WorldCat Identities

Norström, Fredrik

Overview
Works: 35 works in 43 publications in 1 language and 58 library holdings
Roles: Author, Contributor, Other
Publication Timeline
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Most widely held works by Fredrik Norström
How does unemployment affect self-assessed health? A systematic review focusing on subgroup effects by Fredrik Norström( )

2 editions published in 2014 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

BACKGROUND: Almost all studies on the effect on health from unemployment have concluded that unemployment is bad for your health. However, only a few review articles have dealt with this relation in recent years, and none of them have focused on the analysis of subgroups such as age, gender, and marital status. The objective of our article is to review how unemployment relates to self-assessed health with a focus on its effect on subgroups. METHODS: A search was performed in Web of Science to find articles that measured the effect on health from unemployment. The selection of articles was limited to those written in English, consisting of original data, and published in 2003 or later. Our definition of health was restricted to self-assessed health. Mortality- and morbidity-related measurements were therefore not included in our analysis. For the 41 articles included, information about health measurements, employment status definitions, other factors included in the statistical analysis, study design (including study population), and statistical method were collected with the aim of analysing the results on both the population and factor level. RESULTS: Most of the studies in our review showed a negative effect on health from unemployment on a population basis. Results at the factor levels were most common for gender (25 articles), age (11 articles), geographic location (8 articles), and education level (5 articles). The analysis showed that there was a health effect for gender, age, education level, household income, and geographic location. However, this effect differed between studies and no clear pattern on who benefits or suffers more among these groups could be determined. The result instead seemed to depend on the study context. The only clear patterns of association found were for socioeconomic status (manual workers suffer more), reason for unemployment (being unemployed due to health reasons is worse), and social network (a strong network is beneficial). CONCLUSIONS: Unemployment affects groups of individuals differently. We believe that a greater effort should be spent on specific groups of individuals, such as men or women, instead of the population as a whole when analysing the effect of unemployment on health
Does unemployment contribute to poorer health-related quality of life among Swedish adults? by Fredrik Norström( )

2 editions published in 2019 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that unemployment has negative impacts on various aspects of health. However, little is known about the effect of unemployment on health-related quality of life. Our aim was to examine how unemployment impacts upon health-related quality of life among Swedish adults, and to investigate these effects on population subgroups defined by education level, marital status, previous health, and gender. METHODS: As part of a cross-sectional study, a questionnaire was sent to 2500 randomly selected individuals aged 20 to 64 years living in Sweden in 2016. The questionnaire included the EuroQol 5 dimensions (EQ-5D) instrument and was answered by 967 individuals (39%). Quality-adjusted life year (QALY) scores were derived from the EQ-5D responses. Of the respondents, 113 were unemployed and 724 were employed. We used inverse probability-weighted propensity scores in our analyses to estimate a risk difference. Gender, age, education level, marital status, and previous health were used as covariates in our analyses. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant lower QALY score by 0.096 points for the unemployed compared to the employed. There were also statistically significant more problems due to unemployment for usual activities (6.6% more), anxiety/depression (23.6% more), and EQ-5D's Visual Analogue Scale (7.5 point lower score). Grouped analyses indicated a larger negative health effect from becoming unemployed for men, those who are married, and young individuals. CONCLUSIONS: In our study, we show that the health deterioration from unemployment is likely to be large, as our estimated effect implies an almost 10% worse health (in absolute terms) from being unemployed compared to being employed. This further highlights that unemployment is a public health problem that needs more focus. Our study also raises further demands for determining for whom unemployment has the most negative effects and thus suggesting groups of individuals who are in greatest need for labor market measures
Delay to celiac disease diagnosis and its implications for health-related quality of life by Fredrik Norström( )

2 editions published in 2011 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

BACKGROUND: To determine how the delay in diagnosing celiac disease (CD) has developed during recent decades and how this affects the burden of disease in terms of health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and also to consider differences with respect to sex and age. METHODS: In collaboration with the Swedish Society for Coeliacs, a questionnaire was sent to 1,560 randomly selected members, divided in equal-sized age- and sex strata, and 1,031 (66%) responded. HRQoL was measured with the EQ-5D descriptive system and was then translated to quality-adjusted life year (QALY) scores. A general population survey was used as comparison. RESULTS: The mean delay to diagnosis from the first symptoms was 9.7 years, and from the first doctor visit it was 5.8 years. The delay has been reduced over time for some age groups, but is still quite long. The mean QALY score during the year prior to initiated treatment was 0.66; it improved after diagnosis and treatment to 0.86, and was then better than that of a general population (0.79). CONCLUSIONS: The delay from first symptoms to CD diagnosis is unacceptably long for many persons. Untreated CD results in poor HRQoL, which improves to the level of the general population if diagnosed and treated. By shortening the diagnostic delay it is possible to reduce this unnecessary burden of disease. Increased awareness of CD as a common health problem is needed, and active case finding should be intensified. Mass screening for CD might be an option in the future
A gluten-free diet effectively reduces symptoms and health care consumption in a Swedish celiac disease population by Fredrik Norström( )

2 editions published in 2012 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

BACKGROUND: A gluten-free diet is the only available treatment for celiac disease. Our aim was to investigate the effect of a gluten-free diet on celiac disease related symptoms, health care consumption, and the risk of developing associated immune-mediated diseases. METHODS: A questionnaire was sent to 1,560 randomly selected members of the Swedish Society for Coeliacs, divided into equal-sized age- and sex strata; 1,031 (66%) responded. Self-reported symptoms, health care consumption (measured by health care visits and hospitalization days), and missed working days were reported both for the year prior to diagnosis (normal diet) and the year prior to receiving the questionnaire while undergoing treatment with a gluten-free diet. Associated immune-mediated diseases (diabetes mellitus type 1, rheumatic disease, thyroid disease, vitiligo, alopecia areata and inflammatory bowel disease) were self-reported including the year of diagnosis. RESULTS: All investigated symptoms except joint pain improved after diagnosis and initiated gluten-free diet. Both health care consumption and missed working days decreased. Associated immune-mediated diseases were diagnosed equally often before and after celiac disease diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Initiated treatment with a gluten-free diet improves the situation for celiac disease patients in terms of reduced symptoms and health care consumption. An earlier celiac disease diagnosis is therefore of great importance
The cost-effectiveness of interventions targeting lifestyle change for the prevention of diabetes in a Swedish primary care and community based prevention program by Anne Neumann( )

2 editions published between 2016 and 2017 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Background: Policymakers need to know the cost-effec-tiveness of interventions to prevent type 2 diabetes (T2D). The objective of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of a T2D prevention initiative targeting weight reduction, increased physical activity and healthier diet in persons in pre-diabetic states by comparing a hypothetical intervention versus no intervention in a Swedish setting. Methods: A Markov model was used to study the cost-effectiveness of a T2D prevention program based on lifestyle change versus a control group where no prevention was applied. Analyses were done deterministically and probabilistically based on Monte Carlo simulation for six different scenarios defined by sex and age groups (30, 50, 70 years). Cost and quality adjusted life year (QALY) differences between no intervention and intervention and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were estimated and visualized in cost-effectiveness planes (CE planes) and cost-effectiveness acceptability curves (CEA curves). Results: All ICERs were cost-effective and ranged from 3833 € /QALY gained (women, 30 years) to 9215 € /QALY gained (men, 70 years). The CEA curves showed that the probability of the intervention being cost-effective at the threshold value of 50,000 € per QALY gained was very high for all scenarios ranging from 85.0 to 91.1%. Discussion/conclusion: The prevention or the delay of the onset of T2D is feasible and cost-effective. A small investment in healthy lifestyle with change in physical activity and diet together with weight loss are very likely to be cost-effective
Disability and ageing in China and India - decomposing the effects of gender and residence. Results from the WHO study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) by Jennifer Stewart Williams( )

2 editions published in 2017 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

BACKGROUND: China and India are the world's two most populous countries. Although their populations are growing in number and life expectancies are extending they have different trajectories of economic growth, epidemiological transition and social change. Cross-country comparisons can allow national and global insights and provide evidence for policy and decision-making. The aim of this study is to measure and compare disability in men and women, and in urban and rural dwellers in China and India, and assess the extent to which social and other factors contribute to the inequalities. METHODS: National samples of adults aged 50 to 79 years in China (n = 11,694) and India (n = 6187) from the World Health Organization (WHO) longitudinal Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) Wave 1 were analysed. Stratified multiple linear regressions were undertaken to assess disability differences by sex and residence, controlling for other biological and socioeconomic determinants of disability. Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition partitioned the two-group inequalities into explained and unexplained components. RESULTS: In both countries women and rural residents reported more disability. In India, the gender inequality is attributed to the distribution of the determinants (employment, education and chronic conditions) but in China about half the inequality is attributed to the same. In India, more than half of the urban rural inequality is attributed to the distribution of the determinants (education, household wealth) compared with under 20% in China. CONCLUSIONS: Education and employment were important drivers of these measured inequalities. Overall inequalities in disability among older adults in China and India were shaped by gender and residence, suggesting the need for policies that target women and rural residents. There is a need for further research, using both qualitative and quantitative methods, to question and challenge entrenched practices and institutions and grasp the implications of global economic and social changes that are impacting on population health and ageing in China and India
Risk equations for the development of worsened glucose status and type 2 diabetes mellitus in a Swedish intervention program by Anne Neumann( )

2 editions published in 2013 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Background: Several studies investigated transitions and risk factors from impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). However, there is a lack of information on the probabilities to transit from normal glucose tolerance (NGT) to different pre-diabetic states and from these states to T2D. The objective of our study is to estimate these risk equations and to quantify the influence of single or combined risk factors on these transition probabilities. Methods: Individuals who participated in the VIP program twice, having the first examination at ages 30, 40 or 50 years of age between 1990 and 1999 and the second examination 10 years later were included in the analysis. Participants were grouped into five groups: NGT, impaired fasting glucose (IFG), IGT, IFG & IGT or T2D. Fourteen potential risk factors for the development of a worse glucose state (pre-diabetes or T2D) were investigated: sex, age, education, perceived health, triglyceride, blood pressure, BMI, smoking, physical activity, snus, alcohol, nutrition and family history. Analysis was conducted in two steps. Firstly, factor analysis was used to find candidate variables; and secondly, logistic regression was employed to quantify the influence of the candidate variables. Bootstrap estimations validated the models. Results: In total, 29 937 individuals were included in the analysis. Alcohol and perceived health were excluded due to the results of the factor analysis and the logistic regression respectively. Six risk equations indicating different impacts of different risk factors on the transition to a worse glucose state were estimated and validated. The impact of each risk factor depended on the starting or ending pre-diabetes state. High levels of triglyceride, hypertension and high BMI were the strongest risk factors to transit to a worsened glucose state. Conclusions: The equations could be used to identify individuals with increased risk to develop any of the three pre-diabetic states or T2D and to adapt prevention strategies
The burden of high workload on the health-related quality of life among home care workers in Northern Sweden by Anders Sjöberg( )

1 edition published in 2020 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Body mass index is not a reliable tool in predicting celiac disease in children by Maria Van der Pals( )

1 edition published in 2014 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Modelling long-term cost-effectiveness of health promotion for community-dwelling older people by Magnus Zingmark( )

1 edition published in 2019 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Preteen children's health related quality of life in Sweden: changes over time and disparities between different sociodemographic groups by Mazen Baroudi( )

1 edition published in 2019 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

On what basis are medical cost-effectiveness thresholds set? Clashing opinions and an absence of data a systematic review by David Cameron( )

2 editions published in 2018 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

BACKGROUND: The amount a government should be willing to invest in adopting new medical treatments has long been under debate. With many countries using formal cost-effectiveness (C/E) thresholds when examining potential new treatments and ever-growing medical costs, accurately setting the level of a C/E threshold can be essential for an efficient healthcare system. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this systematic review is to describe the prominent approaches to setting a C/E threshold, compile available national-level C/E threshold data and willingness-to-pay (WTP) data, and to discern whether associations exist between these values, gross domestic product (GDP) and health-adjusted life expectancy (HALE). This review further examines current obstacles faced with the presently available data. METHODS: A systematic review was performed to collect articles which have studied national C/E thresholds and willingness-to-pay (WTP) per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) in the general population. Associations between GDP, HALE, WTP, and C/E thresholds were analyzed with correlations. RESULTS: Seventeen countries were identified from nine unique sources to have formal C/E thresholds within our inclusion criteria. Thirteen countries from nine sources were identified to have WTP per QALY data within our inclusion criteria. Two possible associations were identified: C/E thresholds with HALE (quadratic correlation of 0.63), and C/E thresholds with GDP per capita (polynomial correlation of 0.84). However, these results are based on few observations and therefore firm conclusions cannot be made. CONCLUSIONS: Most national C/E thresholds identified in our review fall within the WHO's recommended range of one-to-three times GDP per capita. However, the quality and quantity of data available regarding national average WTP per QALY, opportunity costs, and C/E thresholds is poor in comparison to the importance of adequate investment in healthcare. There exists an obvious risk that countries might either over- or underinvest in healthcare if they base their decision-making process on erroneous presumptions or non-evidence-based methodologies. The commonly referred to value of 100,000$ USD per QALY may potentially have some basis
Cost effectiveness of an intervention focused on reducing bathing disability by Magnus Zingmark( )

1 edition published in 2016 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Is unemployment in young adulthood related to self-rated health later in life? Results from the Northern Swedish cohort by Fredrik Norström( )

1 edition published in 2017 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Poor quality in the reporting and use of statistical methods in public health - the case of unemployment and health by Fredrik Norström( )

1 edition published in 2015 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Five-year follow-up of new cases after a coeliac disease mass screening by Olof Sandström( )

1 edition published in 2021 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

OBJECTIVE: We previously performed a population-based mass screening of coeliac disease in children aged 12 years in two birth cohorts resulting in 296 seropositive children, of whom 242 were diagnosed with coeliac disease after duodenal biopsies. In this follow-up study, we wanted to identify new cases in the screening population that tested negative-either converting from potential coeliac disease (seropositive but normal duodenal mucosa) or converting from seronegative at screening to diagnosed coeliac disease. METHODS: All seropositive children were invited to a follow-up appointment 5 years after the screening with renewed serological testing and recommended endoscopic investigation if seropositive. Seronegative children in the screening study (n=12 353) were linked to the National Swedish Childhood Coeliac Disease Register to find cases diagnosed in healthcare during the same period. RESULTS: In total, 230 (77%) came to the follow-up appointment, including 34 of 39 with potential coeliac disease. Of these, 11 (32%) had converted to coeliac disease. One new case was found in the National Swedish Childhood Coeliac Disease Register who received the diagnosis through routine screening in children with type 1 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: There is a high risk of conversion to coeliac disease among those with potential disease. However, a negative screening test was associated with a very low risk for a clinical diagnosis within a follow-up period of 5 years
Forest inventory estimation using remotely sensed data as a stratification tool : a simulation study by Fredrik Norström( Book )

1 edition published in 2002 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The burden of high workload on the health-related quality of life among home care workers in Northern Sweden by Anders Sjöberg( )

1 edition published in 2020 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have shown that high workload affects health negatively. However, studies are lacking among home care workers. The aim of this study is to examine the burden of perceived workload on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among home care workers and to determine whether psychosocial factors modify such a relationship. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in which 1162 (58% response rate) home care workers participated. The psychosocial factors were measured by QPSnordic. HRQoL was measured by EuroQol 5 dimensions, from which responses were translated into quality-adjusted life year scores (QALY). Propensity scores were used with absolute risk differences (RD). Stratified analysis was used to test the buffer hypothesis of the demand-control-support model. RESULTS: Personnel with a high workload had a statistically significant 0.035 lower QALY than personnel with a normal workload. This difference was also statistically significant for the Visual Analogue Scale (RD 5.0) and the mobility (RD 0.033) and anxiety/depression scales (RD 0.20) dimensions of EQ-5D. For QALY, the effect of a high workload compared to a normal workload was higher, with low (RD 0.045, significant) compared with high (RD 0.015, non-significant) social support; while it was similar, and non-significant results, for low and high control. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that lowered work burden would be beneficial for home care personnel. Furthermore, our results suggest that interventions aimed at increasing social support could reduce work-related illness
Preteen children's health related quality of life in Sweden: changes over time and disparities between different sociodemographic groups by Mazen Baroudi( )

1 edition published in 2019 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Background: Assessing disparities in health-related quality of Life (HRQoL) is important as a part of health-related disparities in the society. The aim of this study was to explore HRQoL among 12-year-olds in Sweden in terms of differences between years 2005 and 2009 and disparities related to sociodemographic background. Methods: During the school years 2005 and 2009, a total of 18,325 sixth grade students in Sweden were invited to a celiac disease screening study; 13,279 agreed to participate. Jointly with the celiac screening, the children answered a questionnaire that included EuroQol 5 Dimensions-youth (EQ-5D-Y) and their parents responded to separate questionnaires about their own and their child's country of birth, family structure, their employment status, occupation, and education. In total 11,009 child-parent questionnaires were collected. Logistic regression was used to study differences in HRQoL between 2005 and 2009, and between various sociodemographic subgroups. Results: Compared with 2005, children in 2009 reported more pain (OR: 1.20, 95% CI: 1.1-1.3) and more mood problems (OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.2-1.5). In general, girls reported more pain and mood problems and had more disparities than boys. There were no significant differences based on parents' occupation, however, children of parents with low or medium education levels reported less "mood problems" than those of parents with high education levels (OR: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.46-0.92) and (OR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.73-0.96), respectively. A slight variation was seen in HRQoL between children with different migration background. Girls living in small municipalities reported more pain (OR: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.14-2.01), and problems performing usual activities (OR: 3.77, 95% CI: 2.08-6.84), compared to girls living in large municipalities. In addition, children living with two parents had less mood problems than children living in other family constellations. Conclusion: More children reported pain and mood problems in 2009 compared with 2005. To study future trends, health outcomes among children in Sweden should continue to be reported periodically. More efforts should be invested to increase the awareness of health-related disparities as highlighted in this study especially for girls living in small municipalities and children of parents with high education level
 
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