety devices and its consequences. These stages are discussed in relation to the security threat and freedom triangle.The World Cup of 2006 is an illustration of the tensions in managing the security of SMEs. Methods which are traditionally used in other realms were applied in the sporting context of this World Cup raise a number of issues, notably the consequences security policies may have on individual freedoms. Despite the apparent success of the World Cup, this study examines the question of security organization and discusses the issues raised
Comment la mémoire procédurale optimise l'apprentissage au cours du vieillissement by Guillaume Chauvel( )

1 edition published in 2011 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Normal or pathological aging is characterized by specific deficits in episodic and working memories. Therefore, is it possible to optimize motor learning with advancing age, by utilizing other memory processes hypothesized to be less affected or even spared from aging? We conducted three experiments in which the predominance of one memory system over another was manipulated by contrasting the effects, across 160 trials of a sensorimotor task (golf putting), of two different learning methods: the infrequent-error method hypothesized to primarily rely upon declarative memory vs. the frequent-error method hypothesized to primarily rely upon procedural memory. In Experiment 1, we tested in young and older adults the efficiency of these methods and the nature of processes involved when a secondary, attention-demanding task was performed concurrently. In Experiment 2, we compared the motor performance between young and older adults and Alzheimer patients. In Experiment 3, we assessed the effects of verbalizing previous motor actions produced during learning on processes underlying young and older adults' motor performance. The results of Experiment 1 showed that learning is affected by aging when declarative processes are predominant but is protected from advancing age when procedural processes are predominant. The results of Experiment 2 demonstrated that learning is preserved from Alzheimer's disease when procedural processes are predominant. The results of Experiment 3 revealed that verbalization affects declarative processes but has no effect on procedural processes in young adults, and that it has no effect on these two types of processes in older adults. Altogether, these results show that “bypassing” declarative memory and its deficits occurring with advancing age or disease is doable by utilizing intact procedural memory, thus leading to an optimized motor learning
Des spécialistes de la polyvalence : une analyse sociologique des carrières dans les sports pluridisciplinaires : (pentathlon moderne, heptathlon/décathlon) by Mathilde Julla-Marcy( )

1 edition published in 2019 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

This thesis focuses on the careers of athletes who practice two multidisciplinary sports: combined events (heptathlon/decathlon) in athletics and the modern pentathlon. I adopt an interactionist approach that explores all the analytical and methodological implications contained in the notion of career (Becker, 1985; Darmon, 2003). In doing this, I study precisely these careers in high performance sports. Despite the multidisciplinary dimension of the analysed sports, the corresponding careers will still be based on the phase of specialisation. This follows phases of “discovery” and “introduction”, and precedes phases of “development” and “recognition” of an expertise. Therefore, multi-faceted versatility appears as a full speciality in and of itself that shall be thought of as a process within an institutional framework rather than as an intrinsic and individual characteristic. The thesis brings forth additional results about:- the social and institutional construct of disciplinary specialisation,- the processes of sports reorientation, - the fact that sport training creates specific social configurations, - gender inequalities in the recognition of the versatility of an athlete- and the need to conceptualise inverse family socialisations to understand parental commitments in the sports practice of their children. The analysis is based on a multi-sited ethnography (Marcus, 1995) which I have used within different federal structures, and where I have observed a total of 67 days of training and competitions, and developed 40 semi-structured interviews. I have also created several databases to implement sequence analyses, read federal documentation and made a discursive analysis of the televised transmission of 2016 Olympics Games
Intégration multisensorielle et variabilité interindividuelle by Marc Gueguen( )

1 edition published in 2011 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Tout individu extrait de ses informations sensorielles des invariants directionnels lui permettant de percevoir sa propre situation spatiale ainsi que celle des objets qui l'entourent. Dans les situations habituelles, les traitements relatifs à l'orientation spatiale s'effectuent à partir de référentiels relativement redondants. Cette redondance autorise à la fois la mise en place d'une sensibilité individuelle préférentielle à l'égard d'un de ces référentiels ainsi qu'une large flexibilité dans le choix du référentiel. Lors de ce travail nous avons voulu tester deux hypothèses principales. La 1ère est que les différences interindividuelles observées lors de tâches de perception d'orientation spatiales dépendent du choix du référentiel. La 2nd hypothèse est que l'un des facteurs explicatifs de la variabilité interindividuelle lors de tâches de perception d'orientation spatiale se situe au niveau des règles d'intégration multisensorielle utilisées par les individus. Les résultats montrent que l'ensemble des cadres de références semblent pris en compte par les individus rejetant ainsi la 1ère hypothèse selon laquelle les différences interindividuelles s'expliqueraient par la capacité de certains sujets à exploiter le "bon" cadre de référence. Les résultats montrent que l'un des facteurs explicatifs des différences interindividuelles se situe dans la manière dont le système nerveux central combinerait les différentes informations, certains sujets (DC) semblant incapables de minimiser l'influence des "mauvais" cadre de référence (les moins appropriés, les plus biaisés) en diminuant leur poids respectifs
De nos sensations proximales à notre perception de l'espace : l'attribution distale comme processus sensorimoteur et idéomoteur by Hélène Lestage( )

1 edition published in 2018 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

L'attribution distale réfère à notre capacité d'attribuer à nos sensations proximales (lumière sur la rétine, ondes sonores, etc.) une localisation dans l'espace distal. Les travaux issus de la substitution sensorielle ont permis d'identifier et de tester ce processus. L'objectif de cette thèse est d'investiguer l'attribution distale grâce à une approche conjointe et intégrée des théories sensorimotrices et idéomotrices. Dans deux études, nous utilisons une procédure idéomotrice classique consistant à associer des conséquences sensorielles proximales à des mouvements. La première étude montre que l'attribution de caractéristiques distales aux sensations proximales est déterminée par l'association bidirectionnelle sensations - mouvements. De plus, nous montrons que l'orientation du mouvement est consubstantielle des caractéristiques distales que nous conférons aux conséquences sensorielles. La seconde étude réplique ces résultats et les étend aux caractéristiques liées à l'amplitude du mouvement. Ces expériences nous amènent à définir l'attribution distale comme un processus sensori-moteur et relevant d'un mécanisme idéomoteur, inscrivant ainsi nos études dans une perspective constructiviste. Les limites théoriques et expérimentales de nos études nous conduisent alors à proposer de nouvelles expériences visant à mieux définir l'importance du mouvement dans la perception
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ED 456 (Paris)

ED Sciences du sport, de la motricité et du mouvement humain (Paris)

Sciences du sport, de la motricité et du mouvement humain (Paris)

Université de Paris 05. École doctorale Sciences du sport, de la motricité et du mouvement humain

Université de Paris 10. École doctorale Sciences du sport, de la motricité et du mouvement humain

Université de Paris 11. École doctorale Sciences du sport, de la motricité et du mouvement humain

Université Paris 5. École doctorale Sciences du sport, de la motricité et du mouvement humain

Université Paris Descartes. École doctorale Sciences du sport, de la motricité et du mouvement humain

Université Paris-Ouest. École doctorale Sciences du sport, de la motricité et du mouvement humain

Université Paris-Ouest Nanterre La Défense. École doctorale Sciences du sport, de la motricité et du mouvement humain

Université Paris-Sud 11. École doctorale Sciences du sport, de la motricité et du mouvement humain

Université Paris-Sud. École doctorale Sciences du sport, de la motricité et du mouvement humain

Université Paris V. École doctorale Sciences du sport, de la motricité et du mouvement humain

Université Paris X. École doctorale Sciences du sport, de la motricité et du mouvement humain

Université Paris XI. École doctorale Sciences du sport, de la motricité et du mouvement humain

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