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École doctorale Sciences humaines et sociales (Rennes)

Overview
Works: 390 works in 652 publications in 3 languages and 708 library holdings
Genres: Academic theses 
Roles: Other, Degree grantor, 996
Publication Timeline
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Most widely held works by École doctorale Sciences humaines et sociales (Rennes)
Croissance urbaine et risque inondation en Bretagne by Janique Valy( Book )

3 editions published between 2010 and 2011 in French and held by 6 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The end of the XX° century is characterised by an increase of the long standing phenomena consisting of settling down and building sites on plains liable to inundation. Flooded french plains do not except this evolution, in spite of the establishment of administrative regulations. For the last twenty years, Brittany has experienced several hydroclimatic events which have impacted numerous urban areas, especially Rennes outlying urban districts as well as the Vilaine catchment and coastal fringe urban centres. These successive hydroclimatic events have lead to the emergence of scientific discussions about the risk of flooding over a regional scale. They have contributed to put forward the vulnerability of some urban areas, hence questioning regional planning logics, especially in the areas close to highly developping urban centres. These phd researches focus on the study, on different scale, of these urban extensions. They are characterised by their initial degree of vulnerability and assessed in regards to both french administration regulations and climatic constraints. Areas under study include Quimper and some districts belonging to Rennes urban centre. The method developped is based on two main steps. First, the flooded areas limits are defined and secondly, urban districts developments are assessed. Urban districts developments analyses rely upon an historical approach taking into account the settling and evolution of former city centres as well as on a recent analysis of urban extension prevailing during the XX° and XXI° centuries. This approach permits to determine the spatial trajectories of districts land uses especially in flooded plains. The analysis permits to put forward the main logics which control the urban development as well as ascertain the increase of flooding risk. It aims at both accurately comprend stakes resulting from urban development and at increase the understanding of the stakeholders attitudes (especially local elected) when facing a flood event. Flood events taken into consideration can be former as well as current ones. Main results put forward that risk adaptation strategies often rely on an a minima risk consideration: It is poorly considered when management projects are elaborated or applied
Mobilités et expériences territoriales des étudiants internationaux en Bretagne : interroger le rapport mobilités spatiales - inégalités sociales à partir des migrations étudiantes by Eugénie Terrier( Book )

3 editions published between 2009 and 2010 in French and held by 5 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In a world where is increasingly made the finding of a general increase of spatial mobility of individuals and where positive social representations of mobility tend to predominate, it is necessary to continue research that began deconstruct these discourses, highlighting the inequalities of access to spatial mobility and showing how it could participate in the reinforcement of the social hierarchy (Orfeuil, 2004; Veschambre, 2004; Urry, 2005; Le Breton, 2006). International mobility for studies, growing phenomenon with many challenges, is a topical object of analysis that enable to improve knowledge about the relation between social inequalities and spatial mobilities. From the results of a survey conducted in Brittany, it appears that access to the migration for studies is unequal because of the need to mobilize social resources and because of the discriminatory admission policies conducted by the North countries to students from the South. Given the fact that a study trip abroad helps to facilitate the upward mobility of individuals (social recognition of international skills, acquisition of prestigious diploma for students from South and emerging countries), these inequalities of access confirm the idea that international mobility for studies is a factor of reproduction of elites. However, the importance of student migration from the South to the North, despite all the economic and legal barriers, attests that the ability to be mobile is not the sole driver of spatial mobility of individuals. The analysis of the dwelling of international students during their stay has shown that inequalities in living conditions were inadequate to understand the very contrasting spatial mobilities between Northern students and students from the South. Highlighting the impact of cultural relations to mobility and meanings of the migration for studies showed that the spatial mobility of individuals was also strongly conditioned by social representations
Lettres pures et lettres impures ? les professeurs de français dans le tumulte des réformes : histoire d'un corps illégitime (1946-1981) by Clémence Cardon-Quint( Book )

4 editions published between 2010 and 2011 in French and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In 1946, the creation of a BA in modern French literature put an end to the monopoly enjoyed by the professors of Classics over the teaching of French literature and grammar in secondary education. As part of the legacy of a higher primary education degree - which did not comprise any Latin course - teachers of modern French literature were for a long time considered as second class professors. The debates which raged around the creation of the agrégation (a competitive examination to become a secondary education teacher) in modern French literature brought to light certain disputes concerning the competences of the French literature professor as a specialist in his field. Thus the double challenge posed by the democratization of secondary education and its alignment with the demands of higher education and research was met by a divided and weakened group. An agenda for the renovation of the teaching of French - which combined scientific, professional and sociopolitical considerations - created another rift among French teachers, who were also divided over the Latin issue. Far from smoothing out these wrangles, the two specialists associations - the Franco-Ancienne and the French Association of Professors (later Teachers) of French (Association française des enseignants de français) - heightened the tensions among French teachers. In view of the disparity of educational practices, the education authority decided to give precedence to the teaching of literature, focused on the transmission of a common literary heritage
Pouvoir et vouloir se former : Les Sportifs de Haut Niveau face au processus de reconversion : entre stratégies individuelles et contraintes institutionnelles, personnelles et systémiques by Sophie Javerlhiac( Book )

3 editions published between 2010 and 2011 in French and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

One of the most crucial problems which exist for the high level Sportsmen (SHN) is the reconversion. This one constitutes one particularly difficult transitional period which must be prepared. The double project (to be formed during the sporting career) constitutes one of the processes which should facilitate this transition. If there exists, a priori, a political will, reaffirmed many times by various Ministers and Secretaries of State, so that the SHN can engage in the double project, reality seems very different. Some anticipate their reconversion as of their arrival in the National centers of training or professional clubs. Build a professional project. Formations follow. Contrary to others in the obligation to find solutions urgently at the conclusion of their sporting careers or following wounds. The question is thus posed: "How to interpret the fact that a large number of athletes does not engage in the double project in spite of the devices implemented and the political discourses who encourage there? ". To answer it 60 SHN pertaining to 5 different sports and 12 institutional were questioned in the form of history of life or account of professional practice. The analysis reveals a complex system in which, in the absence of institutional piloting, are confronted antagonistic strategies and relations of power and of domination. The federal policies are distinguished between "ethics from the responsibility" (the athlete is in the center of the project) and "ethics of the conviction" (only the score counts). If the SHN undergo many constraints, those constitute as many obstacles as excuses not to be formed. It is in the singular history of those which decided to be formed, sometimes against the federal policy, which are read all at the same time the will and the strategies implemented. The institutional actors try to make live the double project. This last "imperfectly defined", not framed legally, their framework of action is considerably reduced
Mobilité quotidienne et intégration urbaine à Nouakchott : des difficultés d'accès aux transports urbains à l'expérimentation des stratégies d'adaptation by Yakhoub Diagana( Book )

3 editions published between 2010 and 2011 in French and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Nouakchott est une ville qui a connu ces dernières décennies une importante croissance démographique et un développement spatial excessif. La rapidité avec laquelle ces mutations se sont produites a pris de court la puissance publique et mis à mal les efforts de la collectivité en termes de planification urbaine en général, de création d'infrastructures et d'équipements publics, mais aussi d'acheminement des services de base. Dans ce contexte d'insuffisances généralisées, les distances de déplacements s'allongent et le système de transport urbain a bien des difficultés pour proposer une desserte équitable de l'espace sous un angle d'intégration urbaine des quartiers et pour suivre l'évolution du périmètre urbain. Par conséquent, les besoins de mobilité sont de plus en plus importants et les demandes de transport de moins en moins bien satisfaites. De ce fait, la mobilité quotidienne s'avère problématique à Nouakchott, et les populations les plus exposées au dysfonctionnement du système de transport sont celles qui résident dans les zones urbaines pauvres ou les plus excentrées par rapport au centre-ville. Pour étudier les conséquences de l'insuffisance de l'offre de transport et du manque de solvabilité sur les conditions de mobilité des populations, une enquête-ménage a été menée auprès des familles au sein de deux communes de Nouakchott (El Mina et Riyad). Les résultats de cette enquête montrent que ces insuffisances, loin de pousser les populations au repli sur des pratiques spatiales de proximité, les amènent plutôt à expérimenter des stratégies d'adaptation qui sont en faveur de la mobilité. En effet, lorsque les ressources du ménage ne permettent pas d'assurer un accès permanent aux transports pour l'ensemble des membres du foyer, celui-ci se fait de manière prioritaire. Dans ce mécanisme, l'importance du motif et de la distance de déplacements sont les principaux critères retenus dans les ménages pour juger lequel des membres de la famille a besoin plus qu'un autre de bénéficier des moyens d'accès aux transports. En complément à cette stratégie d'accès sélectif aux transports, la pratique de la marche à pied constitue une autre solution pour contourner le problème de solvabilité et le manque de l'offre de transport. En somme, face à la relégation spatiale et à la marginalisation périphérique, il apparaît que les populations mettent tout en oeuvre pour éviter l'assignation au territoire et optent pour une intégration urbaine en bonne et due forme
Niveau de contrôle par l'apprenant de son épisode d'apprentissage hypermédia Influences sur son activité métacognitive et ses performances by Dorothée Fillet( Book )

4 editions published between 2010 and 2011 in French and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Un environnement d'apprentissage hypermédia se caractérise par un haut niveau de contrôle de l'apprenant sur son épisode d'apprentissage: Or, ce haut niveau de contrôle ne bénéficie pas à tous les apprenants selon certaines différences interindividuelles Les objectifs de cette étude sont donc de déterminer le(s) facteur(s) influençant l'utilisation des fonctions de contrôle dans un environnement d'apprentissage hypermédia, et de comprendre comment il(s) influence(nt) à la fois l'utilisation de l'environnement d'apprentissage et les performances d'apprentissage. Les premières expériences permettent de souligner l'importance du niveau de connaissances préalables des apprenants dans le domaine. En effet, en situation d'apprentissage hypermédia, les apprenants n'ayant pas ou peu de connaissances préalables dans le domaine adoptent des stratégies de consultation non appropriées (Etude 1). Or, lorsque le contrôle du séquençage est limité, il est observé que ces mêmes apprenants mettent en place des comportements de navigation plus pertinents, obtiennent de meilleures performances d'apprentissage (Etude 2) et éprouvent moins de difficultés à évaluer leur niveau de connaissances réel en fin de consultation (Etude 3). L'utilisation d'une méthode d'enregistrement des mouvements oculaires couplée à un protocole verbal différé met en évidence une activité métacognitive plus importante de ces apprenants (Etude 4). Ainsi, les apprenants en situation de contrôle libre ou limité de l'épisode d'apprentissage se différencient-ils concernant la charge cognitive liée à l'utilisation de l'environnement hypermédia en lui-même et la pertinence des traitements cognitifs réalisés sur le contenu informationnel (Etude 5). La cohérence de cet ensemble d'études étant établie (Etude 6), les résultats sont discutés en termes de retombées pour la conception d'environnements hypermédias pour l'apprentissage
L'impact de l'aéroport Notre-Dame-Des-Landes sur le devenir des relations entre Nantes et Rennes : étude prospective à l'aide de la théorie des jeux by Michel Carrard( Book )

3 editions published between 2009 and 2010 in French and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The future NDDL airport status wasn't settled during the public debate. So that two scenarii are possible and theirs consequences for the concerned territorial collectivities are conflicting. In the first one, the platform becomes the largest Western airport. This scenario means carrying on with what already exists and where the airport competition is a consequence of the territorial competition. In the second one, NDDL becomes the Airport of the West. This scenario marks a break because it supposes the coordination of the airport strategies. In the end, the issue of the future airport status will be the result of the interaction process between the collectivities. The game theory which describes the way in which rational individuals behave in situations of interdependence will allow us to examine the relations between Nantes and Rennes. However, when the game theory is applied in a real situation, its status is ambiguous. If some people favour its positivist character others underline its normative character. The chosen objective in this study is in the domain of reflexive modelling. Its aim is to apply simple patterns in order to help the decision maker make clear his strategic choices. The heuristic dimension is essential. Moreover, there is a proximity between certain concepts of the game theory and those of the prospective one. So will it be possible to attach a forecaster reading to the results of this study
Anthropologie des relations de l'homme à la nature : la nature vécue entre peur destructrice et communion intime by Stéphanie Chanvallon( Book )

3 editions published between 2009 and 2010 in French and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

How to understand Man's relationship with Nature ? This study, achieved with sensitive surveys, is a qualitative and reflexive anthropology. It uses anthrozoology, palaeoanthropology and ethology, symbolism and imagination. If Man is afraid of Nature, how does he manifest it? Nature without mystique, dominated, controled, “boxed”, polluted, destroyed, re-created in artificial situations, Nature makes us examine Man, his complex fears, paradoxes. And Man's exploration of Nature in daily life or in extreme circumstances, what is he looking for? Nature is an essential need, for well-being, a means of exploring one's own senses, a source of renewal, a method of escaping society's pressures. Man's inner problems are reflected in Nature. It affords him a resting view of himself. It mirrors the animal side of Man. These relationships are ambivalent: between destructive fear and sympathetic interaction, they have as many aspects, facets and reactions as each individual has. Relationships with wildlife, how are they experienced and why? They offer the possibility of (re)discovering oneself whilst discovering the Other, they offer a richness of understanding faced with the natural unknown which wants to be in contact. Nature offers multifaceted enrichment: for the body, senses, emotions, feelings, self-knowledge, mind and spirituality. Thus, Man may experience an inner transformation
Construire un système d'innovation régionalisée : propositions à partir d'exemples bretons by Yves Auneau( Book )

2 editions published in 2009 in French and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The territory of innovation is built from the functional and institutional organizations, partially articulated to the Regional System of Innovation. Our initiative bases on the concept of médiances, i.e social relationships which an individual develops with his environment, applied to the activities of innovation. The innovative company organizes its internal social relationships, its relations for the production and its specific activities of innovation from strategic choices which let a freedom to the inspirations of the entrepreneur. The Regional Council and the EPCI act by proposing a public tools of accompaniment and orientation of the innovation. A conception "opened" for the innovative resource ( a high value-added information) in a "opened" IRSand according to a numerous and varied governances constitute a development process of the médiances of innovation.Their density and variety increase the opportunity of membership the entrepreneurs in the construction of a producing territory of innovation with externalités of innovation. This methodology privileges an investment on the bottom to open the public politics built on models of territories too often marked by standards which eventually(later) trivialize the innovative territory. The value recognized in the innovation by a local society, and the will of people to create the consensus define the contents of the médiances of innovation. That is why the priority in developping the social innovations has to precede the construction of the most successful territories for innovation and their integration at an intermediate scale
Accompagnement des évolutions identitaires au cours des transitions professionnelles : mesure, évaluation et modélisation by Philippe Jacquin( Book )

3 editions published between 2011 and 2012 in French and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

With the rise of globalization, changes in the working environment are greater than ever and more difficult to foresee. The majority of today's working population is compelled to change jobs often, necessitating retraining, perhaps more than once, in the course of professional life. As a result, the support provided by career advisors during these various transitions should evolve to take into account all areas related to the professional sphere (familial, personal and social) as well as the individual's situation and development. However, the methods to achieve this remain to be defined. The main aim of this dissertation is to suggest methodological solutions to meet the goals of lifelong guidance. To this end, it proposes constructionist career counseling methods based on the Multistage Investigator of Social Identity (Zavalloni & Louis-Guérin, 1984), which is routinely used in social psychology studies. This method has been adapted for the context of professionals in career transition and computerized as the Multistage Investigator of Social Identity for counseling (MISIc). Its potential was then tested on recipients of an in-depth skills assessment (bilan de compétences approfondi or BCA) as part of a career review. The MISIc allowed a better grasp of the information required for a comprehensive understanding of the issues affecting professionals in retraining. An experimental protocol was then used to evaluate the performance of the MISIc, revealing that its use had an effect on the ability to develop a career plan during a career review. Other objectives were then added to the development of the MISIc, such as the modeling of professional transitions and the evaluation of a career advisor's methods. During career transitions, events arise in the professional's environment that can impact their self-concept and their self-esteem in both linear and nonlinear ways. The use of idiographic protocols, combined with time series and verbatim analysis, quantitatively and qualitatively identify factors that impact the development of a career plan. In conclusion, new methods should continue to be developed in order to meet the global and contemporary challenges relating to the adaptation of individuals to their personal and professional situation, with, as a corollary, a dedicated academic field and a well-defined set of professional methods
Enjeux criminologiques et psychopathologiques des positions maternelles autour des morts d'enfants : la situation à l'Ile Maurice by Corinne Faustin Thérèse( Book )

4 editions published in 2011 in French and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The killing of a child cannot be understood outside the bonds of kinship or moral codes in force in a given society. It will not, also, go without understanding the status and importance given to a child or the representation of the individual within a given community. To address the issue of infanticide (as an act morally and criminally wrong), it seemed essential to look at the entanglement of individual and social issues surrounding the act. Mauritius has been an example for our study in comparison with the phenomenon of infanticide which is on the increase. Our observations led us to conclude that infanticide seems to be - on an intrapsychic note - the effect of displacement for the mother, underpinned by the imperative "it's me or him"; in addition, the movement takes shape at a broader level as it could also concern the societal context. The killing of a child would therefore be something to seize control of as both an intimate and social regulation, underpinned by a shift of conflict issues. Mother's positions around deaths of children would thus be understood as being in conformity with the implicit expectations of the local society and its "microspheres". The effectiveness of sanctions is discussed and in particular issues concerning denial of women imprisoned following the murder of their child. These themes lead us to address the difference between criminal liability and accountability issues and the need for satisfying accompaniment therapeutic purposes and accountability
Les mères seules et leurs espaces de vie : Mobilités résidentielles et pratiques quotidiennes de l'espace des femmes seules avec enfant(s) en Bretagne by Frédéric Leray( Book )

3 editions published between 2010 and 2011 in French and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The growing instability of couples, married or not, has largely contributed to the increase of single parenthood. Nowadays, 20% of French families with children are single-parent families. Among these families, 85% are women-headed (Insee, 2006). While several studies have been devoted to understand the poverty of women with children, researches on their living spaces and their spatial practices are uncommon. This is why the model of « social space of vulnerability » (Séchet and al., 2002) offers an interesting framework to support the methodology of the doctoral research. The methodology combines a quantitative method (questionnaire) and a qualitative one (interviews), allowing us to measure the constraints of residential and daily mobilities on single mothers lives. Firstly, it appears that single parenthood involves residential mobility and residential regression because of a limited choice of housing (localisation, status). Secondly, the analysis has shown that residential mobility comes often with a diminution of social networks, time, capacity for mobility and therefore, by a retraction of the living spaces. Finally, the research has revealed various forms of vulnerability (economic, social, spatial) interacting with each other and leading to cumulative risks: poverty, spatial marginalization and social exclusion
L'obésité de l'adolescent Libanais : étude épidémiologique et effets d'un exercice aigu et chronique sur le stress oxydant d'adolescentes en surpoids by Hala Youssef( Book )

3 editions published between 2008 and 2011 in French and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Our first epidemiological study interested to the obesity causes and related factors in Lebanese youth. 17.1 % of Lebanese adolescents were overweight and 4.5% were obese. Moreover, boys were more overweight and obese compared with girls (23% and 8.1% vs 12.7% and 1.8%). Obesity, especially in boys, was associated to sedentary behaviors, alimentary disorders and to a high socioeconomic status. The fat mass excess and the metabolic and hormonal obesity-related disorders, especially in adolescent girls, aggravate oxidative stress (OS). Therefore, in our second study, we examinated the effect of basal insulin-resistance (IR) and inflammation on OS, at rest and in response to exhaustive exercise in overweight adolescent girls. These girls exhibited a higher OS at rest (decrease GSH/GSSG ratio, [alpha]-tocopherol and GPx) and after exercise (increase F2-Isop, ROOH, MPO) compared with non-obese girls. This OS was correlated to body composition and to the basal IR and inflammation. However, the determinant parameter of exercise-induced OS in overweight group was the oxygen overconsumption. Aerobic training is well known to increase body resistance against exercise-induced OS in healthy subjects. Our final purpose was to examine the effect of 3-months multivariate aerobic training on post-exercise OS in overweight adolescent girls. In this population, training by inducing body composition improvement attenuated the post-exercise lipid peroxidation and inflammation (F2-IsoP, ROOH, LDLox, MPO). In conclusion, Aerobic training improves the body tolerance to exercise-induced OS in overweight adolescent girls
L'appropriation de l'écrit en contexte scolaire multilingue la situation de Madagascar : des résultats des élèves en malgache et en français aux pratiques d'enseignement-apprentissage by Muriel Nicot-Guillorel( Book )

2 editions published in 2009 in French and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This thesis, structured in three volumes, attempts to understand the factors that influence the appropriation of literacy in Malagasy elementary schools. The first volume presents the sociolinguistic context of Madagascar and describes the characteristics of the two languages in use in elementary schools in 2004, Malagasy and French, in order to identify points of convergence or contrast. The second volume studies pupils' reading and writing results in Malagasy and in French, as measured by the PASEC VII evaluation in the ligth of western scientific data on reading (social and cultural trends, cognitive psychology, inter- and trans-linguistics data, etc). This second volume is aimed to validate five research hypotheses concerning the L1 (dialectal, official)/L2 relation, as well as the influence teachers' French language levels, on pupils' results. After this quantitative and descriptive approach, the third volume adopts an ethnographical approach centred on an examination of teacher-pupils interactions during reading sessions filmed in two schools located on the High Plateaus. The position adopted is essentially historical-cultural, and proceeds primarily by an analysis of reading prescriptions in Madagascar since the time of the missionaries. It also attempts to use the principles of ergonomic psychology to analyze the professional gestures of the reading teacher. The research hopes to contribute to a better understanding of the professional “development” of Malagasy teachers in the area of reading. In this perspective, this thesis makes a contribution to the problem of "the universal eradication of illiteracy" in Education For All plans established for poor, heavily indebted (PPTE) countries
Contribution de la texture pour l'analyse d'images à très haute résolution spatiale : application à la détection de changement en milieu périurbain by Antoine Lefebvre( Book )

3 editions published in 2011 in French and English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Les données de télédétection acquises à Très Haute Résolution Spatiale (THRS) constituent une source d'information importante pour le suivi détaillé des changements d'occupation du sol sur de petites surfaces. Ces données sont particulièrement intéressantes pour les applications dans les milieux urbains et périurbains car elles permettent d'appréhender des changements brusques et irréguliers autant que des modifications subtiles et régulières. Toutefois, l'exploitation d'images à THRS nécessite des développements méthodologiques, les méthodes de détection de changement généralement utilisées pour traiter les images à basse et moyenne résolution n'étant pas adaptées : d'une part l'étendue et la résolution spectrale des capteurs à THRS sont souvent inférieures à celles des autres capteurs, la résolution spectrale des capteurs diminuant avec l'augmentation de leur résolution spatiale. D'autre part, la variabilité spectrale des pixels définissant les classes d'occupation du sol augmente en fonction de la résolution spatiale. Cette thèse présente ainsi une série d'outils méthodologiques qui permettent d'identifier et de caractériser automatiquement des changements affectant de petites surfaces à partir de données à THRS acquises à différentes dates et provenant de différentes sources. Contrairement à la majorité des méthodes utilisées en télédétection, l'originalité des outils présentés ne repose pas exclusivement ou essentiellement sur l'utilisation de l'information spectrale de l'image ; ils reposent surtout sur les propriétés de texture des objets géographiques observés. La texture est caractérisée à partir d'une analyse des coefficients issus d'une décomposition en ondelettes des images. Les outils développés comprennent : une méthode de correction de l'effet de vignettage des photographies aériennes anciennes ; une technique de segmentation d'images ; une méthode d'estimation de l'orientation dominante de motifs texturés ; une méthode de classification ; une méthode de détection de changements. L'ensemble de ces outils a été validé à partir d'exemples synthétiques, puis appliqué sur un secteur périurbain de l'agglomération rennaise afin de détecter les changements d'occupation et d'utilisation des sols à partir de photographies aériennes acquises en 1978 et 2001. Les taux de changement correctement détectés, qui varient de 78 % à 85 %, montrent l'intérêt d'exploiter la texture pour classer des images à THRS. Il est possible de détecter automatiquement différents types de changements et ainsi de distinguer des changements de pratiques culturales et des changements liés à l'artificialisation des sols. Les outils développés dans cette thèse sont génériques et s'appliquent à l'analyse de tout objet texturé. Ainsi nous avons exploité certains outils proposés pour détecter et caractériser des parcelles viticoles ou estimer des mouvements fluides en aéronautique
Stratégies utilisées par des personnes jeunes et des personnes âgées lors des transferts assis-debout et assis-marche by Emma Bestaven( Book )

3 editions published between 2008 and 2011 in French and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Rising from a chair is a task which is quickly impaired with aging because of motor and/or sensitive disabilities. The aim of the Thesis was to determine the most relevant biomechanical parameters for characterizing a STS task and a STW task. We recorded kinetic, kinematic and electromyographic parameters on both old and young subjects who performed STS and STW tasks. Two different strategies were identified for the STS task. For the first one, postural stability was favored whereas the execution speed was privileged for the second. For the STW task, three strategies were used by the subjects. The first was based on the control of balance and the two others exhibited a temporary short imbalance towards one side or forward. Elderly seemed to use only the first strategy and seemed to rise from the chair with a stable position. We concluded that the STS task is an interesting clinical tool to diagnose balance disorders but the STW task, in spite of the necessity of a more complex analysis, seems to be more relevant to detect more specific troubles and muscular disease
Estimativas de biomassa, do índice de área foliar e aplicação do sensoriamento remoto no monitoramento no estudo da cobertura vegetal em áreas de florestas ombrófila aberta e densa na Amazônia = Estimation de la biomasse, de l'indice foliaire et application de la télédétection dans l'étude de la couverture végétale en forêts ompbrophiles ouverte et dense en Amazonie by Mabiane Batista França Carreire( Book )

3 editions published between 2009 and 2011 in French and Portuguese and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The Amazon, the largest and most diverse of the tropical forest wilderness areas, shelter 33% of the world's tropical forests. However, the scenario of deforestation and degradation of the Amazon forest has been the subject of worldwide interest, primarily due to the growing contribution of deforestation to global warming. This study was conducted at the Caiabi Farm in Alta Floresta (north of Mato Grosso State) and in the Tropical Forestry Experimental Station (EEST/INPA) in Manaus (Central Amazonia). In this research, the main objectives were the study of the vegetation structure, the stock of dry biomass, the leaf area index (LAI) and the spectral behaviour of the open and dense ombrophilous forests. The field inventory was carried out on 3 samples of primary forest, 9 samples of experimental developed forest with different clear cutting levels and 7 samples of forest in regeneration (5, 8, 11, 23 and 30 years old), which have been cut down and burned, without subsequent use. In each sample of 1 ha, divided into 9 subsamples 20 by 20 m, we have measured and identified, by the vernacular name, all the individuals with DBH ≥ 5 cm (in secondary forests), and with a DBH ≥ 10 cm (in primary and managed forests). In sub-samples, hemispherical photographs were taken at 10 m-intervals to estimate LAI. The florisctic analysis showed that the vegetation of Alta Floresta is less diverse than the vegetation of Manaus. The stock of biomass and carbon increases as the successional stage advances. In the managed forest, biomass values were close to those of primary forest, indicating that these exploited areas recovered the original stock of biomass, 19 years after the selective exploitation. In developed forests, statistical analyses of LAI from Alta Floresta and Manaus areas, suggest also highly significant differences (p < 0.01) between the various succession stages. However, in developed forest, statistical analyses of LAI do not present significant differences between treatments after 19 years. Image processing showed us that the SAVI values made it possible to observe variations among the succession stages. The secondary forests dominated by Cecropia showed the greatest vegetation indices. Statistical analyses of the temporal series of the developed areas suggested that the NVDI, SAVI values and the images fractionsvegetation and fraction-shade change with time. However, the interactions of treatment*NDVI, treatment*SAVI, treatment*fractions vegetation and treatment*fractions shade do not vary significantly over time
Vers une compréhension du phénomène « prostitutionnel » féminin, en tant que « Pratiques Sexuelles Récompensées » au Maroc, à travers une clinique du sujet et du lien social « De celles qui sortent à Marrakech... » by Céline Lemale Ettonia( Book )

4 editions published between 2010 and 2011 in French and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The sexual practice except marriage and rewarded in Marrakesh is a phenomenon socially recognized since the mediatization of the sexual tourism. The led study questions the risks incurred for the psychic balance, in a society where the sexuality is acted and lived in a profoundly different way on the west. The psychodynamic analysis offers an access to the stakes which are put in to the test in this appeal. This work centers on the analysis of an "established" subject (dialectic Society-Islam-Sexuality) and the clinical results obtained thanks to the comments collected with thirty six Moroccan women having or having had appeal to the rewarded sexual practice. The interrogation of the existential courses brings to light faiths and myths which come to guarantee a balance of life, and it in the Islamic context. The defensive arrangements come to support the links and a representation of one, but in which cost
La gestion de l'eau dans les villes bretonnes aux XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles by David Groussard( Book )

3 editions published between 2010 and 2011 in French and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Through this study, we shall go back to the water management in the urban areas of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, precisely at the time when a suspicious perception of the humid environment is developing. The historiographical approach of water has been evolving for almost thirty years and is fostered by contemporary issues. Water has fully become a research subject and the setting of Brittany is not neutral : its environmental, institutional and cultural characteristics play a key role in the elaboration of hydrological works. The situation evolved over the two centuries : on the local level, the major changes lie in the councils' management of the hydraulic equipments and the appointment of administrators to handle the urban affairs. The designing mission shifts also from craftmanship to engineering, and this change in the professional expertise of the designer entails repercussions on both the organization of the building site and the morphology of the equipment. This redefinition of the administrative and technical tasks influences the works' practicality
Concept de l'autisme bleulérien dans la logique freudienne de l'aliénation et de la séparation by Janis Gailis( Book )

3 editions published between 2010 and 2011 in French and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Dans son texte princeps « Dementia praecox ou groupe des schizophrénies » Paul Eugène Bleuler note que « l'autisme est à peu près la même chose que ce que Freud appelle autoérotisme ». Pourtant, en examinant en détails les autres définitions de l'autisme proposées par Bleuler, tout comme les travaux sur lesquels il a fondé ses élaborations, ainsi que les divers ouvrages de Sigmund Freud, rédigés pour répondre à Paul Eugène Bleuler, on peut constater, que cette remarque concernant la substitution pure et simple de l'auto-érotisme par l'autisme, en essayant éviter ainsi toute référence à la sexualité, est loin d'être exhaustive. La thèse de Bleuler selon laquelle « nous appelons autisme ce détachement de la réalité combiné à la prédominance relative ou absolue de la vie intérieure » ouvre des perspectives fort intéressantes pour la clinique. Ainsi ce n'est pas le narcissisme primaire, mais plutôt le narcissisme secondaire qui correspond à l'autisme bleulérien. Néanmoins cette réponse ne satisfait ni Sigmund Freud, ni Jacques Lacan qui essayent tous les deux d'affiner la conceptualisation psychanalytique des psychoses. Si Jacques Lacan a bien repris à son compte certains concepts freudiens, issus des tentatives de Freud de retravailler le concept bleulérien de l'autisme selon la théorie de la libido (comme le principe de plaisir / le principe de la réalité, la réalité psychique ou la perte de la réalité dans la névrose et dans la psychose), il les remanie à sa façon, souvent d'une manière subversive. C'est en questionnant et en remettant en cause le concept du narcissisme primaire, issu de la discussion à propos de l'autisme bleulérien, que Jacques Lacan en arrive à l'élaboration du stade du miroir et au cheminement qui lui permet la conceptualisation de l'aliénation / séparation, tout comme au questionnement du rapport du sujet et de l'Autre dans l'autisme. C'est ainsi qu'il indique également la perspective qui peut mener à la conception d'une certaine disposition du réel, de l'imaginaire et du symbolique selon la théorie des nœuds borroméens qui, à notre avis, pourrait correspondre à l'état autistique
 
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École doctorale SHS

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SHS

UEB. SHS

Université de Bretagne occidentale. École doctorale Sciences humaines et sociales

Université de Bretagne-Sud. École doctorale Sciences humaines et sociales

Université de Rennes 2. École doctorale Sciences humaines et sociales

Université européenne de Bretagne. École doctorale Sciences humaines et sociales

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