WorldCat Identities

Laboratoire d'ingénierie des biomolécules (Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy)

Overview
Works: 50 works in 56 publications in 3 languages and 57 library holdings
Roles: Other, Degree grantor, Editor
Publication Timeline
.
Most widely held works by Laboratoire d'ingénierie des biomolécules (Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy)
Caractérisation de la forme et de la surface de poudres laitières et céréalières : Relations entre propriétés et réactivité des particules by Ingrid Murrieta-Pazos( Book )

2 editions published in 2012 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The work carried out on this PhD thesis is positioned in the context of the characterization of the food particle surface properties. The shape and surface characteristics are strongly related to the functional properties and reactivity of food powders. However, the number of techniques available, to perfromethe study and characterization of food particles surface is reduced. Thus, the objective of this work was to develop new techniques and protocols in order to characterize the shape and surface of milk powder and semolina particles. The ultimate goal is to relate the particle surface properties and reactivity. A multi-scale approach raised in this work involves different analytical techniques and characterization. At the atomic scale, techniques to characterize the surface and the heart of particles by EDX were developed (exploration of the particle at 1 micron depth). The adaptation of the EDX coupled to the XPS (5 nm depth) permit figure out the values of surface composition (lactose, fat, protein) from atomic percentages. At the molecular level, the composition gradients studied by coupling the EDX and XPS as well as different fractions of fat (fat free, encapsulated and total) were studied. In parallel, a characterization protocol was used to evaluate the shape properties using a granumorpholometer. The surface free energy was determined by IGC and Capillary rise. These innovative techniques in the field of food powders have demonstrated to be of interest. Finally,a at the microstructural scale, the surface modification by external contraintswas studied. Thus, interactions particle / water and surface modification by dry coating,to do it, pure components as coating (carbohydrates or proteins) were used
Influence du procédé de congélation sur les levures et les propriétés techno-fonctionnelles des pâtes sucrées (type Kougelhopf) by Smaïl Meziani( Book )

2 editions published in 2011 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The frozen doughs are relatively stable and can be manufactured on an industrial scale, distributed and baked on demand at the point of sale or consumption (Bake-off). Freezing sweet dough induces a decrease in specific volume and an increase in fermentation time, these effects are due to two factors: lower production of CO2 (yeast viability) and losing capacity to retain gas (gluten network integrity). The loss of quality of frozen dough is accelerated during storage. This study focuses on the freezing and frozen storage effects on Kougelhopf sweet doughs. The aim of this work is to study the impact of freezing rate on microbiological, rheological, structural, and sensory properties of sweet doughs. The sweet doughs were frozen at different temperatures (-20°C, -30°C, -40°C and an immersion in liquid nitrogen) and stored at -40°C for 9 weeks. The main results obtained showed an impact of freezing rate and frozen storage duration on the frozen doughs intrinsic properties. This study shown the dependence of fermentation activity and integrity of the gluten network with freezing rate, which controls size and location of ice crystals resulting in research of a compromise between freezing rate nor too fast to reduce yeast viability, nor too slow to form large ice crystals that could perforate gluten network. Added the yeast amount is necessary only for frozen sweet doughs to be stored beyond 4 weeks, which improves the overall quality of Kougelhopf by compensating for yeast activity decrease during freezing and frozen storage
Colloque STPMF 2015 [École des] mines Nancy, campus Artem, 8-10 avril 2015 by Colloque Science et technologie des poudres( )

1 edition published in 2015 in Miscellaneous languages and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Fractionnement et polymérisation enzymatique des lignosulfonates de sodium : études structurale, chimique, physico-chimique et cinétique by Nidal Madad( Book )

2 editions published in 2011 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This work aims to study the effect of diafiltration and enzymatic polymerization on the heterogeneity, the chemical composition and physicochemical properties of lignosulfonates in solution. Membrane fractionation process was carried out by diafiltration. The lignosulfonates were fractionated into five fractions with different molecular weights and polydispersity ranging from 1400 g mol-1 to 19500 g mol-1 and from 1.4 to 3.5, respectively. The results indicate that diafiltration allows obtaining fractions which have enhanced and/or different properties from unfractionated product and a less heterogeneous distribution. Fractions with a weight average molecular weight between 2500 g mol-1 and 4300 g mol-1 have the largest concentration of hydroxyl and sulfonic groups which affect their properties, since they exhibit surface and antioxidant activities higher than unfractionated lignosulfonates. The enzymatic polymerization of lignosulfonates by laccase was studied in the presence or absence of mediator. The polymerization of lignosulfonates was observed as a product of their oxidation by SEC. The main factors influencing the polymerization of lignosulfonates are (i) a very high concentration of lignosulfonates (ii) the use of fungal laccases (laccase from Trametes versicolor) with a high redox potential (iii) the use of acetosyringone or violuric acid as mediator. The effect of the reactor mode (batch, continuous and semi continuous) of the polymerization of lignosulfonates has been reported. Comparison of the results of the three modes has shown that the continuous mode led to a significant increase in molecular weight (30600 Da) and the largest decrease of the polydispersity of the synthesized polymers (3.7). Thus, this mode of conducting the reaction is more suitable for homogeneous products
Propriétés d'auto-assemblage de phospholipides riches en acides gras polyinsaturés : caractérisation physico-chimique et simulation de bicouches par dynamique moléculaire by Pascale Sautot( Book )

2 editions published in 2011 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The literature of recent decades is replete with references regarding the benefits of omega 3 fatty acids such as EPA (C20:5 n-3) and DHA (C22:6 n-3) which play an essential role in preventing many diseases such as neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer's type). The major sources of EPA and DHA are those of marine origin. It is within this context that this study chose to deal with phospholipids from salmon heads. The objective was to extract, purify phosphatidylcholine (PC) derived from the mixture of lipids and determine its properties of self-assembly into bilayers. An experimental approach by the physicochemical characterization of this PC was supplemented by a theoretical study of the same compound using the techniques of molecular dynamics simulation that allowed a molecular-scale characterization of lipid bilayers. The characterization resulted in detailed profile of the mixture composition of salmon PC, to draw up the phase diagram of PC-water, to determine the packing and hydration properties of this lipid. The parameters chosen for the study of molecular dynamics have faithfully reproduced the experimental results, thus validating the model and simulation conditions determined in advance. The characterization of structural properties of the PC as a multilayer salmon has deepened the understanding of interaction mechanisms at the molecular level between unsaturated lipids themselves
Interactions peptides antibactériens - surfaces bactériennes : Etude de la carnobactériocine Cbn BM1, une bactériocine de classe IIa by Thibaut Jacquet( Book )

2 editions published in 2011 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The antimicrobial activity of class IIa bacteriocins toward Gram positive bacteria relies on their membrane targeting mechanisms of action. These mechanisms are modulated by the bacterial surface properties. The physico-chemical surface properties of eighteen bacterial strains were determined to link these properties to the resistance/sensitivity to Cbn BM1 of the bacterial strains. In this way, two approaches were undertaken : the microbial adhesion to solvents and electrophoretic mobility measurements. The results show a large diversity of the determined properties among the strains but without establishing a direct link between the surface properties and the resistance/sensitivity phenotypes. Mechanisms of action of the bacteriocin Cbn BM1 on Carnobacterium maltaromaticum DSM20730 and Listeria monocytogenes EGDe were determined. Syto9® and propidium iodide allowed to show the heterogeneity of the bacterial populations toward the alteration of the membrane integrity. The interaction of Cbn BM1 with the bacterial membrane was studied by monitoring the fluorescence anisotropy of DPH and TMA-DPH. The results highlight a difference between the mechanism of action of Cbn BM1 on C. maltaromaticum DSM20730 and on L. monocytogenes EGDe. However, a treatment by Cbn BM1 leads to a perturbation of the component of the proton-motive force of the membrane for both strains. These approaches revealed that these bacterial strains exhibit a sensitivity to Cbn BM1 only when treated in log growth phase. Modification of nano-mechanical properties of C. maltaromaticum DSM20730 after a treatment by Cbn BM1 were assessed by an atomic force microscopy approach
Inclusion et libération de molécules antioxydantes dans un emballage à base d'Acide Poly Lactique en contact alimentaire by Majid Jamshidian( Book )

2 editions published in 2011 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Les emballages actifs permettent d'étendre la durée de conservation des aliments, réduisent l'utilisation d'additifs et de conservateurs dans les préparations alimentaires, préservent mieux les saveurs et la qualité des aliments. La libération contrôlée des antioxydants à partir d'emballages alimentaires étend la stabilité des produits (oxydation des lipides réduite) par enrichissement continu en antioxydants alimentaires en surface de l'aliment. L'objectif général du présent travail était d'étudier l'applicabilité de l'acide poly lactique (PLA, polymère biodégradable fabriqué industriellement) comme l'emballage actif. Pour cela, nous avons choisi plusieurs antioxydants synthétiques ou naturels, comme l'alpha-tocophérol, le palmitate d'ascorbyle, le BHA, le BHT, le gallate de propyle et le TBHQ pour produire les emballages antioxydants. En premier lieu, le mode de d'inclusion de ces antioxydants dans la matrice de PLA et leurs effets sur diverses propriétés structurale, thermique, mécanique et barrière du PLA ont été étudiés. L'étude la libération des antioxydants a été réalisée à partir de films de PLA-antioxydants en contact avec trois simulateurs d'aliments (95%, 50%, et 10% d'éthanol) à deux températures (20°C et 40°C). Les résultats ont montré que le PLA a la capacité de contenir et de libérer des antioxydants dans certains produits alimentaires. Enfin, un modèle mathématique basé sur des relations quantitatives structure/propriété (QSPR) a été développé pour prédire la diffusion antioxydants dans les systèmes aliments simulés /emballage actif
Production et caractérisation de farine de patate douce (Ipomoeabatatas.Lam) : optimisation de la technologie de panification by Chancelle Betty Ndangui( )

1 edition published in 2015 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Sweet potato is an edible tuber belonging to the order of Solanales and Convolvulaceae family. It contains starch, which is the main component, dextrins, ß-carotene, and other nutrients in varying amounts. The thesis aimed promoting the use of sweet potato as flour by highlighting its nutritional potential. Two complementary studies were carried out in this thesis work, the first concerned the study of the impact of thermal and chemical pretreatments on physicochemical, thermal, rheological, and functional properties of sweet potatoes flours obtained after different pretreatments : TPD (unpretreated sweet potato slices), TPDCaCl2 (CaCl2- pretreated sweet potato slices) and finally TPDB (bleached sweet potato slices). These results show a slight increase in reducing sugar content in TPDCaCl2flour compared to TPDB and TPD flours. However, the value of L* (luminance) in the TPDB flour was below the ones ofTPDCaCl2 and TPD flours. The calcium content was relatively high in TPDCaCl2 flour (120.6 mg / 100 g) compared to TPD and TPDB flours (respectively, 77.8 and 67.6 mg / 100g). The gelatinization enthalpy and elastic modulus (G') were higher in the TPDCaCl2 flour. The swelling capacity was high in bleached flour. It was also noticed a slight increase in the water binding energy constant of the BET model in CaCl2-pretreated and blanched. In this study, it was deduced that the flours pretreated with CaCl2 have physicochemical properties interesting for bakery and food formulation applications. In the second part of the thesis study, baking tests were carried out with different levels of incorporation to wheat flour (0, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 %) of the CaCl2-pretreated sweet potato flour in order to determine the optimal incorporation level allowing the compromise between improved nutritional properties and the decreased rheological properties of the dough, due to the sweet potato flour incorporation. Textural parameters of doughs were determined. This resulted in a decrease in cohesion and an increase in the value of a* (red - green color scale) with increasing the degree of substitution, in contrast to the luminance L * values which felt. Finally, sweet potato flour could be incorporated into a bread formulation up to 25 % without significant impairment of sensory organic qualities of bread
Nano-fonctionnalisation des hydrogels naturels bioactifs sous forme de matrice 3D by Rana Kadri( )

1 edition published in 2015 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Novel crosslinking methods to design 3D hydrogels consist on an innovative combination of various components in order to create 3D structure with optimal properties and functionalities. This blending technic can be carried out by mixing several polymers or/and incorporation of nanoparticles into the polymer network. The present work showed the advantages of interpenetrating polymer networks forms composed of alginate and GelMA and highlighted the effect of the incorporation of nanoliposomes on the physico-chemical properties of the hydrogels. It consisted primarily on a multiscale characterization of the hydrogels and then on the study of the possible interactions in the 3D structure. At first, the surface characterization of the composite hydrogels at different alginate concentrations, before and after the functionalization with soft nanoparticles, showed an improvement of the wetting properties and the surface energy. The mechanical properties of the hydrogels were determined by multiscale analysis using the atomic force microscopy (nanoscopic) and the rheometer (mesoscopic). These analysis took into account the various concentrations of alginateas well as the two different concentrations of the liposomes added in the 3D structure. The results showed the effectiveness of mixing the polymers and the influence of the nanoliposomes on the alginate coagulation due to an interaction between the soft nanoparticules and the coagulation agent (CaCl2). A morphological study of the hydrogels showed the possibility to control the size of the pores by the modification of concentration for each component of hydrogel or by functionalization the 3D structure. The physicochemical interactions were then studied thanks to the X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and the Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy
Amélioration de la production hétérologue de la bactériocine pédiocine chez Lactococcus lactis by Alexandre Back( )

1 edition published in 2014 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Un des enjeux en génie microbien est de produire des quantités élevées de protéines. Parmi les hôtes disponibles pour la production hétérologue de protéines, Lactococcus lactis est une bactérie à fort potentiel. Son innocuité et son caractère gram positif en fait un hôte de choix pour la production de protéines d'intérêt. Parmi ces protéines figurent des bactériocines, qui sont des proteines antibactériennes pouvant être utilisées à des fins de sécurité sanitaires des aliments voire comme antibiotique. Ces travaux ont pour ambition d'améliorer la production hétérologue de la bactériocine pédiocine chez L. lactis au niveau quantitatif et qualitatif en ciblant respectivement les étapes de sécrétion et de maturation post-traductionnelle. La sécrétion a été améliorée en insérant les pro-peptides SD ou LEISSTCDA entre le peptide signal de sécrétion et la séquence de la bactériocine. Il a été montré que cette insertions n'affectent pas l'activité antibactérienne. L'analyse in silico de l'opéron responsable de la production de pédiocine chez la bactérie productrice sauvage a révélé que le gène pedC code une protéine prédite comme thiol-disulfide oxydoréductase, suggérant un rôle de cette protéine dans le statut redox des cystéines de la pédiocine. La co-expression de PedC avec la pédiocine recombinante a permis d'augmenter son pouvoir antibactérien. Les résultats obtenus pendant cette thèse ont ainsi montré que la production de pédiocine par L. lactis peut être améliorée par fonctionnalisation de l'extrémité N-terminale sans effet significatif sur le potentiel antibactérien et que PedC joue un rôle majeur dans le potentiel antibactérien de la pédiocine
Mise au point, optimisation et extrapolation de nouveaux procédés d'agitation et d'aération aux échelles 2L, 900L et 10m3 pour les souches D. Hansenii, s. Carnosus et P. Candidum by Hugues Canteri( )

1 edition published in 2014 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The objectives of this thesis are, on one hand, to develop an efficient system of agitation in terms of oxygen transfer and shear stress, suited for the fermentation of yeasts, bacteria and filamentous fungi, on the other hand, to develop a process of spore production in a liquid medium. This new process will be used instead of the solid culture in Roux flasks used by DSM at the beginning of the PhD program. In a first step, we have selected “Elephant Ears” impellers as stirrers; its effectiveness of oxygen transfer was characterized in a broad range of stirring speeds and airflow rates. The data obtained were modeled and a predictive tool for KLa and process extrapolation was developed. The extrapolation is based on the non-geometrical similarity and the coefficient of oxygen transfer (KLa) was kept constant between scales. The effectiveness of the new stirrer was validated in a pilot-scale in the presence of the cultures of bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi. Besides the studies on the stirrer, a process in a liquid medium of filamentous fungi was developed. Thus, the fermentation medium and the operating conditions of each steps of the fermentation (germination, vegetative growth, and sporulation) were optimized. This new process makes possible to obtain up to 200.106 cells per milliliter of culture on both laboratory and pilot scale (900L). Finally, the data gathered on the pilot scale was used to extrapolate this process to the industrial-scale of 10m3
Étude de la diversité génétique chez la bactérie lactique Carnobacterium maltaromaticum et de son adaptation à l'environnement gastro-intestinal de mammifères by Abdur Rahman( )

1 edition published in 2013 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The bacterium Carnobacterium maltaromaticum is not used in industry due to limited knowledge about this organism and its virulence in fish. One objective of this thesis was to strengthen the body of knowledge by determining the complete genome sequence of the cheese strain and to evaluate the fate of this bacterium after ingestion by the consumer. Another objective was to improve the taxonomic knowledge within the species C. maltaromaticum through the development of a MLST scheme. The complete sequence of the strain C. maltaromaticum LMA 28 revealed a genome size of approximately 3.8 Mbp, which is unusually high in the genus Carnobacterium. The genome analysis of this strain indicates the presence of genes conferring the adaptation to the intestinal environment. The bacterium is able to survive during the gastro-intestinal transit in mice. Moreover, this strain is able to adhere to human intestinal epithelial cell lines and would have neutral or anti-inflammatory properties. These data suggest that C. maltaromaticum LMA 28 is adapted to the digestive tract of mammals. At the taxonomical level, it was shown that MLST is highly discriminatory for the species C. maltaromaticum. In addition, the MLST results suggest that milk and soft cheeses are poorly selective for strains of this species. In addition, two major clonal complexes suggest that a sub-population within this species is well adapted to the dairy environment or that a sub-population is submitted to a domestication process. A high proportion of singletons was obtained suggesting that the diversity was under-estimated and remains to be explored
Encapsulation et vectorisation de molécules biofonctionnelles par des nanoliposomes : étude des propriétés physico-chimiques et des mécanismes de transfert à travers la membrane liposomale by Behnoush Maherani( )

1 edition published in 2012 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Sur le plan moléculaire, le transport de petites molécules à travers les bicouches lipidiques est un processus fondamental. L'objectif de ce travail consiste a étudier les différents mécanismes de transfert de molécules hydrophiles à travers la bicouche liposomale. La calcéine a été choisie comme molécule hydrophile modèle pour simuler la vectorisation de principes actifs. Dans une première étape, la formulation des liposomes a été optimisé en considérant ses propriétés physico-chimiques (taille, efficacité d'encapsulation, fluidité et etc.) par différentes méthodes (DSC, TEM, SAXS et etc). Les résultats montrent que la taille moyenne, le potentiel zêta, Tc, l'efficacité d'encapsulation et la fluidité, sont influencés par la composition lipidique des liposomes. Les interactions entre les molécules hydrophiles encapsulées et le vecteur ont été étudiés par spectroscopie Raman, balance de Langmuir et analyse thermique différentielle. Les résultats obtenus montrent que la calcéine est capable d'interagir avec le groupement polaire de la phosphatidylcholine, en s'intercalant entre les chaînes acyles et modifiant de ce fait l'organisation de la membrane. La perméabilité des membranes à la calcéine a d'abord été évaluée sur la base d'une cinétique du premier ordre par spectrofluorimètrie. L'effet de la composition en lipides sur la fluidité membranaire a été étudié en fonction des conditions environnementales. Un modèle simulant les conditions de la digestion a été élaboré pour estimer la vitesse de libération du calcéine à travers la bicouche liposomale, son coefficient de partage, en utilisant l'AFM et la méthode STED. Les résultats obtenus ont confirmé que la calcéine diffuse lentement à travers la membrane liposomale sans pour autant déstructurer le liposome
Fonctionnalisation et caractérisatin de films bioactifs à base d'HPMC : influence de l'introduction d'antioxydants sur les propriétés des films et la conservation des aliments by Muhammad Javeed Akhtar( )

1 edition published in 2012 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

La fonctionnalisation d'emballages biodégradables avec des antioxydants naturels est l'une des techniques prometteuses pour améliorer la conservation des aliments, diminuer la quantité de conservateurs chimiques utilises, protéger la dégradation aromatique des produits et ainsi conserver une meilleure qualité globale. Le contrôle du relargage de ces composés actifs de l'emballage vers l'aliment permet d'étendre l'efficacité de la fonctionnalisation en libérant progressivement les antioxydants à la surface de l'aliment. L'objectif global de ce travail était de fonctionnaliser le polymère HPMC afin de produire un film d'emballage coloré à activité antioxydante et d'évaluer son aptitude à servir d'emballage actif. Tout d'abord, des films d'HPMC contenant différents colorants synthétiques comme le bleu, le vert, le jaune, le rouge et le blanc ont été testés afin de déterminer la couleur la plus adaptée pour le contrôle de la photo-oxydation de produits gras. Ensuite, la couleur rouge synthétique, montrant un maximum de contrôle contre la photo-oxydation, a été remplacée par des composés actifs naturels de même couleur. Ces composés provenaient soit d'un mélange d'extraits de betterave et de carottes pourpres, d'un mélange de bétalaïnes soit d'un mélange d'anthocyanes. Le mode d'incorporation de ces composés actifs dans la matrice d'HPMC, leurs effets sur les propriétés thermiques, mécaniques, barrière et structurales des films ont été étudiés. Les résultats ont montré que l'intégration de ces différents composés actifs naturels a permis d'améliorer les propriétés des films. Les composés actifs utilisés ont la capacité de contrôler le photo-vieillissement de la matrice polymérique et que l'HPMC est un bon candidat pour incorporer ces molécules et permettre le contrôle de la dégradation de produits alimentaires riches en lipides
Encapsulation de carbobacterium maltaromaticum LMA28, productrice de composés aromatiques, dans la paraffine d'enrobage du Poro, un fromage artisanal mexicain by Citlalli Celeste González Ariceaga( )

1 edition published in 2014 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

This thesis focuses on the interdisciplinary study (biochemical, physicochemical, microbiological) in order to improve sensory qualities and, more specifically, aromatic profile of Poro cheese in order to extend its commercialization period on the Mexican market. After cheese characterization, several encapsulations techniques were tested into cheese paraffin coating. Moreover, inhibitory activity of C. maltaromaticum LMA28 isolated from a soft cheese against L. monocytogenes was also studied. Sensory evaluation led to a preferences internal mapping. It appeared that C. maltaromaticum LMA28 encapsulation was a better alternative for the 3-methylbutanal release compared with 3-methylbutanal direct encapsulation to improve off-flavor apparition in Poro. Sensory experiments performed on Babybel® (cheese model) showed a difference between the sensory perceptions of cheese coated containing or not C. maltaromaticum LMA28. Micro-encapsulation in calcium alginate is a quick encapsulation technique, simple, inexpensive and easy to implement even for a small-scale productions. Finally, from a microbiological point of view, no trace of fecal contamination was found in the products. The main strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated were cheese: L. plantarum, L. pentosus, L. farciminis, and L. rhamnosus. The effect of four factors (C. maltaromaticum, NaCl concentration, time and pH) on L. monocytogenes growth, inoculated into two culture media (TSB -YE and skim milk). The C. maltaromaticum LMA28 concentration appeared to be the determining factor for L. monocytogenes inhibition in both media tested
Développement et caractérisation d'un nouveau procédé d'émulsification non dénaturant par transduction piézoélectrique de hautes fréquences by Messaouda Kaci( )

1 edition published in 2015 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Les émulsions représentent une large gamme de produits alimentaires, cosmétiques et pharmaceutiques. Pour assurer leur stabilité, une interface chargée de tensioactif est nécessaire. Cette interface constitue une barrière contre la coalescence mais gène la libération des principes actifs encapsulés. Dans cette thèse, une nouvelle méthode d'émulsification est développée. Elle consiste à utiliser des ultrasons à hautes fréquences (UHF) (1,7MHz) qui permettent d'avoir des émulsions stables sans émulsifiants tout en évitant les effets mécaniques violents de la cavitation acoustique présente aux basses fréquences. L'étude des répartitions granulométriques a montré une diminution significative de la taille des gouttelettes d'huile au cours du temps de traitement par ultrasons de hautes fréquences. Le suivi du pH des émulsions montre une forte diminution et une charge de surface importante des gouttelettes est enregistrée ce qui montre une accumulation d'ions OH- à l'interface l'huile/eau conduisant à la stabilité des gouttelettes dans l'émulsion. La conductivité des émulsions diminue durant l'émulsification traduisant une baisse de la quantité d'ions en solution, ce qui indique la formation de la couche contre ions (charge positive) autour de la structure des OH-. Les résultats montrent une stabilisation électrostatique des émulsions obtenue par la formation d'une double couche ionique autour des gouttelettes d'huile. Contrairement aux procédés d'émulsification standard, les émulsions faites par ce procédé montrent une stabilité de 30 jours à 37°C. L'utilisation des émulsions sans émulsifiant faites par UHF pour la vectorisation de CoQ10 montre une prolifération cellulaire plus élevée que dans le cas des émulsions avec émulsifiant. Une étude approfondie des émulsions sans émulsifiant par diffusion des rayons X aux petits angles (SAXS) et par résonance magnétique nucléaire (RMN) a été réalisée et comparée à des émulsions contenant un ou plusieurs émulsifiants. L'étude SAXS montre clairement l'absence de micelles de tensioactifs pour les émulsions sans émulsifiants et les résultats de la RMN montrent l'absence de la signature des tensioactifs et des phospholipides dans les émulsions faites par ultrasons de hautes fréquences. Par ailleurs, la RMN montre l'absence d'interaction entre des différents constituants de l'émulsion et aussi l'absence de structure néoformées
Etude de l'hydrolyse enzymatique des grains de colza et de tournesol : application à l'extraction de leurs huiles by Guillaume Ricochon( )

1 edition published in 2009 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The extraction of oil from oilseed in an aqueous medium aims to remove the solvents used in the crushing industry. To extract oil from seeds, the enzymatic mixtures and numerous physico-chemical parameters have been studied. Two consecutive experimental designs, realized on the A.I.M. prepared from treated seeds, allowed to select effective enzyme mixtures, consisting of 3 or 4 commercial enzyme preparations out of the 25 originally selected. This original approach, based on the use of statistical tools, allows to achieve optimal mixtures for the degradation of the walls of studied seeds. The extraction of oil shows 4 phases after separation by centrifugation: solid residue, emulsion, aqueous phase and free oil. The effects of different physico-chemical parameters were evaluated (grinding time, temperature, agitation, separation...). Finally, the oil released from seeds using enzymatic mixtures made (85% of the total oil for rapeseed, 92 % for sunflower), the amount of fermentable sugars produced (60 and 80 g/l depending on conditions) or the concentration of solubilized protein (greater than 30g/l) are the landmark results of this study. This study, decrypting the conditions to implement the maximization of oil extraction in aqueous phase, is an important whole of knowledge to contribute the future development of a complete biorefining of rapeseed and sunflower with the use of each co-products : oils, proteins (napins from rape) and fermentable sugars
Bacterial abilities to adhere to food components : extent, characterisation, and sensitivity to shear stress by Faustine Gomand( )

1 edition published in 2019 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Les bactéries lactiques (LAB) ont suscité ces dernières années un intérêt accru en agroalimentaire du fait de leur potentiel probiotique, i.e. des potentiels bénéfices santé associés à leur consommation. Les interactions adhésives entre bactéries et composants alimentaires sont susceptibles de jouer un rôle-clé à la fois sur la protection et la répartition des bactéries au sein de l'aliment, impactant donc leur action probiotique. Les travaux réalisés au cours de cette thèse ont pour objectif une meilleure compréhension de ces interactions, afin d'optimiser la fonctionnalité d'aliments contenant des LAB. En effet, le comportement adhésif de la majorité des LAB, ainsi que l'effet des interactions adhésives sur la structuration de l'aliment, sont encore mal connus. En outre, certaines étapes de fabrication alimentaire, telles que l'atomisation, peuvent être génératrices de stress pour les bactéries et donc partiellement compromettre leur capacité à adhérer. Dans le cas où ces bactéries seraient intégrées au sein d'une matrice adhésive, il est également légitime de s'interroger sur les effets de cette adhésion sur la protection des bactéries vis-à-vis du stress infligé. Une méthode de criblage haut-débit a d'abord été développée dans l'objectif d'évaluer rapidement l'affinité adhésive d'une centaine de souches vis-à-vis d'une gamme de biomolécules d'intérêt. Cette méthode a ensuite été appliquée à une collection de 73 souches LAB et a permis de dégager des caractéristiques communes parmi les souches adhérentes, notamment en termes de spécificité d'adhésion. Deux études (expérimentale et théorique) ont été menées conjointement sur l'impact du stress de cisaillement sur la fonctionnalité et l'intégrité des chaînes bactériennes. Ces études suggèrent que la rupture de chaînes bactériennes induite par un stress mécanique serait un processus protecteur de la fonctionnalité bactérienne. Le modèle construit prédit une régiosélectivité des dommages infligés aux cellules bactériennes en chaînes, dont l'intensité dépendrait également de la longueur de chaîne. Appliqué aux interactions adhésives bactéries-particules dans une matrice alimentaire soumise au cisaillement, le modèle suggère un impact défavorable de cette adhésion sur les dommages infligés aux bactéries, d'autant plus important que les particules sont de grande taille. Ce travail pluridisciplinaire apporte ainsi plusieurs éléments-clé qui seront utiles lors la conception et production d'aliments fonctionnels optimisés par rapport à leur action probiotique
Développement de formulations alimentaires diététiques adaptées aux intolérants au lactose et présentant une meilleure digestibilité by Magda Corgneau( )

1 edition published in 2016 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Currently, 70% of the world population is affected by the genetically programmed decline in lactase activity. For these subjects, lactose consumption can cause severe digestive disorders. The studied dietetic products, usually rehydrated with milk by the consumer before use, are hence a potential source of digestive discomfort. The first part of this project deals therefore with development ways in order to obtain suitable products for the majority of lactose intolerant population. Laterraly, increasingly aware of the close link between food and health, consumers tend to change their eating habits. This is reflected by a growing interest in "healthy" foods. The formulation of these products is however still hampered by a lack of knowledge about some macro and micronutrients bioavailability. This industrial project aims to maximize the digestibility of starch and protein contained in dietary products replacing the entire daily ration. The digestibility of different starch sources (wheat, corn, waxy maize, cassava, potato, waxy rice and rice) and different food proteins (caseins, milk protein concentrate, pea protein isolate, egg white powder, whey protein concentrate and soya protein isolate) has thus been studied and compared in vitro
Encapsulation de la souche Lactococcus lactis, productrice de nisine, pour le développement d'emballages actifs by Mariam Bekhit( )

1 edition published in 2015 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Nisin is an antimicrobial peptide produced by strains of Lactococus lactis subsp. lactis, recognized as safe for food applications by the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO). Nisin could be applied, for shelf-life extension, biopreservation, control of fermentation flora, and potentially as clinical antimicrobials. Entrapment of bacteria able to produce nisin in calcium alginate beads is promising way for cells immobilization in active films to extend food shelf-life. The present PhD work aimed to design biopolymeric active packaging entrapping bioprotective lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and control undesirable microorganisms growth in foods, particularly L. monocytogenes. First, the mechanical and chemical stability of the alginate beads were improved, and consequently the effectiveness of encapsulation was increased. Alginate/pectin (A/P) biopolymers were prepared, as first microspheres design, by extrusion technique to encapsulate nisin-producing Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis in different physiological state (exponential phase, stationary phase). Results showed that A/P composite beads were more efficient to increase beads properties than those formulated with pure alginate or pectin. Association of alginate and pectin induced a synergistic effect which improved microbeads mechanical properties. As a second microspheres design, aqueous-core microcapsules were prepared with an alginate hydrogel membrane and a xanthan gum core. Results showed that microcapsules with L.lactis in exponential state encapsulated in alginate membrane and aqueous-core based on xanthan gum with nutrients gave the best results and exhibit interesting antilisterial activity. These microparticles were applied in food preservation and particularly in active food packaging. A novel bioactive films (HPMC, starch) was developed and tested, entrapping active beads of alginate/xanthan gum core-shell microcapsules and alginate/pectin hydrogel enriched with L.lactis
 
moreShow More Titles
fewerShow Fewer Titles
Audience Level
0
Audience Level
1
  Kids General Special  
Audience level: 0.95 (from 0.93 for Caractéri ... to 0.96 for Influence ...)

Alternative Names
École nationale supérieure d'agronomie et des industries alimentaires. Laboratoire d'ingénierie des biomolécules

Institut national polytechnique de Lorraine. Laboratoire d'ingénierie des biomolécules

LIBio

Nancy université. Laboratoire d'ingénierie des biomolécules

Languages