WorldCat Identities

Procédés Alimentaires et Microbiologiques (PAM) (Dijon)

Overview
Works: 75 works in 125 publications in 2 languages and 125 library holdings
Roles: Other, Degree grantor, 981
Publication Timeline
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Most widely held works by Procédés Alimentaires et Microbiologiques (PAM) (Dijon)
Valorisation des produits médicamenteux naturels : de l'extraction à l'encapsulation by Duc Hung Nguyen( )

2 editions published in 2020 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This thesis was carried out at the Laboratory of Pharmacognosy and the Laboratory of Pharmaceutical technology, at the UFR Sciences de Santé, circonscription Pharmacy, in the University of Burgundy Franche-Comté, to find new natural molecules to encapsulate. First of all, we focused on the natural saponins from plants of the Vietnam biodiversity and the french horticulture, belonging to the three genera Dracaena, Cordyline (Asparagaceae) and Weigela (Caprifoliaceae). The work led to the successful isolation and elucidation of 42 natural saponins using various chromatographic techniques. The structures were determined by ESI mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. Among the 17 pure compounds obtained from three species of the Weigela genus, 9 oleanolic acid and hederagenin glycosides are previously undescribed ones. From the two species Dracaena braunii and Cordyline fruticosa “Fairchild red”, we isolated and characterized 18 steroidal saponins including 7 new spirostane-types and 6 new furostane-types ones. The cytotoxic activities of the majority of isolated saponins were evaluated against mouse colon cancer (CT26 cells), mouse melanoma (B16 cells) and human liver cancer (HepG2 cells) by MTS assays. The structure / activity relationships were also proposed.On the other hand, we selected a well-known natural molecule to develop encaspulation tests. Among the natural products, curcumin has very interesting therapeutic properties but exhibits both a poor solubility and a low bioavailability, limiting the administration by the oral route. The purpose of this study was to improve the solubility and bioavailability of curcumin as well as simultaneously achieve controlled release in gastrointestinal tract. Pectinate gel beads were prepared based on ionotropic gelation method with the presence of vaious surfactants. After drying, these beads were investigated for physicochemical characteristics (morphological aspects, encapsulation efficiency, stability, physical state) and dissolution kinetics (in vitro release). Antioxidant activity was also determined with DPPH assay. Kolliphor HS15® seems to be the best promising surfactant to increase stability and bioavailability of curcumin
Analyses métabolomiques du vin : "chemical messages in a bottle by Chloé Roullier-Gall( Book )

2 editions published in 2014 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The main objective of this work was to develop non-targeted metabolomics analyses of bottled wines in order to decipher chemical informations from the time-related evolution of their composition. This original research was based on the hypothesis that, when analyzed, bottled wines would still hold chemical memories of envionmental parameters (vineyard management, oenological practices, climate, terroir...) at the moment of their elaboration, even after several years of ageing. A second hypothesis was that in order to anticipate the future evolution of the wine quality in terms of chemical composition, it is necessary to know what it was in the past. To that purpose, and for the first time in wine science, Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance - Mass Spectrometry (FTICR-MS), Liquid Chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-ToF-MS), Excitation Emission Matrix Fluorescence (EEMF) and multivariate statistics were used in combination. Methodological develoments revealed the advantage of coupling exact mass measurements by FTICR-MS to isomeric discrimination by UPLC-Q-ToF-MS in order to extend the range of detectable metabolites. Such tools were applied to the identification of ageing markers in vertical series of red and white wines from Burgundy, including very old wines (unknown vintages) considered as evolution end points, thus introducing the concept of verticalomics. The characterization of series of white wines from Burgundy (Chardonnay) revealed that chemical spaces specifically related to eonological practices (SO2 addition at pressing, settling level, and permeability of the stopper) could indeed be deciphered although the vintage signatures were confirmed to be the most significant. Similar experiments on Champagne wines (Chardonnay, and blends of Chardonnay, Pinot noir and Pinot Meunier) after the "prise de mousse" and the ageing "sur lattes" further highlighted the hormesis effect associated with the oxygenation of wine. Finally, non-targeted analyses of series of grape extracts and corresponding wines from different appelations - though elaborated by the same winemaker - revealed that terroir-related signatures could be indeed read in wines, in particular after a few years of bottle ageing. Altogether our results provide an unprecedented comprehensive description of the chemical composition of wine and its modification through ageing
Etude des interactions levure-levure en milieu fermentaire by Clément Petitgonnet( )

2 editions published in 2019 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

La fermentation alcoolique est l'étape principale de la vinification du moût de raisin conduisant au vin, assurée majoritairement par la levure Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cependant, d'autres levures appelées non-Saccharomyces peuvent contribuer à la fermentation alcoolique et surtout moduler la complexité aromatique du vin produit. Le problème récurrent avec l'utilisation de ces levures non-Saccharomyces est leur tendance à mourir prématurément au cours de la fermentation alcoolique, perdant ainsi leurs propriétés recherchées dans le produit fini. Ce phénomène est semble-t-il principalement dû à des interactions entre les non-Saccharomyces et S. cerevisiae. Ces interactions sont la plupart du temps négatives pour les non-Saccharomyces et demeure à ce jour non élucidées, notamment à cause de l'effet souche. C'est pourquoi de nombreuses études se concentrent sur la compréhension de ces interactions, en associant une ou plusieurs non-Saccharomyces en co-fermentation avec S. cerevisiae et réalisant différentes analyses pour tenter d'élucider les mécanismes impliqués. Le but de cette thèse a été d'étudier les interactions entre deux non-Saccharomyces d'intérêt oenologique, Starmerella bacillaris et Lachancea thermotolerans, lors de fermentations séquentielles de moût de raisin avec S. cerevisiae (inoculation de S. cerevisiae 24 à 48 h après la non-Saccharomyces). Un protocole de cytométrie en flux a été mis au point afin de discriminer les populations de levures et de suivre différents paramètres physiologiques (viabilité, accumulation de particules lipidiques et d'espèces réactives de l'oxygène) des levures tout le long de la fermentation. L'intérêt s'est ensuite davantage porté sur le couple L. thermotolerans/S. cerevisiae en menant des fermentations séquentielles avec ou sans contact physique pour étudier l'effet du contact cellule-cellule, qui s'est révélé être impliqué dans les interactions entre ces deux espèces suite à différentes analyses (compétition pour les nutriments, production de composés volatiles ou encore exo-metabolomes). Ainsi, cette thèse a confirmé l'existence d'interaction entre S. cerevisiae et les deux non-Saccharomyces étudiées, en mettant en avant un effet négatif de S. cerevisiae sur L. thermotolerans mais aussi, pour la première fois, de L. thermotolerans sur S. cerevisiae, notamment sur sa biomasse et la cinétique fermentaire des fermentations séquentielles
Modification du pigment maculaire lors du vieillissement oculaire : analyse à partir de l'étude de population Montrachet by Seydou Alassane( )

2 editions published in 2018 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Given the limits of the literature on the environmental nutritional impact in ocular aging witch is partially due to the lack of data in general population notably in French elderly, first, we were interested in the relationships of diet, plasma xanthophylls and macular pigment optical density as well as its spatial distribution and second of plasma fatty acids and dry eye disease signs in the 1153 Montrachet study participants.Firstly, we reported the high consumption of squash, the high plasma lutein and zeaxanthin levels and also the high plasma lutein level, the high macular pigment optical density level in nonsmokers subjects. In addition, the macular pigment values we provided in the study could be used as reference in population based study. Our results are very consistent with those found in other epidemiological studies even though our population is on average older. Secondly, we have shown that dry eye disease signs are more frequent in elderly subjects with low plasma polyunsaturated and saturated fatty acids level. Thus, our results provide new elements in the involvement of fatty acids in the process of dry eye disease.Finally, this work enriches the literature on macular pigment, its density, as well as its spatial distribution and its determinants as well as the determinants of dry eye disease. However, given the transversal nature of our studies, these results make only possible to formulate hypotheses that will be confirmed with longitudinal studies and could reinforce the interest of interventions based xanthophylls carotenoids supplementation in elderly
Compréhension de la stabilité des levures sèches actives au travers des phénomènes de déshydratation et de réhydratation par des approches biophysiques et microbiologiques by Pauline Ribert( )

2 editions published in 2021 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The preservation of the viability of micro-organisms of interest during the drying process as well as during the storage is a real industrial challenge. Indeed, active dry yeasts encounter various disturbances (hydric, thermal or mechanical) from their production to their final use, resulting in a decrease in the number of revivable cells in the products. The understanding of the key mechanisms at the origin of the stability of active dry yeasts is therefore essential for the improvement of yeast survival. In this work, the link between production process parameters and biological, biochemical and physical characteristics of agglomerated cells was studied. This work has allowed us to characterize, for the first time, the continuous transition of an industrial biomass from the liquid to the solid state. Our results showed the vitrification of the yeast cytoplasm, resulting from the combination of dehydration and a high concentration of intracellular trehalose, accumulated by the yeast. However, in a temperate environment, hydric and/or thermal conditions can cause devitrification of the system and thus the transition to the rubbery state. Our results showed the preservation of the viability of the yeast in the glassy, but also in the rubbery state. Mechanisms related to this stability were elucidated. The survival of the cells in the rubbery state was attributed to the presence of a significant amount of trehalose and to the molecular crowding of the cell. The role of molecular crowding was found to be central to the preservation of the amorphous state. The results of this project also highlighted a duality between stability and rehydratability caused by the production process. The combination of knowledge generated in this research project has allowed the proposal of industrial innovations but also to provide additional elements in the understanding of the phenomena explaining the survival of micro-organisms in the dried state and after dehydration and rehydration steps
Trafficking cellulaire lors de l'interaction de Candida albicans avec les cellules entérocytaires Caco-2. by Alicia Loiselet( )

2 editions published in 2019 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Candida albicans (C. albicans) est une levure commensale des muqueuses de l'Homme, responsable d'infections opportunistes graves chez les patients fragilisés. Les candidémies et candidoses disséminées ont une origine essentiellement endogène, à partir de la flore colonisante digestive. Les objectifs de cette thèse étaient (i) de préciser les mécanismes cellulaires et moléculaires associés à l'invasion de C. albicans dans les cellules épithéliales intestinales et (ii) d'étudier le rôle des jonctions serrées (JS) inter-entérocytaires dans ces mécanismes. Dans un modèle in vitro de cellules Caco-2, nous montrons que les JS ont un rôle protecteur en limitant l'invasion de la muqueuse digestive par C. albicans puisque l'invasion entérocytaire est facilitée lorsque les JS sont immatures ou altérées pharmacologiquement. Par ailleurs, nous montrons que C. albicans lui-même est capable de moduler la structure des JS pour faciliter secondairement son invasion dans les cellules épithéliales intestinales. Ainsi, une augmentation de la perméabilité de monocouches de cellules Caco-2 associée à une destruction des protéines des JS a été observée à la fois au cours de l'infection des cellules par C. albicans et lors du traitement des cellules par du surnageant de culture fongique. L'ensemble de ces données suggère qu'un facteur de virulence de C. albicans sécrété par la forme filamenteuse de C. albicans serait impliqué dans le trafficking des JS
Design d'un iprodione-MIP (molecularly imprinted polymer) : application à la pré-concentration des fongicides dans le vin by Manal Bitar( Book )

2 editions published in 2014 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The aim of this study was the synthesis of a MIP (molecularly imprinted polymer) specific for a fungicide that is found in the majority of the french wine: iprodione. The challenge for extracting iprodione from wine medium was that the hydoralcoholic solution is a dipolar solvent, whereas the interaction between the MIP and iprodione is based on dipolar interactions. The first extraction study of iprodione was made on a MIP synthesized by bulk polymerization using methacrylamide and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA). The MIP was found to be more efficient than the NIP (non-imprinted polymer) in hydroalcoholic solutions which demonstrates that the molecular imprinting was successful. Then we synthesized 8 MIPs and 8 NIPs following an 23 experimental design in order to study the influence of three synthesis factors (the polymerization method, the nature of the crosslinker and the type of the functional monomer) on the iprodione recognition properties of the polymers. The water and the iprodione adsorption isotherms for MIPs and NIPs were determined. The result showed significant differences between the polymers involving a relationship between the water adsorption and the adsorption of iprodione. The molecular imprinting has been demonstrated by several techniques such as the differential scanning calorimetry and the nuclear magnetic resonance. The best recognition properties of iprodione are obtained with the MIP which was synthesized by precipitation polymerization using methacrylamide as functional momonomer and EGDMA as crosslinker. This MIP was used in solid phase extraction (SPE) for pre-concentration of iprodione in a white wine with a pre-concentration factor of 6. Its selectivity versus two fungicides: procymidone and pyrimethanil has been demonstrated
Compréhension des mécanismes physiologiques et génétiques impliqués dans l'activité réductrice de Lactococcus lactis by Célia Roussel( Book )

2 editions published in 2015 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Les bactéries lactiques, en particulier Lactococcus lactis sont utilisées en industrie agroalimentaire. Ces bactéries sont connues pour avoir une activité réductrice, désignant leur aptitude à abaisser le potentiel redox (Eh) d'un milieu. Le génome de L. lactis MG1363 code plusieurs protéines possédant un motif CXXC potentiellement liées à une activité redox. Pour comprendre le rôle des protéines de surface riches en cystéines, deux approches ont été utilisées. Par l'approche bioinformatique, notre intérêt s'est porté sur deux protéines de surface de fonctions inconnues et à motif CX2CX10CX2C : Llmg_0524 et Llmg_0526. Leurs gènes forment un opéron induit temporairement en début de croissance. Dans les deux protéines, le motif chélate un ion de zinc par les résidus cystéines, formant un complexe très stable. Nos données suggèrent que cet opéron contribue à l'intégrité de la paroi cellulaire et que le zinc participe à la stabilité des protéines. L'identification des protéines à thiols exofaciaux par une approche biochimique indique la présente d'AhpF à la surface de L. lactis. La délétion du gène ahpF entraîne une forte sensibilité du mutant au cumène hydroperoxyde, mais aucune au peroxyde d'hydrogène. Le cumène hydroperoxyde provoque une modification de la proportion en acide gras chez le mutant ahpF, le mécanisme de cyclopropanation contribue à sa survie en réponse à un stress oxydatif. La compréhension des fonctions impliquées dans l'activité réductrice des lactocoques permettra une meilleure maîtrise du Eh dans la fabrication des produits fermentés et un meilleur contrôle des flores pathogènes et d'altérations. Le projet Food-Redox a été financé par l'ANR
Impact du glucomannane de konjac sur les interactions composés volatils - amidon de pomme de terre dans un gel hydraté by Céline Lafarge( Book )

2 editions published in 2016 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The objective of this study is to demonstrate that the presence of konjac glucomannan (KGM) in a potato starch matrix enhances its physical stability without inhibiting the molecular encapsulation of aroma compounds by amylose. For that purpose, the two selected polysaccharides are from plant tubers, abundant in nature.Starch is known to interact with volatile compounds either by trapping in amorphous phase or by forming inclusion complexes. This phenomenon is called molecular encapsulation. However, at high water content, these starchy matrices exhibit syneresis that can be harmful to the stability of the aroma compounds trapping over time. KGM has the ability to form highly viscous solutions. Our results show that the addition of KGM at low concentration (0.2 %) in starch dispersion (5 %) disrupts the gelatinisation of starch, accelerates the retrogradation of amylose and delays the one of amylopectin. During accelerate aging, the presence of KGM ensures stability of starch suspensions.In starch - KGM matrix, the molecular encapsulation of carvacrol by amylose has been demonstrated. The complexes of caravacrol - amylose are V6III type structure. Their establishment is dependent on experimental conditions. The use of propylene glycol as carrier solvent of carvacrol promotes the formation of complexes between amylose and carvacrol. During accelerate aging, the presence of KGM ensures the stability of carvacrol trapping.The potato starch - KGM matrix with an addition of carvacrol at the end of the process shows the best physical stability of the gel and the best carvacrol trapping
Study of the chemical, physical and functional properties of edible starch-based films by Ewelina Basiak( Book )

2 editions published in 2016 in French and English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Z każdym rokiem wzrasta liczba produkowanych odpadów, w szczególmości tych z plastiku. W ciągu pierwszych dziesięciu lat wyprodukowano więcej tworzyw sztucznych niż w przeciągu całego ubiegłego tysiąclecia. Rozwiązaniem tych ekologicznych i ekonomicznych problemów mogą okazać się filmy i powłoki do żywności. Celem tej pracy były studia nad jadalnymi filmami i powłokami na bazie skrobi. Piętnaście rodzajów roztworów powłokotwórczych zostało wytworzonych: z 3 typów skrobi, skrobia + różne stężenia plastyfikatora, skrobia + białka, skrobia + olej. W celu lepszego zrozumienia interakcji pomiędzy komponentami filmu właściwości fizyczne, chemiczne i funkcjonalne zostały zmierzone. W ostatnim etapie walidacja na prawdziwej żywności (powlekanie i pakowanie śliwek) pomogła w udowodnieniu istnienia właściwości barierowych owoców i warzyw podczas przechowywania. Próbne testy fizyko-chemiczne skrobi kukurydzianej, ziemniaczanej i pszenicznej pomogły w wyborze skrobi otrzymywanej z pszenicy do dalszych badań. Następnie wybrano zawartość plastyfikatora. 50% glicerolu względem suchej masy substancji powłokotwórczej nie powodowało twardości i pękania filmów ani też tzw. efektu kwitnienia (intensywnie żółty/ pomarańczowy kolor filmów). W celu poprawy właściwości barierowych olej rzepakowy został dodany. Zdjęcia mikroskopowe obrazują zawieszone krople oleju w matrycy jako emulsja zamiast dodatkowej warstwy, której oczekiwano. Do skrobi zostały dodane również białka serwatkowe w kilku proporcjach. Im więcej białek jest w stosunku procentowym skrobia/proteiny tyym lepsze są właściwości barierowe dla pary wodnej, tlenu i aromatów. Dodatkowo filmy zawierające więcej protein w stosunku procentowym są bardziej gęste i jednolite. Uzyskane informacje pozwoliły na lepsze zrozumienie wpływu kompozycji i struktury filmów i powłok na pakowanie świeżych śliwek. Analiza z użyciem kamery termowizyjnej pozwoliła na ocenę zmian w owocach podczas przechowywania, zaś powłoka skrobiowa efektywnie opóźniała procesy degradacyjne w owocach
L'olfaction chez le patient gériatrique : constantes et spécificités pathologiques des interactions olfacto-trigéminales dans une population porteuse de synucléopathies by Clovis Foguem( )

2 editions published in 2017 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Idiopathic Parkinson disease (IPD), Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) are synucleinopathies. Olfactory impairment is recognized as a characteristic feature of some synucleinopathies. The aim of this study was to assess and compare olfactory detection thresholds in these three synucleinopathies (IPD, PDD and DLB). For that purpose three studies were conducted: (1) Elderly with IPD matched to healthy controls, (2) IPD versus PPD and (3) between DLB, PDD and healthy controls using odor stimuli that variably trigger nasal trigeminal and olfactory systems.METHODS: Olfactory thresholds tests were performed in 89 IPD patients aged over 65 compared to paired matched healthy controls, in 17 IPD versus and matched PDD patients and in 20 LDB patients versus PDD patients versus matched healthy controls, using Phenyl-ethyl alcohol, n-Butanol and Pyridine as stimuli. Detection thresholds for these 3 odorants were assessed using an ascending staircase factor-2 odor dilutions series and a binary forced-choice procedure. Participants were priory evaluated by experimented physicians.Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon or Kruskal-Wallis tests, Spearman correlation and covariance analyses. Discriminant analyses were also carried out to predict and classify the three participants' groups in the third study.RESULTS: (1) Olfactory detection thresholds are able to discriminate elderly IPD from healthy controls, with a fair detection thresholds performance for pyridine compared to the two other odorants; and the ability to distinguish benign IPD patients with good autonomy from those with impaired autonomy (malign IPD). Moreover, we found subtle olfacto-trigeminal systems interaction.(2) Our results highlight no significant difference on odor detection threshold between elderly IPD compared with matched PDD patients.(3) We found significant odor thresholds differences between LBD patients, PDD patients and healthy controls (all p-values < 0.001), with also a significant poor sense of smell in DLB patients compared to moderate PDD patients. A plain differentiation between the three groups was confirmed by standardized canonical discriminant analyses.Through the 3 studies, a significant correlation was found between the odor detection thresholds.CONCLUSION: This work highlights that DLB can be distinguished from PDD, PDD from healthy controls and IPD from healthy controls by assessing odors (PEA, n-butanol, pyridine) detection thresholds. However, the lack of difference between olfactory thresholds between IPD and PDD raises doubts on the importance of olfactory thresholds tests in the cognitive follow-up of patients with IPD.Further investigations of olfactory dysfunction in patients with synucleinopathies are needed to confirm our results.KEYWORDS: idiopathic Parkinson disease; Parkinson's disease dementia ; Dementia with Lewy bodies; odor detection thresholds; chemonasal trigeminal and olfactory systems interactions; clinical diagnosis
Contribution of understanding the partition behavior of volatiles in glassy polymer films dedicated to packaging by Ashish A Kadam( Book )

2 editions published in 2014 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The aim of this work was to find out whether the partitioning behavior of small molecules in a polymer food packaging system changes as the system traverses through its glass transition. Sorption in glassy amorphous polystyrene is a very slow process. The large hysteresis between sorption-desorption cycles of n-hexane/PS was hypothesized to be mainly due to varying rate at which the glass transition temperature was reduced and increase in system's volume. The equilibrium sorption in glassy amorphous polystyrene at 25 °C, of n-hexane vapor did not modify the state of the system, whereas that of toluene vapor modified the system's state significantly. The partitioning behavior of toluene/PS remained unchanged across the glass transition of the system. The plasticization effect caused by sorption was studied and revealed that it modifies the glass transition of a volatile/PS mixtures quite significantly. Such information is useful in knowing state modifications of the system as long as sorption/migration occurs, and thus assisting interpretation. The plasticizing effect of n-hexane in amorphous PS was stronger than that of three other volatiles studied. The estimated partition coefficient values of p-xylene and ethylbenzene between polystyrene film and ethylene glycol were several times lower than the experimental values of n-hexane and toluene at 25 °C. Finally, glass transition or change from glassy to rubbery states and vice-versa does not significantly modify the activation energy of sorption
Sélection et intégration d'une souche probiotique fonctionnelle dans une matrice sèche by Guillaume Lemetais( Book )

2 editions published in 2012 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Probiotics are live microorganisms that can act on the immune system at specific sites in the gastro-intestinal tract. From a technological point of view, the development of a dietary supplement containing viable and functional probiotics requires the control of the selection and production steps. In a first time, we have developed specific and sensitive screening tests to determine the ability of bacteria to be dried and the origin of its sensitivity. To develop these tests, we investigated the mechanisms involved during drying process. Thus, microorganisms simultaneously undergo osmotic stress and oxidative stress. Results show a strong impact of drying on the survival rate and immunomodulatory potential with a decrease of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-12). To protect probiotic bacteria, three optimization strategies have been developed: drying by foam formation, encapsulation of probiotic bacteria using a pea-protein alginate matrix and drying of a sensitive probiotic strain with a resistant bacterium. Knowledge obtained during this study was used to optimize the industrial process of the final strain of the project. A randomized double blinded (RDB) trial is in progress (2011-2013) to test the bacteria in humans
Comprehensive study of the heat resistance of dried Bacillus subtilis spores by Julia Hauck Tiburski( Book )

2 editions published in 2013 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

En réponse à un stress nutritif, les espèces du genre Bacillus sont susceptibles de former desspores métaboliquement dormantes résistantes à d'autres formes de stress. Ces spores peuventse retrouver à forte concentration dans beaucoup d'aliments secs, ce qui peut provoquer desintoxications alimentaires ou dégrader les aliments lorsqu'ils sont réhydratés. Comme leurdestruction est très difficile, la plupart des méthodes couramment utilisées pour décontaminerles aliments secs sont peu efficaces. L'objectif de ce travail est de comprendre l'influence del'hydratation de la spore sur l'inactivation des spores sèches de B. subtilis. Une étudefondamentale a été menée en soumettant les spores placées dans les capsules d'AnalyseEnthalpique Différentielle à différent traitements thermiques et en associant simultanémentles thermogrammes obtenus à la viabilité des spores traitées. Les résultats montrent lapersistance d'une teneur en eau relativement élevée dans le protoplaste des spores équilibréesà faible aw (0,13). De plus, une relation forte a été mise en évidence entre la teneur en eau duprotoplaste de la spore et sa sensibilité thermique. La spectroscopie IR à transformée deFourier a montré que cette sensibilité est fortement reliée à la dénaturation/agrégation desprotéines et à la libération de l'acide dipicolinique. Ces résultats ont finalement permis dedévelopper un procédé d'inactivation thermique sous pression (entre 2 et 7 bar) des sporessèches. Le maintien d'une pression d'azote dans le réacteur chauffé permet d'empêcherl'évaporation de l'eau du protoplaste des spores et donc de favoriser leur inactivation. A termeet après développement, ce procédé peut être un moyen original de décontaminationd'aliments secs
Evaluation du potentiel bioprotecteur de bactéries lactiques confinées dans une matrice polymérique by Lucie Leonard( Book )

2 editions published in 2013 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Parmi les différentes méthodes de lutte contre les microorganismes pathogènes et/ou altérants en agroalimentaire, l'utilisation de bactéries lactiques (LAB) bioprotectrices s'avère être un outil prometteur pour la préservation des aliments. Ce travail de thèse collaboratif, entre l'équipe PAPC (AgroSup Dijon, Université de Bourgogne) et le laboratoire BioDyMIA (Université Lyon1-Isara Lyon), concerne l'étude de systèmes bioprotecteurs immobilisant des cellules entières de LAB dans une matrice polymérique d'alginate de sodium et de caséinate de sodium pour une activité ciblée contre Listeria spp. Dans un premier temps, la méthodologie mise en œuvre a consisté à sélectionner des souches de LAB bioprotectrices sur la base de leur activité antimicrobienne évaluée par la méthode de diffusion en milieu gélosé contre trois souches de Listeria spp. Quatre souches sur 19 ont ainsi été sélectionnées. Une caractérisation partielle des métabolites antimicrobiens produits par ces 4 souches a ensuite été réalisée en appliquant des traitements thermiques et enzymatiques aux surnageants de culture correspondants pour évaluer si ces traitements altéraient l'activité des métabolites antimicrobiens présents. Une purification et une identification partielle des actifs antimicrobiens de nature peptidique ont été réalisées uniquement pour la souche d'intérêt principale : Lactococcus lactis LAB3. Dans un second temps, une formulation de la matrice polymérique d'immobilisation des LAB sélectionnées a été choisie en réalisant le diagramme de phases du système aqueux alginate de sodium/caséinate de sodium : 1,5 % (m/m) d'alginate de sodium / 4 % (m/m) de caséinate de sodium / 20 % (m/m) bouillon MRS. Cette formulation a permis d'obtenir une matrice composée d'une phase continue riche en alginate et d'une phase dispersée riche en caséinate dans laquelle les cellules de LAB se localisent préférentiellement d'après les observations en microscopie de fluorescence confocale à balayage laser. Suite à l'inclusion des cellules de LAB dans ces matrices liquides et gélifiées d'alginate seul et d'alginate/caséinate, leur cultivabilité et leur activité anti-Listeria ont été suivies à 30°C pendant 12 jours. Ceci a révélé que la cultivabilité et l'activité antimicrobienne des cellules de LAB se maintiennent à des niveaux plus élevés dans les matrices d'alginate/caséinate que dans celles uniquement à base d'alginate. Ces matrices à base d'alginate et de caséinate apparaissent donc comme un système prometteur pour l'immobilisation de LAB bioprotectrices. Leur intérêt pour l'inclusion de LAB a pu être corrélé à leur viabilité et à la structure composite de cette matrice à base de protéines qui favoriserait la production et la libération des métabolites antimicrobiens
Interactions micro-organismes - bois et impact sur les propriétés physico-chimiques du vin : fermentation malolactique par le biofilm de Oenococcus oeni by Alexandre Bastard( Book )

2 editions published in 2015 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Malolactic fermentation improves wine quality, mainly by decreasing acidity. It is carried out by lactic acid bacteria, mainly Oenococcus oeni. This species is favored for its efficiency and its organoleptic outcome. O. oeni ability to withstand wine stress and to keep its fermentation activity is a subject of major interest.Samples of oak showed that O. oeni adheres to wood and is able to persist for several months in wine. However, in the majority of natural habitats, microorganisms grow attached to a surface, within a structured ecosystem called biofilm. In this form of life, cells benefit from an increased stress resistance.These two properties, adherence to a surface and stress resistance, were studied for O. oeni. Observations by scanning electron microscopy have highlighted biofilm formation by O. oeni. Then, we evaluated the wine stress resilience of O. oeni biofilm. Biofilm is a growing interest in food and biotechnology industries, due to the conservation of its metabolic activity in stressful environment. Therefore, malolactic fermentation with an O. oeni biofilm was monitored in wine. Finally, the influence of O. oeni biofilm on transfers of aromatic compounds between wood and wine was studied.This study is the first characterization of O. oeni biofilm, its wine stress resistance and its fermentation potential
Influence de traitements de réticulation sans solvant sur les propriétés de films à base de gélatine et chitosan encapsulant ou non des antioxydants naturels : caractérisations physico-chimiques et application by Nasreddine Benbettaieb( Book )

2 editions published in 2015 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This thesis aims to develop an edible packaging made of a mixture of chitosan and gelatin (beef or fish), to better understand the influence of the electron beam irradiation and of the incorporation of natural antioxidants on the physico-chemical and functional properties of the films. A study of the effect of irradiation on antioxidants release kinetics in a simple liquid medium was studied for validation. A preliminary study first showed that the densification of the film-forming solution and the gel during drying does not depend on the thickness or concentration or time and suggests a Fickian diffusion of water in the matrix. The permeability to water vapor increases linearly with film thickness and especially when the extent of the relative humidity differential is high. This phenomenon is attributed to a swelling mechanism and plasticization of the gelatin-chitosan network by the water. The effect of the chitosan-gelatin ratio showed an improvement of the mechanical properties and barrier to water and oxygen of the films compared to chitosan films. These performance gains are due to the good miscibility of the two macromolecules and to the molecular interactions established after the formation of a polyelectrolyte complex, as confirmed by FTIR analysis. Irradiation of films after drying increases the polarity of the surface and the film hydrophilicity, and thus induces an increase in barrier properties to water vapor and oxygen, and also of the mechanical and thermal films. However, irradiation does not change the crystallinity of the films. The incorporation of antioxidants (ferulic acid, coumarin, quercetin and tyrosol) with or without irradiation acts differently on the organization of the macromolecular network and thus on the film properties. Thus, ferulic acid and tyrosol reduce the permeability of water vapor measured in a gradient of 0-30% relative humidity, while it increases up to 90 times with a gradient 30-84 % and an irradiation treatment. The oxygen permeability decreases significantly after addition of quercetin or tyrosol and after irradiation. Ferulic acid and coumarin increases the tensile strength of the films while they are quercetin and ferulic acid which allow to increase the thermal resistance of the films. These results thus demonstrate the complexity of the interactions involved between antioxidants and the chains of chitosan and/or gelatin, their dependence on the moisture level of the system and on the impact of cross-linking treatment by irradiation. It is noticed that the irradiation has protected the active molecules against oxidation for a long period of storage of the films. Release in aqueous medium of ferulic acid is the more delayed with the highest retention in the film at equilibrium (27%). The antioxidants diffusion coefficients, determined from the release kinetics, could be modulated (about 50%) by the irradiation treatments
Rôle des acides aminés dans la production d'amines biogènes chez Oenococcus oeni by Said Dandach( Book )

2 editions published in 2013 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In wine biogenic amines (BA) are mainly of microbial origin, Oenococcus oeni, the mainresponsible for malolactic fermentation, has been identified as a BA producer from nitrogenprecursors. Oenococcus oeni possess numerous amino acid auxotrophies that are precursors ofbiogenic amines. No study has been done so far to look at the relationship betweenauxotrophy for amino acids precursors of BA and the level of BA in the medium. In order todo so, 80 Oenococcus oeni strains were isolated from red wines. The detection of genesencoding the different decarboxylases responsible for BA synthesis has been realised. Inparallel, the auxotrophy for the four amino acids (Arg, Tyr, His, Phe) precursors of BA hascharacterized. Our results demonstrate that there is not direct correlation between auxotrophyand the accumulation of the corresponding BA as well as between the presence ofdecarboxylase gene and the accumulation of the corresponding BA. High levels of agmatineproduced from arginine decarboxylation by Oenococcus oeni is reported for the first time.Agmatine production is strain dependant. the most adapted to acidic environment is the strainwhith use arginine in higher level with same proportion for ADI pathway and argininedecarboxylase. Agmatine addition in wines reduce woody aroma probably by formation ofsciff bases between aromla compounds and amine
Éco-extraction et encapsulation de pigments caroténoïdes et anthocyanes à partir de plantes tropicales by Thi Thu Nguyen( )

2 editions published in 2018 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This thesis deals with extraction processes using assistance technologies or green solvents and encapsulation systems of natural pigments in order to exploit and apply them in the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. In this goal, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) and Ionic liquids (IL) were evaluated for the extraction of carotenoids and anthocyanins from Vietnamese plants. The results obtained show that the MAE was always a rapid and helpful system for all types of extraction tested whereas ultrasounds were particularly efficient when pigments are present on the surface of plant tissues. However, UAE was also improving results compared to conditions without assistance. Traditional IL are not suitable for the extraction of carotenoid and anthocyanin pigments that are generally non-volatile and heat-sensitive because it has not been possible to separate pigments extracted from IL under mild conditions. Therefore switchable IL were evaluated. DBU/ 1-hexanol was efficient to extract carotenoids that were relatively accessible, but, due to its high viscosity, it lost efficacy for other tissues. The second part of this thesis concerns the encapsulation of Hibiscus anthocyanins in yeasts. We have first worked with whole yeast cells. The results showed that yeast cells were a good material for the encapsulation of anthocyanins. However, yeast enzymes caused undesirable colour loss of anthocyanin during storage. Microparticles of heat-treated yeasts showed a high protective effect during storage. Then, as it was interesting to keep the pigments in the cell wall and deactivate the yeast enzymes, we used yeast hulls. Yeast hull particles brought a good protection to anthocyanins against moisture, heat and light. In comparison with maltodextrin microparticles, yeast hull ones were more stable in high humidity. In general, yeast microparticles have shown an ability to protect anthocyanins and to keep the red color of encapsulated anthocyanin powder. These results show that yeast encapsulated anthocyanins powder has a promising future to be applied in the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries
 
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COMUE Bourgogne Franche-Comté. Procédés Alimentaires et Microbiologiques

Institut Agriculture, Biodiversité, Environnement, Comportement, Aliment . PAM

Institut Agriculture, Biodiversité, Environnement, Comportement, Aliment. Procédés Alimentaires et Microbiologiques

Institut national supe��rieur des sciences agronomiques, de l'alimentation et de l'environnement. Procédés Alimentaires et Microbiologiques

Institut national supérieur des sciences agronomiques, de l'alimentation et de l'environnement. PAM

PAM

Procédés Alimentaires et Microbiologiques

Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté. Procédés Alimentaires et Microbiologiques

Université de Bourgogne. PAM

Université de Bourgogne. Procédés Alimentaires et Microbiologiques

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