WorldCat Identities

École doctorale Sciences, Ingénierie et Environnement (Champs-sur-Marne, Seine-et-Marne / 2015-....).

Overview
Works: 368 works in 369 publications in 2 languages and 460 library holdings
Roles: Other, 996
Publication Timeline
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Most widely held works by Ingénierie et Environnement (Champs-sur-Marne, Seine-et-Marne / 2015-....) École doctorale Sciences
Le système alimentation/excrétion des territoires urbains : régimes et transitions socio-écologiques by Fabien Esculier( )

2 editions published in 2018 in French and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Nutrition and excretion are fundamental physiological needs for all human beings. Analysis of their materiality, from the cellular scale up to the great planetary-scale biogeochemical cycles, shows that nutrition and excretion form a system. The focus of our study is the sustainability of the nutrition/excretion systems of urban areas, which we have sought to assess by analysing substance flows. The most relevant of these substances seems to be nitrogen, so by assessing urban nitrogen flows we can characterise the different possible socioecological regimes and their sustainability. We identify a wide diversity of nutrition/excretion systems depending on the places and eras considered. We propose to distinguish them in terms of their circularity, in other words by the rate at which nitrogen from excreta returns to agricultural land. Using the Paris urban area as our case study, we show that its nutrition/excretion system became increasingly circular in the 19th century, reaching maximum circularity right at the start of the 20th century, before becoming steadily more linear in the course of the 20th century. In these early years of the 21st century, the nutrition/excretion system of the Paris urban area is essentially linear, and still generates significant pollution at both local and global scales. Its environmental footprint is exacerbated by a diet that is very protein rich, mostly animal in origin, and by the non-consumption of a significant proportion of the food produced. All these factors make it unsustainable. These characteristics are found throughout the Western world and raise questions about the possibility of a socioecological transition to sustainable systems of nutrition and excretion. Since the 1990s, initially in Sweden, followed by Nordic and German-speaking Europe, awareness has been growing of the role of urine. Urine is responsible for three-quarters of urban nitrogenous excretions and is a safe substance: following a period of storage, it can be used as agricultural fertiliser. This new awareness has been followed by extensive experimentation and research on urine source separation. We show that this is currently the only method in the Western world to have accomplished a return to circular systems of nutrition/excretion. Urine source separation can be done in multiple ways, depending on circumstances, and conditions in France are favourable to its development, despite the sociotechnical lock-in to mixed sewage management systems. In a forward-looking scenario, we therefore explore the possibility that the Paris urban area could return to, and within a few decades even surpass, the heights of circularity that it attained during the Belle Époque. In that case, alongside a socioecological transition in the other systems - water, energy, transport - the people of this territory could establish a sustainable regime for their system of nutrition/excretion. This thesis is part of the OCAPI research and action programme (www.leesu.fr/OCAPI)
Study of the influence of fine particles on the properties of liquefaction of sands by Layal Jradi( )

1 edition published in 2018 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Au cours des 50 dernières années, l'étude du phénomène de liquéfaction de sols sableux saturés ont fait l'objet de nombreuses recherches en laboratoire. La plupart de ces recherches antérieures se sont concentrées sur la liquéfaction de sables propres, en supposant que la présence de fines limite le développement de la surpression interstitielle et donc le risque de liquéfaction. Cependant, les sables sableux naturels se trouvent généralement dans la nature sous la forme d'un mélange de sable et de fines et, l'influence de ces fines sur le risque de liquéfaction de ce type de matériau n'est toujours pas claire. En effet, on trouve des résultats contradictoires, dans la littérature, sur l'effet des particules fines sur le phénomène de liquéfaction des sables. Dans ce contexte, l'objectif principal de ce travail expérimental est de clarifier et de quantifier l'influence des particules fines présentes au sein d'une matrice sableuse sur l'initiation et le développement du phénomène de liquéfaction. On s'est intéressé, en particulier, à la nature des particules fines (plastique/non-plastique), à leur proportion au sein de la matrice, à l'état de compacité de la matrice et à l'état de contrainte initial (état de consolidation). A cet effet, à l'aide d'un nouveau dispositif triaxial servo-hydraulique, une série d'essais monotones et cycliques ont été effectués afin de clarifier cet effet. Les résultats expérimentaux montrent que l'augmentation de la proportion de fines non plastiques augmente la résistance à la liquéfaction du mélange sous chargements monotone et cyclique. Par contre, cette tendance est inversée pour les mélanges qui contiennent des fines plastiques. Enfin, une comparaison a été établie entre le comportement de ces sols sous cisaillement monotone et cyclique non drainé en termes d'évaluation du déclenchement du phénomène d'instabilité et d'autres paramètres mécaniques
Simulation des grandes échelles des transferts thermo-convectifs dans les écoulements turbulents d'un fluide non-Newtonien en conduite cylindrique by Sourou Gnambode( )

1 edition published in 2015 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This thesis is a numerical contribution of momentum and heat transfer of turbulent pipe flows of non-Newtonian fluids. The apparent viscosity of the fluid is modelled by a power-law (Ostwald de Waele model). Two models subgrid of LES were considered: the dynamic model of Germano et al. (1991) and model Smagorinsky non-Newtonian. They are used to describe the physical mechanisms involved in the isothermal flow of these complex rheology fluids. Heat transfer are simulated with the model of non-Newtonian Smagorinsky. These are processed in two parts. The first concerns the heat exchange without affecting the velocity distribution. This is non-thermo dependent flow or isothermal flow. The second part concerns the resolution of thermo dependent flows that focus on changes induced by the temperature-velocity coupling. The turbulent fields are analyzed statistically by averaging over time and space (according to the periodic directions) the instantaneous field of velocity and temperature to establish the average profiles of velocity and temperature, the root mean square of turbulent fluctuations (rms), Reynolds stress, the heat flow, the moments of higher order (skewness and flatness), the pdf (probability density function), the jpdf (attached probability density function), the coefficient of friction, the number of Nusselt ... These differents variables are analyzed for various parameters governing the problem: the Reynolds and Prandtl flow index and the number of Pearson
Développement d'un modèle de calcul de la capacité ultime d'éléments de structure (3D) en béton armé, basé sur la théorie du calcul à la rupture by Hugues Vincent( )

1 edition published in 2018 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Pour l'évaluation de la résistance ultime des ouvrages l'ingénieur de génie civil fait appel à différentes méthodes plus ou moins empiriques, dont de nombreuses manuelles, du fait de la lourdeur excessive des méthodes par éléments finis non-linéaires mises en œuvre dans les logiciels de calcul à sa disposition. Le calcul à la rupture, théorisé par J. Salençon, indique la voie de méthodes rigoureuses, tout à fait adaptées à cette problématique, mais dont la mise en œuvre systématique dans un logiciel a longtemps buté sur l'absence de méthodes numériques efficaces. Ce verrou de mathématique numérique a été levé récemment (Algorithme de point intérieur).Dans ce contexte l'objectif de la présente thèse est de mettre au point les méthodes permettant d'analyser, au moyen du calcul à la rupture, la capacité ultime d'éléments en béton armé tridimensionnels. Les deux approches du calcul à la rupture, que sont les approches statique et cinématiques, seront mises en œuvre numériquement sous la forme d'un problème d'optimisation résolu à l'aide d'un solveur mathématique dans le cadre de la programmation semi définie positive (SDP).Une large partie du travail sera consacré à la modélisation des différents matériaux constituant le béton armé. Le choix du critère pour modéliser la résistance du béton sera discuté, tout comme la méthode pour prendre en compte le renforcement. La méthode d'homogénéisation sera utilisée dans le cas de renforcement périodique et une adaptation de cette méthode sera utilisée dans le cas de renforts isolés. Enfin, les capacités et le potentiel de l'outil développé et mis en œuvre au cours de cette thèse seront exposés au travers d'exemples d'application sur des structures massives
Caractérisation large bande du comportement dynamique linéaire des structures hétérogènes viscoélastiques anisotropes : application à la table d'harmonie du piano by Pierre Margerit( )

1 edition published in 2018 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Le présent travail, réalisé dans le cadre du projet ANR MAESSTRO, concerne le remplacement des tables d'harmonie de piano traditionnellement constituées d'épicéa par des structures composites stratifiées. Cette démarche suppose une connaissance fine des matériaux à remplacer et des matériaux de remplacement. La contribution de la thèse consiste donc en le développement d'outils de caractérisation du comportement dynamique de structures viscoélastiques anisotropes hétérogènes sur une large bande de fréquence. Dans une première partie, l'étude théorique de la propagation des ondes planes dans ces structures est étudiée. Contrairement à une approche modale classique, les conditions aux limites et chargements sont écartés du problème. Les surfaces de dispersion obtenues contiennent la signature de l'anisotropie, de l'hétérogénéité des propriétés mécaniques ou encore du comportement dissipatif de la structure. La deuxième partie est dédiée au développement d'un moyen de mesure plein-champ robotisé. Celui-ci permet la mesure du champ de vitesse tridimensionnel instantané d'une structure soumise à un chargement dynamique répétable. La définition de l'expérience est intégrée dans un environnement CAO, permettant la prise en compte des problématiques liées à l'utilisation d'un bras robot, ainsi que l'automatisation complète de la mesure. La troisième partie est consacrée à la formulation de procédures d'identification basées sur les mesures obtenues. Les paramètres d'un modèle réduit de la mesure sont identifiés par le biais d'une méthode ESPRIT originale, intégrant des développements spécifiques aux mesures plein-champ. Ces paramètres sont ensuite utilisés pour exprimer un problème aux valeurs propres inverse permettant l'identification des propriétés de la structure mesurée. La démarche est mise en œuvre dans le cadre de l'analyse modale (régime transitoire) et l'analyse en vecteurs d'onde proposée (régime permanent). Des validations expérimentales sur des poutres homogènes et plaques anisotropes sont présentées. Le manuscrit conclut par l'application des méthodes proposées à l'identification des propriétés matériau d'une table d'harmonie de piano à queue Stephen Paulello Technologies SP190
Modélisation du charriage sédimentaire par une approche granulaire avec SPH by Alex Ghaïtanellis( )

1 edition published in 2017 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This thesis presents the development and application of a Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) model to bed-load transport. While state of the art simulation methods commonly rely on a fluid dynamics solver coupled to semi-empirical relationships to model the sediment transport, a completely different approach is investigated in this work. The sediment is treated as a continuum whose behaviour law takes account for its granular nature. citepos{ulrich2013smoothed} elastic-viscoplastic model is thus implemented in an in-house code based on the Cuda language, and improved on physical and numerical aspects. The sediment behaviour depends on a yield stress determined according to Drucker-Prager's criterion. In unyielded regions, the shear stresses are calculated in line with the linear elastic theory. In yielded regions, a shear thinning rheological law is used and the transitions between solid and liquid states are ensured by a blending function driven by the strain rate magnitude and sediment granular properties. Water and sediment are modelled as two immiscible phases in the frame of a multi-phase SPH model with semi-analytical wall boundary conditions cite{ferrand2013unified}. An implicit viscous forces integration scheme is also developed to improve the code performance as for low-Reynolds flows.The multi-phase model, as well as the implicit viscous forces integration scheme, were validated on analytical test cases and good agreement was obtained. The multi-phase formulation has also proven its capability to handle flows involving high density ratio, while the implicit viscous forces integration scheme was successfully applied to the simulation of a non-Newtonian flow. The elastic-viscoplastic model was tested on dry and submerged granular flow problems. The model was able to correctly capture the liquid and solid states of the granular material, as well as the failure and the regime transitions. It was also applied to bed-load transport problems for which a good agreement with the experiment was generally found
Crack propagation on rock mass on the CO2 storage context by Gisèle Suhett Helmer( )

1 edition published in 2014 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Approche micromécanique du comportement d'une suspension de bulles dans un fluide à seuil by Thi Thuy Linh Nguyen( )

1 edition published in 2015 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This thesis contributes to characterizing the behavior of a suspension of bubbles dispersed in a non-Newtonian fluid (yield stress fluid type).It consists of three parts. The first part is a literature review identifying the theoretical and experimental works for bubbles sheared in a Newtonian material. The second part is dedicated to the experimental study of the simple shear of a bubble suspended in a yield stress fluid. The last part consists in developing an upscaling approach to study the macroscopic behavior of a suspension of bubbles in a yield stress fluid. For experimental work, we developped a first prototype of device for the study of the shearing of a bubble in a yield stress fluid. For that purpose, an air bubble is injected in a big volume of Carbopol sheared far from the bubble by a system in two parallel bands. A fist series of tests allowed to show the efficiency of the device and to obtain some results on the deformability of a sheared bubble in a yield stress fluid. For theoretical work, first we proposed estimates of the behavior of the suspension in the case of diluted scheme, Mori-Tanaka, autocoherent and morphological patterns. These models have allowed us to find that in the elastic regime the macroscopic elastic modulus of the suspension depends on the capillary number Caelast defined as the ratio of the shear modulus of the fluid suspended over the capillary pressure of the bubble. Then using a modified secant homogenization method (Suquet 1997), we estimated the overall nonlinear properties of the suspension. The model predicts that the overall yield stress of the suspension is that of the suspending fluid regardless of the size of bubbles. The validation of these micromechanical models was achieved thanks to the experimental results obtained in the laboratory (Ducloué 2014).Keywords: bubbles suspensions, yield stress fluid, rheology, capillary number, upscaling approach
Modélisation numérique du comportement hydromécanique des milieux poreux fracturés : analyse des conditions de propagation des fractures by Van-Linh Nguyen( )

1 edition published in 2015 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Global warming effect related to CO2 emission has led to sequestration projects of this gas in reservoir formations. These formations can be crossed by faults and safety issue of storage requires the study of fault reactivation and propagation risk. This study goes through in-depth investigations of fracture propagation conditions under hydromechanical solicitations. This thesis aims at theoretical and numerical studies of these conditions and the numerical simulation of fracture propagation. Numerical modelling of thermo-hydro-mechanical processes in fractured porous media using Finite Element Method (FEM) allows the simulation of complex and nonlinear phenomena. Difficulties in integrating fluid mass exchange between fracture and surrounding matrix in the equations with FEM have been solved in recent works and our numerical simulations have been based on this progress. In a first step, we modelled transient flow subjected to a fluid injection and we studied the Stress Intensity Factor (SIF) at fracture tip in the framework of linear poroelasticity theory. If injection conditions are kept constant and the fracture does not evolve, the flow tends to a steady state. The SIF develops during transient phase to reach a limit value in the steady state. Modelling of transient flow is very time consuming and it is interesting to find a method to exploit the results of a calculation in steady state. Theoretical analysis and results of numerical simulations show that the SIF calculated at steady state can provide some bounds for fracture propagation under transient flow. In the framework of linear poroelasticity and Poiseuille flow in fractures, some semi-analytical expressions of SIF at steady state could be derived. For simple geometries, these approximate formulations are efficient to discuss fracture propagation conditions for typical and simple cases of fracture geometry and fluid injection conditions. In a second step, a Cohesive Zone/Fracture Model (CFM) was used to model fracture propagation on the basis of damage. This model, based on a modified Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion, simulates interface damage under both mode I and II loads. An equivalence relation between parameters of CFM and Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics model (LEFM) was established on the basis of fracture propagation length under similar loads. This relationship allows the extension of theoretical equivalence between LEFM and CFM established for brittle materials and on the basis of energy criteria, for quasi-brittle and ductile materials. It has also shown that CFM can simulate specific phenomena such as propagation instabilities for mode I and II and fracture kinking under mode II. Finally, taking into account the fluid pressure in the fracture permitted to obtain a CFM coupled with hydraulic processes which has been implemented in a numerical finite element code to study fracture propagation under hydromechanical solicitations. Numerical simulations were performed to study the risk of fault reactivation and propagation in the context of CO2 injection in Paris Basin reservoir formation
Dynamique des foules : modélisation du mouvement des piétons et forces associées engendrées by Bachar Kabalan( )

1 edition published in 2016 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Que ce soit dans une rue commerçante, un supermarché ou un aéroport, les phénomènes de foule sont incontournables et nous affecte au quotidien. Elle constitue un système complexe dont la dynamique collective, résultant des interactions individuelles, est difficile à appréhender et a toujours intrigué les scientifiques de différents domaines. Grâce au progrès technologique, il est aujourd'hui possible de modéliser les mouvements de foule et de les reproduire en simulation. Les simulations de mouvement de foule permettent aux chercheurs de plusieurs disciplines, comme les sciences sociales ou la biomécanique, de mieux étudier et comprendre les mouvements des piétons et leurs interactions. Quant aux sciences de la sécurité et du transport, ils y voient des applications concrètes comme le développement de modèles de foule capables de simuler l'évacuation d'un lieu public de moyenne ou de forte affluence, afin que les futures constructions ou aménagements publics puissent offrir une qualité de sécurité et de service optimale pour les usagers. Dans le cadre de cette thèse, nous avons travaillé sur le perfectionnement du modèle discret proposé et développé par l'équipe dynamique du laboratoire Navier. Dans ce modèle, les actions et les décisions de chaque piéton sont traitées individuellement. Trois aspects du modèle ont été traités dans cette thèse. Le premier concerne la navigation des piétons vers leurs destinations. Dans notre modèle, un piéton est représenté par une particule ayant une direction et une allure souhaitées. Cette direction est obtenue par la résolution d'une équation eikonale. La solution de cette équation permet d'obtenir un champ de vitesses qui attribue à chaque piéton, en fonction de sa position, une direction vers sa destination. La résolution de l'équation une fois ou à une période quelconque donne la stratégie du chemin le plus court ou le plus rapide respectivement. Les effets des deux stratégies sur la dynamique collective de la foule sont comparés. Le deuxième consiste à gérer le comportement des piétons. Après avoir choisi son chemin, un piéton doit interagir avec l'environnement (obstacles, topologie, ...) et les autres piétons. Nous avons réussi à intégrer trois types de comportement dans notre modèle: (i) la poussée en utilisant une approche originale, basée sur la théorie des collisions des corps rigides dans un cadre thermodynamique rigoureux, (ii) le passage agressif (forcer son chemin) modélisé par une force sociale répulsive et (iii) l'évitement ``normal'' en adoptant une approche cognitive basée sur deux heuristiques. Les performances des trois méthodes ont été comparées pour plusieurs critères. Le dernier aspect concerne la validation et la vérification du modèle. Nous avons réalisé une étude de sensibilité et validé le modèle qualitativement et quantitativement. À l'aide d'un plan d'expérience numérique nous avons réussi à identifier les paramètres d'entrée ayant les effets principaux sur les résultats du modèle. De plus, nous avons trouvé les différentes interactions entre ces paramètres. En ce qui concerne la validation qualitative, nous avons réussi à reproduire plusieurs phénomènes d'auto-organisation. Enfin, nous avons testé la capacité de notre modèle à reproduire des résultats expérimentaux issus de la littérature. Nous avons choisi le cas du goulot d'étranglement. Les résultats du modèle et ceux de l'expérience ont été comparés. Ce modèle de foule a également été appliqué à l'acheminement des piétons dans la gare de Noisy-Champs. L'objectif de cette application est d'estimer le temps de stationnement des trains dans la gare
Contribution à l'étude du comportement différé des géomatériaux avec prise en compte des conditions thermo-hydriques by Hugo Troupel( )

1 edition published in 2017 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

A better understanding of deferred phenomena affecting geomaterials behaviour is essential to allow a more efficient design of structures. We studied the link between tests used to characterize deferred effects on the mechanical behavior of geomaterials. First, we focused on the influence of the stress load on the stress path of clay in oedometric condition. We carried out different types of tests on saturated drained clay: strain rate tests, creep tests and relaxation tests. Our study shows that the state of axial and radial stresses and thus the earth coefficient at rest do not depend on the strain rate imposed over a wide range of strain rates. The stress path in oedometric condition is therefore, with regard to our experimental results, both a characteristic of the clay and a property of the state of the sample. To study the influence of environmental factors such as temperature and relative humidity on the mechanical behavior of geomaterials, we developed an original experimental device to control the axial stress, temperature and relative humidity of the specimen in oedometric condition. The device was tested on sand and on cellular concrete i isothermal condition. Regarding the sand, a series of oedometer tests by loading steps showed that the index of compression and the index of swelling of the sand does not seem affected by temperature and relative humidity. However, the temperature modifies the hydro-mechanical behavior of the sand. Indeed, at 25 °C, the stress path and thus the earth coefficient at rest of soil does not depend on relative humidity, whereas at 41 °C, the earth coefficient at rest decreases with an increase in relative humidity. Concerning cellular concrete, we have been forced to work in uniaxial condition, it has been shown that the compression index increases with relative humidity regardless of the level of stress applied.Finally, an elasto/visco-plastic model has been implemented to account for time effects on the mechanical behavior of a saturated geomaterial. After discussing the role of each parameter, we have identified parameters to reproduce results of the experimental tests. In addition, after calibrating the model using two CRS tests, we predicted a CRS test at another strain rate in a convincing manner
A multi-technique investigation of the effect of hydration temperature on the microstructure and mechanical properties of cement paste by Sara Bahafid( )

1 edition published in 2017 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The cement hydration process and the resulting microstructure are highly dependent on the cement formulation and the hydration conditions. Particularly, the hydration temperature has a significant influence on the cement paste microstructure and its mechanical properties. This is for instance important for understanding the behaviour and properties of oil-well cements which are used to form a cement sheath between the casing and the surrounding formation for stability and sealing purposes. This cement sheath is hydrated under a progressively increasing temperature along the depth of a well due to the geothermal gradient (about 25°C/km). It results generally in a decrease of the mechanical properties and an increase of permeability along the well. The aim of the present thesis is to investigate the effect of the hydration temperature in the range of 7°C to 90°C on the microstructure of a class G cement paste and to establish the link between these temperature dependent microstructure and the elastic properties of the material. The microstructure characterization is done by combining various experimental methods, including X-Ray diffraction associated with the Rietveld analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, mercury intrusion porosimetry, porosity evaluation by freeze-drying or drying at 11% RH, Nitrogen and water vapour sorption experiments and finally 1H nuclear magnetic resonance. The mass assemblage of microstructure phases at different curing temperatures has been evaluated and showed a slight dependence on the hydration temperature. The porosity evaluations show an increase of the capillary porosity and a slight decrease of the total porosity at 28 days, resulting in a decrease of the gel porosity by increasing the hydration temperature. An analysis method has been proposed to evaluate the C-S-H saturated density and chemical composition in terms of H/S and C/S molar ratios. The C-S-H bulk density is increasing with increasing hydration temperature which explains the observed increase of the capillary porosity for higher curing temperatures. The C/S ratio and H/S ratio for both solid and saturated C-S-H are decreasing with increasing curing temperature. The provided quantitative characterization of cement paste microstructure is used in a micromechanical modelling for evaluation of the elastic properties at various hydration temperatures. Two and three-scale self-consistent micromechanical models have shown that the increase of capillary porosity with increasing hydration temperature cannot fully explain the drop of elastic properties. This is mainly due to the increased elastic properties of C-S-H being denser at higher temperature that cancel the effect of increasing capillary porosity on the overall elastic properties. Another way to fully account for the decrease of the mechanical properties of cement paste is to consider the porosity distribution inside the C-S-H in the form of two distinguished C-S-H types, High Density (HD) and Low Density (LD) C-S-H, as proposed by Tennis and Jennings (2000). This possibility is probed by a combination of various porosity evaluations: Mercury intrusion porosimetry, nitrogen adsorption and water vapour desorption and by a back calculation using micromechanical modelling. The results show that the LD intrinsic porosity is slightly increasing while the HD intrinsic porosity decreases significantly with increasing hydration temperature. The decrease of the elastic properties of cement based materials with increasing hydration temperature is therefore a combined action of the increase of capillary porosity and the changes of intrinsic C-S-H porosities
Étalements de fluides à seuil by Mathilde Maillard( )

1 edition published in 2015 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Yield stress fluids are used in various industrial processes in which solid tools make them flow. To have a better understanding on how they spread on surfaces, we first studied the vertical coating on a thin plate and then the horizontal blade-coating. Both studies are based on macroscopic measures recording the force applied on the plate and on the microscopic determination on the velocity fields in the fluid by PIV. Numerical simulations based on cone programming, which validity had been confirmed in comparison to our experimental results, specified the flows at stake. In dip-coating, we observed than within our framework, the yield stress fluid deposit on the plate is millimetric and of constant thickness, except on the tips. According to the value of the viscous over plastic forces ratio, the coating is led by a "yield-gravity" or a "visco-gravity" balance. Then, we characterized the flow generated in the bath by the plate displacement in order to clarify the origin of the coating phenomenon. The numerical simulations specified the flow characteristics. The horizontal blade-coating in a channel involves the displacement of a weakly sheared cluster of fluid in relation to a part of fluid at rest, through a sheared layer. We showed that the growing dynamic of the cluster is described with a simple model which links it to the normal force to the plate
Etude du comportement des enrobés bitumineux aux températures de mise en œuvre by Angélique Fabre des Essarts( )

1 edition published in 2016 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Since the 2000s, road industries have focused their researches on lowering the mixing and implementation temperatures of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) (from 30 to 50°C). These new asphalt concretes, called Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA), created a workability issue that did not exist in the case of HMA, especially during manual implementation. This thesis aims to study the behavior of these WMA at implementation temperatures and to develop a method to characterize and evaluate their workability. For that, the experimental work was done at several scales of the material (the binder, the mastic and the mixture), some made with bituminous binders and some with silicone oils. Two properties were studied: on the one hand the viscosity of binders and mastics, and on the other hand the workability of mixtures measured by the workability device, newly standardized. After a state of the art on asphalt concretes, in particular WMA, on their implementation and characterization techniques, on the rheological properties of bituminous binders and mastics, the different materials used are presented along with their characterizations. The rheological studies conducted on binder and mastic are exposed in a first part, from the setup of measure procedures to the analysis of different behaviors with respect to the chosen parameters such as temperature, shear rate, filler content. This part highlights not only the Newtonian nature of binders but also the non-Newtonian behavior of mastics and the sedimentation phenomenon they endured at high temperatures which leads to investigate the legitimacy of the study at the mastic scale. In a second part, the workability of the mixtures is measured with the workability device (NF P 98 258-1), showing the importance of controlling the void content of the sample to guaranty a relevant test. An analysis of several parameters highlighted the ability and the limits of this device to characterize workability, with regard to the rheological studies on binders and mastics
Identification des sources de phtalates et d'alkylphénols (polluants émergents) en milieu urbain et compréhension des processus d'élimination by Steven Deshayes( )

1 edition published in 2015 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Alkylphenols (AP) and phthalates (or Phthalate Acid Esters - PAE) are classified as endocrine-disrupting compounds. Despite a small number of studies, some data suggests that phthalates could have a negative effect on reproduction in human beings (Bocken, 2001). Recently, Bergé et al. (2014) monitored alkylphenol and phthalate concentrations in wastewater at the scale of Paris conurbation: a heavily urbanized but weakly industrialized catchment. Such type of catchment, with 8.5 million inhabitants and less than 2% of wastewater originating from industries, could therefore be used to model the fate of alkylphenols and phthalates for major cities located in industrialized countries. It has been shown that alkylphenols and phthalates are not rejected by the industry but they mainly originate from domestic wastewater. Indeed, it was observed that more than 95% of the load derived from domestic wastewater (Bergé et al., 2014).However, the contribution of the different types of waters constituting domestic wastewater to the pollution of alkylphenols and phthalates has not been addressed so far. Our works have therefore helped to bridge this gap on the origin of four phthalate (DEP DnBP, BBP and DEHP) and two types of alkylphenols (nonylphenol and octylphenol isomers), among the most commonly studied congeners in greywater and blackwater. 165 samples of greywater, distributed into six categories (washing machine, dishwasher, dishes, cleaning floors, sink and shower) and 3 samples of black water (toilets) were collected directly from individuals. For that purpose, a specific sampling protocol for each type of water has been established then a call for volunteers was launched in the Paris region. 79 households (76 for greywater and 3 for wastewater) participated at this work leading to a unique robust database on greywater of the Paris conurbation. Significant disparities emerged between the different types of greywater. Indeed, results showed that wastewater from showers and washing machines account for more than 80% of both the phthalate and alkylphenol loads released to domestic wastewater. Therefore, it was decided to define more precisely the pollution sources of AP and PAE in both types of greywater. To do this, a decomposition of potential sources and a separate analysis of each of them led to different findings. Indeed, we demonstrated that alkyphenols and DnBP mostly originated from products used in showers and washing machines, while the other PAEs came from clothing and / or deposits that accumulated on it during the day.During this work, APs and PAEs were also monitored during the transport of wastewater within the sewer network and in the different stages of wastewater treatment plants. Within the sewer system, almost no change in concentrations of APs and PAEs was observed despite the level of contamination found in deposits from grit chambers (35 µg/g.dw for DEHP). We highlighted a significant evolution between 2010 and 2015 of AP and PAE loads transiting in the main trunks of Seine Aval WWTP, a 5 million population-equivalent WWTP. Indeed, loads observed during this thesis were 3 to 6 times lower than those observed by Bergé (2012) in 2011 for APs and from 2 to 4 times lower for PAEs. However, DnBP differs because the flows for this congener increased by a factor of 10 between 2011 and 2015
Comportement thermomécanique de structures intégrant des alliages à mémoire de forme : Modélisation, Simulation et Expérimentation. Application aux façades adaptatives by Philippe Hannequart( )

1 edition published in 2018 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The surprising thermomechanical properties of shape memory alloys (SMA) are harnessed in many engineering fields. This material is able to set a structure in motion upon a temperature change. Today, contemporary building facades must adapt to variable climate conditions as well as to evolving building use and occupancy. In particular, they must regulate light and thermal energy passing through the facade, with motorized systems, for example. We explore the potential of SMA wires for putting in motion solar shading devices in facades. The modelling of the mechanical coupling induced by the introduction of such materials in a structure has received little attention as of now. The SMA acts on the structure which in return modifies the SMA behavior. The first step of this work is a contribution to modelling the thermomechanical behavior of this material through the choice of a free energy, a dissipation potential and internal variables. We propose two one-dimensional models: a first monocrystalline model reproduces the material behavior in a simplified way, and a second polycrystalline model offers a more accurate description of it. An original temperature-controlled testing apparatus was developed in parallel. This led to a reliable characterization of Nickel-Titanium wires and the identification of the model parameters. In a second stage, these models allowed to solve elementary coupling cases (SMA wire + Spring, Elastic plate + Embedded SMA wire) for simple thermomechanical loadings and we established analytical solutions. The models were then numerically implemented via a user-material script (UMAT) for the finite elements software ABAQUS, by using a constrained optimization algorithm. This enables the simulation of the coupled response of, in principle, any structural system including SMA wires, connected or embedded in the structure. Finally, we designed, fabricated and tested different actuators in the context of sunlight control in facades. The working principle lies in using a temperature cycle which allows the SMA to deform the structure, and then allows the elastic strain energy in the structure to ensure the return to the original shape. The real behavior of these actuators have been compared to analytical and finite element calculations. We also performed cyclic tests
Analyse multi-échelle du comportement hygromécanique du bois : Mise en évidence par relaxométrie du proton et mesures de champs volumiques de l'influence de l'hétérogénéité au sein du cerne by Marie Bonnet( )

1 edition published in 2017 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Wood has highly variable properties and is also hygroscopic. These characteristics may restrict its use in construction even if it can be considered as a material of choice with the current environmental and economical concerns. Therefore, it is essential to better understand the physical origins of the behavior of wood in order to improve the prediction of its properties, and making it competitive with respect to other building materials. Dimensional changes of wood appear when it is subjected to relative humidity variations. This hygromechanical behavior is particularly difficult to predict because of the multiscale structure of wood and its complex interactions with water.In this context, the present work aims to understand and enrich relationships between microstructure, sorption properties and hygromechanical behavior of wood. More specifically, it is focused on the influence of the growth-ring heterogeneity, constituted of earlywood and latewood which have different structures and properties. The study is performed on Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco), which is a species of significant interest for structural applications. Advanced characterization tools are used: proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) to characterize sorption mechanisms; digital volume correlation (DVC) to measure deformation fields from X-Ray microtomography 3D images (XRµT), also providing local density of wood.At first wood properties and its hygromechanical behavior are described through a literature overview. Preliminary microstructural (microfibril angle, growth-ring width, density) and hygromechanical behavior characterizations of earlywood and latewood samples with different cambium age are performed. Earlywood reveals a strong anisotropic behavior compared to latewood which is isotropic in the transversal plane. Moreover, strains along the fiber direction nonlinearly evolve with moisture content. This phenomenon has been hardly reported and studied in the literature. Discussions on variability of properties and on relationships between structure and properties are also initiated.Sorption mechanisms are then studied by 2D NMR relaxometry (T1-T2 correlation spectra) in order to investigate differences between earlywood and latewood hygromechanical behaviors. Two types of bound water located in distinct environments are highlighted and their sorption isotherms are shown to be different in the two types of wood. A hypothesis on their location in the cell-wall is proposed and a simple 2D model is developed to evaluate their respective effect on the hygromechanical behavior of earlywood and latewood, especially in the fiber direction.Furthermore, local and global strains fields are studied using DVC from XRµT images of earlywood and latewood subjected to relative humidity variations. The coupling of these two materials is also investigated in order to evaluate their mechanical interactions and to understand the behavior at the growth-ring scale. A specific DVC procedure is developed for images of wood. The hygromechanical behaviors of earlywood, latewood and a growth-ring are compared. At the local scale, strains fields heterogeneities are highlighted and correlated to the local density. Their effect on the growth-ring behavior and the samples curvature is analyzed. A 3D finite elements model which takes into account local gradients of properties is finally developed to better understand earlywood-latewood mechanical interactions
Modélisation des murs en maçonnerie sous sollicitations sismiques by Michele Godio( )

1 edition published in 2015 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Developed. The method is based on the two-dimensional micropolar continuum theory and makes use of the kinematic approach of limit analysis in conjunction with a rigorous homogenization technique. The method is introduced in a general way, with regard to the genericclass of discrete periodic media made of particles of the same type. The case of masonry is presented as application. The homogenised strength domains of masonry columns and walls are retrieved in terms of the generalized stresses and couple stresses of the Cosserat continuum. The formulation of the method based on the Cosserat continuum enables the investigation of the influence of the relative rotation of the particles on the strength of the discrete medium. This influence is illustrated by the application to masonry structures, in comparison with other methods presented in the literature. The development of the homogenisation method continues with its extension to discrete periodic media made of particles disposed along three directions and showing three periodicity vectors. In this case, the approach relies on the three-dimensional micropolar theory. This enables to capture the three-dimensional effect of the relative translations and rotations of the particles constituting the discrete medium. The application to masonry columns and walls shows how the in-plane and out-of-plane actions result coupled in the assessment of masonry strength. The relative rotation of the blocks accentuates this effect, which consistently diminishes the in-plane strength. Masonry walls are finally ascribed to homogenised plates with Cosserat kinematics. A finite element formulation for Cosserat plate models is next developed. The formulation is first presented for elasticity and dynamics. The validation of a specific finite element is made by means of numerical benchmarks and patch tests. The actual use of the element is presented in an application to masonry structures. The natural frequencies of a masonry panel modelled by discrete elements are computed and compared with those given by a homogenisation model implemented in the element. This allows to investigate the role of the in-plane rotations of the blocks and to show their implication towards seismic analyses of masonry structures. The finite element formulation is next extended to the elastoplastic framework. The implementation of the multisurface plasticity theory into the Cosserat finite element is presented. The implementation of this theory is based on a projection algorithm. An important limitation of the classical implementation of this algorithm prevents its use in the framework of multisurface plasticity in efficient way. This limitation is discussed and a solution strategy is proposed. The finite element for Cosserat plate models is finally validated through numerous numerical benchmarks. In conclusion, three different modelling approaches for masonry are proposed and comviipared. A continuum model based on the Cosserat continuum is first presented. The model isconstructed by implementing the homogenised yield criteria computed based on the proposed analytical method into the developed finite element. A homogenisation model based on Cauchy continuum is next introduced. This model is constructed by selecting appropriate constitutive laws and yield criteria from the literature. The performance of those homogenisation models in representing the elastoplastic response of a masonry panel is discussed, based on the comparison with a third analogue discrete elements model. The capability of the three models in predicting the scale effect in the formation of failure mechanisms is investigated in a practical application to masonry structures
Optimisation des efforts dans un ancrage courbe collé acier/composites by Haysam Chafi( )

1 edition published in 2017 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Les matériaux composites connaissent un intérêt croissant dans la majorité des secteurs de l'industrie en raison de leur faible poids propre et de leurs propriétés physico-chimiques intéressantes. Cependant, l'utilisation de ces matériaux a nécessité de conduire en parallèle des réflexions sur leur assemblage avec d'autres matériaux qui a donné naissance au développement de la technologie d'assemblage par collage structural. Cette technique qui permet de pouvoir assembler des matériaux de nature différente en limitant par exemple l'augmentation du poids propre de la structure n'est pas encore totalement maîtrisée. Pour cela, des développements sur la qualification des efforts d'adhésion ou sur la compréhension de la durabilité sont encore nécessaires. Cette thèse aborde la problématique de l'optimisation des assemblages collés et vise en particulier à étudier de manière plus précise l'utilisation de la courbure afin d'optimiser le transfert des efforts au sein du joint de colle. Deux types de colle, présentant l'une un comportement élastique fragile et l'autre un comportement élastoplastique ont été étudiés dans ce travail sur les différents volets analytique, numérique, et, expérimental. Il s'est avéré que la plasticité de l'adhésif semble améliorer la capacité de résistance du joint collé et sera alors un paramètre essentiel dans leur optimisation. Une étude de la géométrie courbe des joints collés acier/composite a été ensuite menée et il ressort de cette étude que cette géométrie est efficace pour augmenter la résistance d'un joint collé à la rupture. De plus, afin d'approfondir les connaissances sur le comportement mécanique du joint collé courbe, et en absence d'étude bibliographique suffisante sur ce type de collage, nous avons ensuite eu recours à la modélisation par la méthode des zones cohésives pour pouvoir aussi valider l'atout de la géométrie courbe par rapport à la géométrie plane. Ce travail s'est enfin intéressé à la durabilité mécanique de cette solution en abordant la thématique de la fatigue ; même si des investigations supplémentaires seront nécessaires, nous avons d'ores et déjà constaté que l'optimisation du joint par l'utilisation d'une colle élastoplastique et une géométrie courbe permet d'améliorer le comportement en fatigue de l'assemblage collé
Mise en évidence et simulation de l'endommagement des revêtements de carbone amorphe pour application moteur à combustion interne by Geoffrey Pagnoux( )

1 edition published in 2015 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The use of micrometric diamond-like carbon coatings (named DLC) are becoming widely used by automotive manufacturers in order to improve the efficiency of internal combustion engines by reducing the mechanical friction losses. Although DLC coatings generally exhibit excellent tribological properties and very low wear rates, their use in internal combustion engines shows that, subject to complex loadings, many degradation modes are observable. Untimely propagation of these latter upon the entire coated surfaces is a risk to control in order to guarantee the coating function over time. From one hand, this control implies to know and to understand all DLC degradation mechanisms when applied to engine components. On the other hand, it is necessary to possess lifetime simulation tools that can be used to optimize tribological systems in their early design. The work presented in this thesis has been guided by these goals and gathers experimental analyses of DLC-coated components, numerical analyzes, simplified testing protocols and coupling analyses of degradation processes. All these topics finally lead to the definition of a lifetime simulation tool adapted to DLC coated internal combustion engine applications
 
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Alternative Names
ComUE Paris-Est (Champs-sur-Marne). École doctorale Sciences, Ingénierie et Environnement

École doctorale 531

École doctorale SIE

ED 531

ED531

Sciences, Ingénierie et Environnement

SIE

Université Paris-Est (Champs-sur-Marne). École doctorale Sciences, Ingénierie et Environnement

Languages
French (15)

English (6)