WorldCat Identities

Laboratoire des écoulements géophysiques et industriels (Grenoble)

Overview
Works: 121 works in 130 publications in 2 languages and 210 library holdings
Roles: Other, Organizer of meeting, Editor
Publication Timeline
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Most widely held works by Laboratoire des écoulements géophysiques et industriels (Grenoble)
Thermique et microtechnologies : SFT 2003 : actes du Congrès annuel de la Société française de thermique, 3-6 juin 2003, Grenoble, France by Société française de thermique( Book )

1 edition published in 2003 in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Neuvièmes Journées de l'hydrodynamique : 10-11-12 mars 2003, Poitiers-Futuroscope by Journées de l'hydrodynamique( Book )

2 editions published between 2003 and 2005 in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Instabilité paramétrique de la dynamo de Ponomarenko by Marine Peyrot( )

2 editions published in 2008 in French and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We have studied the influence of large scale fluctuations on the dynamo threshold. For that purpose, we have solved the kinematic problem for a helical flow, to the stationary part of which, we have added a periodic and also helical time modulation. For a helical stationary flow, previous studies have shown that for high magnetic Reynolds numbers, the magnetic field is generated on a resonance surface characterised by a resonant condition on the velocity flow. For a modulated flow, we have shown that, for low amplitude of modulation, it is the resonant condition of the stationary part, that controls the generation of the magnetic field. For large amplitude of the fluctuations, it is the resonant condition of the fluctuating part of the flow that governs the dynamo efficiency as well as the dynamo threshold. In most cases and if the resonant condition is satisfied for both parts of the flow, we find that the threshold increases with the intensity of the fluctuations, and then decreases, while remaining higher than the threshold corresponding to the stationary threshold of the same geometry. If the resonant condition is not verified for the modulation, then the threshold increases drastically with its intensity.These results show that the optimization of the dynamo experiments may not only depend on the stationary part of the flow but also on its non stationary large scale part. If the fluctuations are not optimized, then the threshold may increase drastically, even if the amplitude of these fluctuations is low
Ecoulement d'un film de biomolécules tensioactives : expériences et modélisation by Yu-Lin Huang( Book )

3 editions published in 2009 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This thesis addresses flow-induced packing of amphiphilic bio-molecules along an air-water interface. Pentadecanoic acid (PDA) is selected as model system. Experiments are based on a shear flow provided in an annular channel whose floor is put in rotation. The liquid surface is covered by a Langmuir layer of PDA submitted to a bulk-driven shear at the liquid surface and to a 2-D shear along it, as well. Phase transition from liquid-expanded (LE) to liquid-condensed (LC) phases is observed under Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) and investigated based on area fraction distribution of the LC phase after permanent regime is established. The distribution of condensed phase demonstrates a radially-inwards packing along the liquid surface induced by centrifugation of the subphase. For a growing level of centrifugation, the Langmuir film experiences a strong morphological transition at meso scale, driven by a balance between surface shear and line tension. For a highly-densified PDA film, LC domains are stratifying. If sub-phase rotation is large enough (Re as large as 1000), bulk shearing is responsible for LC domains break-up in agreement with literature. An analytical modelling is proposed at a small Reynolds number with a new integral formulation which enables estimation of the Boussinesq number as well as the measurement of viscous stratification
Cavitation dans le sillage turbulent d'un obstacle by BRAHIM BELAHADJI( )

2 editions published in 1993 in French and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Le présent mémoire à dominante expérimentale, est relatif à la naissance, au développement et à l'extinction de la cavitation dans les structures cohérentes du sillage turbulent d'un obstacle en forme de coin triangulaire. La cinématique, l'entrelacement et les zones d'évolution de ces structures sont étudiés en détail au moyen de photographies et de films ultra-rapides de l'écoulement. L'attention est donnée aussi à la pression in stationnaire du sillage turbulent et aux pics de pression quasi instantanés dus à l'implosion de structures de vapeur. Diverses contributions au champ de pression qui règne dans le coeur des tourbillons cavitants sont modélisées. Un modèle, basé sur les tourbillons issus des deux couches limites qui se développent sur les cotes du coin, conduit à la prévision du paramètre de cavitation naissante. Les résultats de ce modèle sont en très bon accord avec ceux de l'expérience : la considération des structures cohérentes semble alors seule capable de rendre compte de l'écart important qui existe entre la valeur du paramètre de cavitation naissante et le coefficient de pression moyen dans la zone d'apparition de la cavitation
Étude expérimentale de la turbulence d'ondes à la surface d'un fluide. La théorie de la turbulence faible à l'épreuve de la réalité pour les ondes de capillarité et gravité by Quentin Aubourg( )

1 edition published in 2016 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The wave turbulence provides a statistical description of the interactions of a large set of weakly non-linear waves. Introduced in the 1960s by the works of Zakharov and Hasselmann, this theory often fails against experiments, particularly for gravity waves and at the crossover for capillary-gravity waves. The objective of this PhD is to study experimentally these two regimes by looking directly at the resonant interactions that are the heart of the weak turbulence theory. The first experiment focuses on the capillary-gravity regime. An energy cascade composed of weakly linear waves is observed in agreement with the phenomenology of the theory. The use of higher order statistical tools shows that it is essentially 3-waves collinear interaction that govern the cascade. The second experiment explores the pure gravity regime thanks to the large dimensions of the Coriolis platform. The full energy spectrum shows the systematic presence of the harmonic branch, although it remains small compared to the linear component. The correlations indicate the presence of strong 3-waves interactions between the linear branch and the harmonics branches. No 4-waves interaction as assumed by the theory is observed. The last section reports the results from an experiment on internal waves and from in situ data of the Black Sea made available by F. Ardhuin. These two experiments confirm the results of the previous section and raise the question of the importance of the 3-wave interaction with the harmonic branch for generating the energy cascade in the gravity wave regime
Rôle des tourbillons océaniques dans la variabilité récente des flux air-mer de CO2 dans l'océan Austral by Carolina Dufour( )

1 edition published in 2011 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

L'océan Austral joue un rôle crucial dans la régulation du système climatique en absorbant de grandes quantités de CO2 atmosphérique. Toutefois de nombreuses incertitudes demeurent quant à l'évolution récente du puits de carbone austral notamment en raison du manque d'observations et des lacunes des modèles océaniques dans la représentation de processus dynamiques comme les tourbillons. Depuis quelques décennies notamment, l'efficacité du puits de carbone austral diminuerait en raison d'une intensification des vents liée à une tendance positive du Mode Annulaire Austral (SAM). L'objectif de ces travaux de thèse est de décrire et comprendre la variabilité spatiale et temporelle récente des flux air-mer de CO2 dans l'océan Austral. Pour cela, des simulations de sensibilité aux phases positives du SAM sont réalisées dans une configuration régionale de l'océan Austral (sud de 30°S), basée sur un modèle couplé dynamique-biogéochimie forcé par l'atmosphère et résolvant partiellement la méso-échelle océanique. Dans l'océan Austral, la réponse des flux de CO2 au SAM correspond à un dégazage intense de CO2 dans la zone antarctique dû à une augmentation des concentrations de surface de carbone inorganique dissous (DIC). Cette augmentation est pilotée par la dynamique de la couche de mélange et alimentée par un transport méridien de DIC qui résulte essentiellement de la compétition entre circulation induite par les vents et par les méandres stationnaires. Ces travaux montrent l'apport d'une augmentation de la résolution numérique des modèles pour la simulation des flux de CO2
Etude expérimentale de la turbulence intégrable en eau peu profonde by Ivan Redor( )

1 edition published in 2019 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

La turbulence d'onde est un état statistique impliquant un grand nombre d'ondes couplées par effet non linéaire. Cet état générique est potentiellement décrit, dans la limite de faible non linéarité, par la théorie de la turbulence faible. Cette théorie prédit un phénoménologie proche de celle de la turbulence hydrodynamique avec en particulier une cascade d'énergie au travers des échelles. La thèse de doctorat se concentrera sur le cas d'ondes de gravité-capillarité à la surface d'un fluide dans la limite des grandes longueurs d'onde. Ce système est potentiellement représentatif d'états de mer lorsque la houle est développée. Des expériences seront menées dans le canal à Houle 1D de 36m du LEGI. Le cas des ondes unidirectionnelles est assez particulier dans le cadre général de la théorie de la turbulence faible. En effet il est prédit que la turbulence faible est instable dans ces conditions et que l'on devrait observer plutôt l'apparence de structures cohérentes de type soliton. Au cours de cette thèse, on testera différentes conditions de forçage pour tester les prédictions théoriques concernant les cascades d'énergie et de quantité de mouvement. On sortira également du cadre strict de la théorie pour étudier des régimes de forçage fort ou de faible profondeu
Réponse des masses d'eau intermédiaires et modales de l'océan Austral au mode annulaire austral : les processus en jeu et rôle de la glace de mer by Gildas Mainsant( )

1 edition published in 2014 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Recent climate trends show a warming and freshening of the surface layers in the region of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). Over the same period, the westerlies driving the circulation of the Southern Ocean have significantly increased. This increase is partly due to the intensification of the Southern Annular Mode (SAM), the main mode of atmospheric variability south of 20°S. In this thesis, we are interested in understanding the effects of the positive trend of the SAM onto the properties of water masses formed in the region of the ACC. To do so, we implement a strategy of regional coupled ocean-sea ice simulations forced by a series of atmospheric disturbance scenarios.These scenarios are constructed from atmospheric reanalyses in order to describe the various components (dynamic and thermodynamic) of the changes related to the SAM. In response to the increase of the SAM, the simulations show a significant salinification of the ocean mixed layer and of the mode water (SAMW) and intermediate water (AAIW).Most of these changes can be attributed to the dynamic components of the SAM. In Seasonal Ice Zone, the thermodynamic components of the SAM can play an important part (especially in Amundsen Sea and Weddell Sea). The simulations also show the key role played by sea ice in mediating atmospheric changes toward the interior ocean.These simulation results suggest that SAM is not the only driver of recent climate trends in the Southern Ocean
Contribution à la prévision de l'érosion de cavitation à partir de simulations numériques : proposition d'un modèle à deux échelles pour l'estimation du chargement imposé en paroi par le fluide by Laurent Krumenacker( )

1 edition published in 2015 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Lors du fonctionnement d'une installation hydraulique, l'apparition de zone de cavitation dans l'écoulement peut entraîner un endommagement important sur la surface des matériaux. La quantification de l'intensité de cavitation sur les composants hydrauliques serait utile à la fois pour mieux concevoir les nouveaux équipements en projet, mais aussi pour améliorer la conduite et optimiser la maintenance des matériels existants. Au vu du grand nombre de paramètres régissant les écoulements cavitants, l'élaboration de lois de similitudes universelles à partir d'expériences est délicate. Avec l'augmentation des moyens de calculs, la simulation numérique est un outil pour étudier ce phénomène sur des géométries variées. La principale difficulté de cette démarche réside dans la différence d'échelles existant entre les simulations numériques U-RANS servant à simuler l'écoulement cavitant et les mécanismes d'implosion de bulles jugés responsables de l'endommagement sur le solide. La méthode proposée dans ce manuscrit s'appuie sur un post-traitement des simulations U-RANS afin de caractériser une distribution de bulles et de simuler leurs comportements à de plus petites échelles spatiales et temporelles. Dans un premier temps, notre travail consiste à expliciter les équations locales de conservation de masse, de quantité de mouvement et d'énergie pour un écoulement liquide/gaz comprenant deux espèces eau/air. Ce travail mène à l'élaboration de grandeurs de mélange prenant notamment en compte la présence de gaz incondensables au sein du fluide. Des hypothèses permettent de rendre ce système équivalent à ceux, utilisant une approche homogène, implémentés dans les codes de simulations d'écoulements cavitants instationnaires développés précédemment au laboratoire. La caractérisation des populations de bulles effectuée par le post-traitement prend ainsi en considération à la fois la tension superficielle et la présence de gaz incondensables. Dans un deuxième temps, l'élaboration d'un code de calcul permettant la simulation de la dynamique d'un nuage de bulles est débutée. Ce dernier a pour ambition de tenir compte à la fois des interactions entre les bulles et des déformations non sphériques que celles-ci peuvent subir à l'aide d'une méthode potentielle. Des premiers résultats de simulations sont présentés dans ce manuscrit et permettent de tenir compte de faibles déformations des bulles. La dernière étape de ce travail consiste à proposer une méthode de chaînage entre ces deux échelles en initialisant le calcul de dynamique de bulles à l'aide des résultats du calcul U-RANS. L'énergie émise lors de l'implosion des bulles et impactant la surface solide est ainsi calculée, caractérisant de ce fait le chargement imposé par l'écoulement sur le matériau. Cette méthode est par la suite appliquée sur différentes géométries en comparant à chaque fois les résultats obtenus à des expériences. Nous comparons également nos résultats à des méthodes précédemment établies au sein du laboratoire afin d'évaluer la pertinence de cette approche
Dynamique et stabilité de fronts : phénomènes agéostrophiques by Hélène Scolan( )

1 edition published in 2011 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This thesis has to be seen within the general study of atmospheric and oceanic fronts and the origin of gravity waves in the atmosphere. In this context we focus on a front in a rotating two-layer miscible fluid under vertical shear. Both experimental and numerical study highlights ageostrophic phenomena going beyond the usual geostrophic equilibrated configuration of a baroclinic front. First, the classification of different instability regimes of a front in an annular configuration as a fonction of Rossby number and Burger number reveals an ageostrophic instability coupling equilibrated and divergent motions due to a resonance between a Rossby wave and a Kelvin wave. This Rossby-Kelvin instability is confirmed numerically by the structure of the perturbation velocity fields in each layer. Second, small-scale structures have also been observed experimentally. Caracteristics of the interface in function of Richardson number and density and velocity interface thicknesses suggests the presence of the Hölmböe shear instability. A direct numerical simulation with an axisymmetric configuration and with a Schmidt number 700 confirms this conjecture. Other smalle-scale perturbations compatible with inertia-gravity waves have been observed numerically superimposed on an unstable Rossby-Kelvin front and the wave generation mechanism is discussed. In addition, a numerical study of a stable front highlighted the presenec of internal Ekman layers with an additional interfacial structure in the case of high Schmidt number and small Rossby number. For fronts in in/outcropping, front dynamics is modified by interaction with Ekman boundary layer at the location of the intersection zero-thickness singular point. It depends on both vertical circulation and mixing on the nose of the front and the various possible instabilities associated to horizontal or vertical wave resonances
Étude Lagrangienne d'une turbulence inhomogène by Nickolas Stelzenmuller( )

1 edition published in 2017 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Inhomogeneous turbulence is experimentally investigated in a Lagrangian framework. Measurements of tracer and non-tracer particles in a turbulent channel were made, and were used to extract Lagrangian statistics conditioned on their initial distance to the channel wall. Highly resolved in time and space, these measurements provide the three components of position, velocity, and acceleration along a particle trajectory from very close to the channel wall (approx 10) to the channel center. Lagrangian time correlations allow the direct measurement of velocity and acceleration timescales in each direction, and characterize the inhomogeneity and anisotropy of the turbulent channel from the Lagrangian perspective. Small scale-anisotropy, characterized by the skewness and the correlation of the components of the acceleration, was found to be significant throughout the channel. Significant scale separation between the magnitude and components of acceleration was found across the channel, even in the near-wall region. Two classes of non-tracer particle trajectories were also measured, allowing direct comparison of tracer and non-tracer statistics from the highly-sheared anisotropic zone near the channel wall to the more homogeneous outer layer. Non-tracer acceleration statistics in the turbulent channel were found to be significantly different from similar results in homogeneous, isotropic turbulence. These statistics are necessary components of advanced Lagrangian stochastic models to predict dispersion and mixing in inhomogeneous turbulence
Simulation en présence d'incertitude d'un gazosiphon de grande échelle. Application à l'optimisation d'un nouveau système géothermique urbain by Bastien Monmarson( )

1 edition published in 2015 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This PhD thesis is part of the ANR project « Uncertain Flow Optimization » (UFO). The project is devoted to the development and application of efficient uncertainty quantification methods for flow analysis and optimization. In this framework, these methods are applied to the study of a large-scale airlift pump. The airlift pump is selected to be part of an innovative geothermal system, which can be exploited within an urban environment. We wish to quantify and optimize the energy potential of this new system with numerical tools. They provide both good accuracy and efficiency properties. The airlift two-phase flow simulation is based on a quasi one-dimensional drift flux model, which is implicitly solved. The solver is validated by comparison with relevant experimental airlift studies from the literature. However, these studies remain below the kilometric-targeted pipe length. Thanks to the analysis of two uncertainty quantification methods, a non-intrusive approach relying on polynomial chaos expansion and a new semi-intrusive method developed ahead of the UFO project, we perform airlift pump simulations taking into account physical and modelling uncertainties. This numerical tool is inserted into a simplified model of the complete urban geothermal system that involves surface devices, such as an air compressor. Finally, a robust preliminary optimization process is performed for two versions of the proposed geothermal urban system. They are designed respectively for heat recovery and electricity production
Processus de la couche limite atmosphérique stable hivernale en vallée alpine by Gabriele Arduini( )

1 edition published in 2017 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

La dynamique de la couche limite atmosphérique d'une vallée alpine est influencée par le relief environnant et par l'écoulement de grande échelle qui la surmonte. La paramétrisation de cette circulation atmosphérique requiert donc de caractériser finement ces effets. C'est l'objectif de ce travail de thèse : comprendre l'influence du relief environnant une vallée sur les bilans de masse et de chaleur au travers d'une section de cette vallée, par conditions stables et sèches et lorsque le vent synoptique est faible mais non négligeable. Le travail s'appuie sur des simulations numériques.Plusieurs vallées idéalisées ont tout d'abord été considérées: une vallée infiniment longue (bidimensionnelle) et une vallée tridimensionnelle, qualifiée de supérieure, ouvrant soit sur une plaine (cas “vallée-plaine”), soit sur une autre vallée, qualifiée d'inférieure. Cette seconde vallée est soit plus large (cas “drainage”) ou plus étroite (cas “quasi-stagnation”).Dans les vallées tridimensionnelles, deux régimes principaux ont été identifiés, quelle que soit le cas considéré : un régime transitoire, avant que le vent de vallée (descendant) ne se développe, puis un régime quasi-stationnaire, quand le vent de vallée est complètement développé. La présence d'une vallée inférieure réduit la variation de température le long de la vallée, de sorte que le vent de vallée y est plus faible que dans le cas vallée-plaine. En conséquence, la durée du régime transitoire augmente et est maximum pour le cas quasi-stagnation. Lorsque la vallée inférieure est très étroite, la variation de température peut même changer de signe, conduisant à un vent de vallée montant, de la vallée inférieure vers la vallée supérieure. Durant ce régime transitoire, le taux de refroidissement moyenné sur le volume de la vallée est maximum, sa valeur dépendant du cas considéré. En conclusion, les cas drainage et quasi-stagnation conduisent à une couche limite dans la vallée supérieure plus froide et plus profonde que dans le cas vallée-plaine.Dans le régime quasi-stationnaire, le taux de refroidissement moyenné sur le volume de la vallée est plus faible que dans le régime transitoire et varie peu en fonction du cas considéré. En effet, lorsque la vallée inférieure devient plus étroite, le réchauffement lié aux effets advectifs diminue car la vitesse du vent de vallée diminue, de sorte que la contribution (refroidissante) du flux de chaleur sensible diminue également. La conservation de la masse dans la couche limite de la vallée supérieure est assurée par un équilibre entre la convergence des vents de pente au sommet de la couche limite (alimenté par un courant de retour au-dessus (et en sens inverse) du vent de vallée descendant) et la divergence du vent de vallée, les effets de subsidence loin des parois de la vallée jouant un rôle négligeable.Le cas réaliste de la vallée de l'Arve autour de Passy durant une période d'observation intensive de la campagne de mesures PASSY-2015 a permis de caractériser l'impact des vallées environnant Passy sur les bilans de masse et de chaleur dans la vallée. Une couche d'air froid persistante se forme en fond de vallée, suite à l'advection d'air chaud associée au passage d'une crête anticyclonique au-dessus de l'Europe. Les écoulements le long des vallées tributaires présentent une grande variabilité durant la phase persistante de l'épisode, dépendant de la variabilité de l'écoulement à grande échelle, et ont un impact majeur sur l'intensité de la couche d'air froid et la hauteur de l'inversion qui la surmonte. La forte stratification près du sol conduit à leur décollement au-dessus du fond de vallée, les empêchant d'y pénétrer. L'évolution de l'écoulement à grande échelle durant l'épisode a un profond impact sur la dynamique proche du fond de vallée. Durant la nuit en effet, la canalisation de cet écoulement réduit la variation de température le long de la vallée contrôlant le vent de vallée, favorisant la stagnation de l'air
Simulations numériques directes du contrôle électromagnétique : étude de l'impact d'un forçage électromagnétique sur un écoulement turbulent en canal plan by François Bouillon( Book )

2 editions published in 2004 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Le contrôle électromagnétique (CEM) d'écoulement en eau de mer permet d'appliquer directement au sein d'un écoulement des forces volumiques locales dans des régions choisies de celui-ci. Des actionneurs électromagnétiques (EM), constitués d'aimants permanents et d'électrodes pariétales, constituent un moyen original de forçage sur une couche limite d'eau de mer. Les forces électromagnétiques volumiques appliquées sont locales et leur rotationnel est une source directe de vorticité. Ces actionneurs peuvent être associés en réseau et activés périodiquement en espace et en temps. Des travaux précédents, Rossi L. et al. (2002), ont montré expérimentalement la possibilité d'altération, par forçage électromagnétique (EM), de structures cohérentes produites synthétiquement dans une couche limite laminaire. Dans la présente étude, une simulation numérique directe (SND) basée sur le code de Paulo Orlandi est entreprise, Orlandi P. (2000). La SND constitue un outil essentiel à l'identification des mécanismes actifs pour chaque schéma de contrôle envisagé. Le travail accompli porte en première étape sur le calcul d'une couche limite turbulente ordinaire non-actionnée. Le champ turbulent obtenu est d'une part comparé avec succès à ceux des travaux faisant référence, d'autre part il constitue le champ initial à un ensemble de simulations de forçage. Les résultats sont analysés sur les champs de vitesse calculés et sur l'identification des structures cohérentes présentes dans cette couche. La seconde étape consiste à imposer divers forçages électromagnétiques locaux à l'écoulement et à analyser la réponse de ce dernier à ces forçages
Étude expérimentale de l'atomisation assistée de jets diphasiques gaz-liquide by Jean-Christophe Guillard( )

1 edition published in 2016 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Assisted atomization of a liquid phase slow by a rapid gas co-current is a topic widely studied in the literature, and significant advances have occurred especially on the breakup mechanisms, the structure of the atomized jet as well as the characteristics of formed drops. However, few studies deal with a configuration where the slow phase consists of a two-phase liquid-gas jet. This situation occurs for example during the transitional ignition of cryogenic rocket engines during which the volumic gas fraction decreases continuously from 1 (purely gas) to 0 (purely liquid), so that almost all two-phases flow regimes, from bubbly flow to annular flow can be observed.The goal is to understand how the volumic gas fraction and/or two-phase flow regime of internal jet impact the atomization modes and the characteristics of the spray.To answer these questions, experiments were conducted with as fluid of substitution air and water under ambient conditions and under gravity. The three main control parameters are the superficial velocity of the liquid which was varied from 0.17 m/s to 2 m/s, the superficial gas velocity in the internal jet that has been set so that the gas flow rate fraction sweeps the range 0 to 0.99 and finally the external gas velocity that has evolved between 20 to 200 m/s. Three geometries of axisymmetric injectors were used to firstly access any desired phase flow regimes except mist flow, and also to vary the diameter of the central jet by a factor of about two. Two types of experimental campaigns were carried out: a campaign where the gas-liquid dynamic pressure ratio was set at 16 for varied gas flow rate fraction, as well as campaigns with fixed gas flow rate fraction and variable M.The structural characteristics of the spray, its breakup length and the angle of spray were measured by high speed imaging while the characteristics of the dispersed phase, that is to say, sizes, velocities and flows of the drops were measured by optical probe.Mapping of flow regimes in the injector and two-phase jet structures with and without assistance by external gas that we have established have shown that these structures were closely related to the flow regime of the central jet. Three main atomization modes were identified and its borders established. For small gas flow rate fraction, the atomization of liquid jets laden bubbles is subject to surface peeling and large-scale lateral beats like a single phase liquid jet. For very large gas flow rate fraction, the annular flow results in the atomization of an annular liquid sheet. For intermediate values, new structures type of umbrella form at the arrival of gas slugs characterized by high amplitude and orthogonal development with respect to the jet. Atomization of “churn" flow and annular flow gives rise to intermittent sprays because of passage of "liquid blocks" from the internal flow.The breakup length is reduced by the addition of internal gas and become very small for the high gas flow rate fractions. The behavior of the angle of the spray is different depending on the diameter of the atomized jet and the internal flow regime. It may therefore increase or decrease depending on configuration.Centred pdf on mean drop size are not much sensitive to the gas flow rate fraction. However mean drop sizes and volumic fluxes show marked evolution: they can according to the gas flow rate fraction and therefore the atomized jet structure decrease or increase
Ajustement optimal des paramètres de forçage atmosphérique par assimilation de données de température de surface pour des simulations océaniques globales by Marion Meinvielle( )

1 edition published in 2012 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Sea surface temperature (SST) is more accurately observed from space than near-surface atmospheric variables and air-sea fluxes. But ocean general circulation models for operational forecasting or simulations of the recent ocean variability use, as surface boundary conditions, bulk formulae which do not directly involve the observed SST. In brief, models do not use explicitly in their forcing one of the best observed ocean surface variable, except when assimilated to correct the model state. This classical approach presents however some inconsistency between the “assimilated” solution of the model and the “forced” one. The objective of this research is to develop in a realistic context a new assimilation scheme based on statistical methods that will use SST satellite observations to constrain (within observation-based air-sea flux uncertainties) the surface forcing function (surface atmospheric input variables) of ocean circulation simulations. The idea is to estimate a set of corrections for the atmospheric input data from ERAinterim reanalysis that cover the period from 1989 to 2007. We use a sequential method based on the SEEK filter, with an ensemble experiment to evaluate parameters uncertainties. The control vector is extended to correct forcing parameters (air temperature, air humidity, downward longwave and shortwave radiations, precipitation, wind velocity). Over experiments of one month duration, we assimilate observed monthly SST products (Hurrel, 2008) and SSS seasonal climatology (Levitus, 1994) data, to obtain monthly parameters corrections that we can use in a free run model This study shows that we can thus produce in a realistic case, on a global scale, and over a large time period, an optimal flux correction set that improves the forcing function of an ocean model using sea surface observations
Dynamique morpho-sédimentaire de littoraux sableux macrotidaux à barres intertidales : modélisation numérique et expérimentations in situ by Thibault Oudart( )

1 edition published in 2016 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The objective of this thesis was to compare sediment flux measurements and in situ morphological changes with 2DH numerical simulations on macrotidal beaches with intertidal bars. These comparisons were made on two beaches in the Nord Pas de Calais - Picardie ,Zuydcoote Beach and Hardelot Beach. These beaches are characterized by a straight sandy bar-trough system.This work allowed to acquire current data and wave data on the profile of each beach and also offshore data for a period of one week. Sediment flux measurements were also conducted using sediment traps and by monitoring bottom evolution using DGPS measurements at the beginning and the end of the campaigns.All these data were compared with results obtained by a digital 2DH model. This digital model is composed of three modules of the TELEMAC calculation chain, a module for taking into account the tidal currents, a spectral propagation module for the waves, and a sediment transport module with morphological evolution. Using these modules, simulations were performed for the duration of measurement campaigns to calibrate various parameters by comparing the results with in-situ measurements, including the Strickler coefficient, the wave-breaking index and four different sediment transport formulas.These simulations show the influence of the breaker index on both the hydrodynamic part and the sediment transport and morphological evolution.The different sediment transport formulas were used to determine their ability to reproduce the sediment transport measurements and the evolution according to the breaker value.This model has helped to highlight the role of waves and surges on the direction and intensity of the sediment transport as well as preferential areas of accretion and erosion. This study also shows some limitations of the model mainly on the speed perpendicular to the beach and the limitations caused by the use of a breaker index taking only into account the ratio between wave height and the deep, and limiting the surge on the crest of the bars and into the slope between the bar and the top trough on the beach
Sur l'émergence et l'évolution des jets et des vortex dans les atmosphères planétaires turbulentes by Thibault Jougla( )

1 edition published in 2018 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This thesis investigates the formation and evolution of jets andvortices in turbulent planetary atmospheres using a dual approach ofhigh-resolution numerical simulations and novel laboratoryexperiments. A two-layer quasi-geostrophic beta-channel shallow watermodel is used for the numerical study. As in Panetta (1988), avertical shear is implemented to represent a spatially-meanlatitudinal temperature gradient, which is partially maintained bythermal damping. Baroclinic instabilities work to erode thetemperature gradient, while thermal damping acts to restore it. Asthe basic state vertical shear is unstable, the thermal damping cannotlead to a full recovery, thus modifying subsequent instabilities andleading to rich nonlinear dynamical behaviour.First, we consider flow over a flat bottom, and model convectivemotions like those thought to occur on Jupiter by pairs ofcyclones/anti-cyclones or `hetons' as in Thomson (2016). We therebyobtain predominantly baroclinic jets, oscillating between quiescentphases, when jets are zonal and the energy is nearly stationary, andturbulent phases, when the flow loses its zonality, vortices pinch offfrom the meandering jets, and zonal energy components drop while eddyenergy components increase. These turbulent phases typically last fora thermal damping relaxation period. The impacts of vertical shear(baroclinicity), thermal damping and heton forcing are comprehensivelyinvestigated by considering the energy transfers occurring betweenkinetic and potential energy, their barotropic and baroclinic parts aswell as their zonal and eddy parts. This leads to a rethinking of theclassic paradigm of energy transfer presented by Salmon (1982), asthis paradigm is too simplistic to explain the results found.Then, we consider the effect of large-scale bottom topography, as afirst approach to understanding the role of topography in jet andvortex formation. We use the same model as in the first study butinclude a linearly sloping topography which has the advantage of beingcharacterised by a single parameter, the slope. We omit the hetonforcing and instead perturb the flow with a small amplitude Rossbywave initially. The main effect of heton forcing is actually to act asa kind of damping: energy fluctuations are consistently less extremethan when no forcing is used. A linear stability analysis is carriedout to motivate a series of nonlinear simulations investigating theeffect of topography, in particular, differences from the flat bottomcase previously examined. We find that destabilising topography makesthe jets more dynamic.In the experimental part, a two-layer salt-stratified fluid is used ina rotating tank with a differentially rotating lid to generate theshear across the interface. We consider a baroclinically unstablefront in the regime of amplitude vacillation, which is found to becharacterised by the sequential emergence and disappearance of alarge-scale vortex. Analysing two similar experiments at the limit ofgeostrophy, with different Rossby numbers Ro=0.4 and Ro=0.6, showssurprisingly different behaviours, with a baroclinic dipole for small,and a barotropic vortex for the large Rossby number. The small-scalewave activity is explored using different methods, and the resultssuggest small, spontaneously-arising inertia-gravity waves precedingthe emergence of the vortex which stirs the interface, thus having animpact on the mixing between the two layers. The recovery period ofthe amplitude vacillation, as well as the intensity of the vortex,increases with the Rossby number.For further research on fronts at two-layer immiscible interfaces, avery accurate novel optical method has been developed to detect theheight and slope, based on the refractive laws of optics. Theassociated theoretical equations are solved numerically and validatedin various idealised situations
Air-sea interaction at the synoptic- and the meso-scale by Aimie Moulin( )

1 edition published in 2015 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This thesis considers air-sea interaction, due to momentum exchange, in an idealized but consistent model. Two superposed one-layer fine-resolution shallow-water models are numerically integrated. The upper layer represents the atmosphere and the lower layer the ocean. The interaction is only due to the shear between the two layers. The shear applied to the ocean is calculated using the velocity difference between the ocean and the atmosphere.The frictional force between the two-layers is implemented using the quadratic drag law. Three idealized configurations are explored.First, a new mechanism that induces barotropic instability in the ocean is discussed. It is due to air-sea interaction with a quadratic drag law and horizontal viscous dissipation in the atmosphere. I show that the instability spreads to the atmosphere. The preferred spatial scale of the instability is that of the oceanic baroclinic Rossby radius of deformation.It can only be represented in numerical models, when the dynamics at this scale is resolved in the atmosphere and the ocean.In one-way interaction the shear applied to the atmosphere neglectsthe ocean dynamics, it is calculated using the atmospheric wind, only. In two-way interaction it is opposite to the shear applied to the ocean.In the one-way interaction the atmospheric shear leads to a barotropic instability in the ocean. The instability in the ocean is amplified, in amplitude and scale, in two-way interaction and also triggers an instability in the atmosphere.Second, the air-sea interaction at the atmospheric synoptic and mesoscale due to momentum transfer, only, is considered. Experiments with different values of the surface friction drag coefficient are performed, with a different atmospheric forcing from the first configuration, that leads to a turbulent dynamics in the atmosphere and the ocean. The actual energy loss of the atmosphere and the energy gain by the ocean, due to the inter-facial shear,is determined and compared to the estimates based on average speeds.The correlation between the vorticity in the atmosphere and the ocean is determined. Results differ from previous investigations where the exchange of momentum was considered at basin scale. It is shown that the ocean has a passive role, absorbing kinetic energy at nearly all times and locations.Due to the feeble velocities in the ocean, the energy transfer depends only weakly on the ocean velocity. The ocean dynamics leaves nevertheless its imprint in the atmospheric dynamics leading to a quenched disordered state of the atmosphere-ocean system, for the highest value of the friction coefficient considered. This finding questions the ergodic hypothesis, which is at the basis of a large number of experimental, observational and numericalresults in ocean, atmosphere and climate dynamics.The last configuration considers the air-sea interaction, due to momentum exchange, around a circular island. In todays simulations of the ocean dynamics, the atmospheric forcing fields are usually too coarse to include the presence of smaller islands (typically < 100km).In the calculations presented here, the island is represented in the atmospheric layer by a hundred fold increased drag coefficient above the island as compared to the ocean. It leads to an increased atmospheric vorticity in the vicinity and in the wake of the island. The influence of the atmospheric vorticity on the ocean vorticity, upwelling, turbulence and energy transfer is considered by performing fully coupled simulations of the atmosphere-oceandynamics. The results are compared to simulations with a constant, in space and time, atmospheric forcing (no wake) and simulations with one-waycoupling only (where the ocean velocity has no influence on the atmosphere).Results of our simulations agree with previous published work and observations, and confirm that the wind-wake is the main process leading to mesoscale oceanic eddies in the lee of an island
 
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Alternative Names
Centre national de la recherche scientifique

Centre national de la recherche scientifique France Unité mixte de recherche 5519

Institut national polytechnique

Institut national polytechnique Grenoble Laboratoire des écoulements géophysiques et industriels

Laboratoire des Ecoulements Géophysiques et Industriels

Laboratoire des écoulements géophysiques et industriels de l'Institut de mécanique de Grenoble

Laboratoire des Écoulements Géophysiques et Industriels facility in Grenoble, France

Laboratory of Geophysical and Industrial Fluid Flows

LEGI

LEGI (Grenoble)

LEGO

UMR 5519

UMR5519

Unité mixte de recherche 5519

Université Joseph Fourier

Université Joseph Fourier Grenoble Laboratoire des écoulements géophysiques et industriels

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French (16)

English (10)