WorldCat Identities

Équipe d'accueil doctoral Optronique, laser, imagerie physique, environnement Spatial (Toulouse, Haute-Garonne)

Overview
Works: 59 works in 63 publications in 2 languages and 61 library holdings
Roles: Other, Degree grantor
Publication Timeline
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Most widely held works by laser, imagerie physique, environnement Spatial (Toulouse, Haute-Garonne) Équipe d'accueil doctoral Optronique
Développement d'un système opérationnel de spectrométrie des neutrons dédié à la caractérisation dynamique de l'environnement radiatif naturel atmosphérique à l'Observatoire du Pic du Midi de Bigorre by Adrien Cheminet( Book )

2 editions published in 2013 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This PhD Thesis has been achieved thanks to the joint effort between two French organizations, the French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN/LMDN, Cadarache) and the French Aerospace Lab (ONERA/ DESP, Toulouse). The aim was to develop an operational neutron spectrometer extended to high energies in order to measure the dynamics of the spectral variations of the natural radiative environment at the summit of the Pic du Midi Observatory in the French Pyrenees. Thereby, the fluence responses of each detector were calculated thanks to Monte Carlo simulations. Afterwards, they were validated by means of experimental campaigns up to high energies (>20 MeV) nearby reference neutron fields. The systematic uncertainties were deduced after detailed studies of the mathematic reconstruction of the spectra (i.e. unfolding procedure). Then, the system was tested under rocks at the LSBB of Rustrel before being installed at respectively+500 m and +1000 m above sea level for the first environmental campaigns. Finally, the spectrometer has been operating for two years after its deployment at the summit of the Pic du Midi (+2885 m). The continuous data were analysed thanks to an innovative method. Some seasonal and spectral variations were observed. Some Forbush decreases were also recorded after strong solar flares. These data were further analysed thanks to Monte Carlo simulations. The data were made more attractive thanks toseveral practical applications with personal dosimetry or reliability of submicron electronics components
Transport de charges et mécanismes de relaxation dans les matériaux diélectriques à usage spatial by Rachelle Hanna( Book )

2 editions published in 2012 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Comprendre et modéliser le comportement des matériaux sous irradiation électronique est un enjeu important pour l'industrie spatiale. La fiabilité des satellites nécessite de maîtriser et prédire les potentiels de surface s'établissant sur les diélectriques. Ce travail de doctorat a donc pour objectif de caractériser et de modéliser les différents mécanismes physiques (en surface et en volume) gouvernant le potentiel de charges dans les matériaux polymères spatiaux tels que le Téflon® FEP et le Kapton® HN. La mise au point d'un nouveau dispositif et d'un protocole expérimental a permis de corroborer l'existence d'une conductivité latérale des charges, souvent négligée dans les modèles physiques et numériques. Les études paramétriques, révélant l'influence de l'énergie et le flux des électrons incidents, ont permis de brosser un portrait des processus mis en jeu pour le transport (par saut ou par piégeage/dépiégeage) de charges en surface. A la lumière de cette étude, une conductivité équivalente est extraite, assimilant le matériau à un système prenant en compte les mécanismes de transport volumique et surfacique. L'analyse des évolutions non-monotones de potentiel mesurées sur les polymères spatiaux en condition spatiale a permis de révéler une dépendance de la conductivité volumique induite sous irradiation avec la dose reçue. L'étude paramétrique réalisée sur les mécanismes de transport en volume révèle une influence minoritaire du déplacement du barycentre de charges et du vieillissement physicochimique. Un modèle «0D» à un seul niveau de pièges, prenant en compte les mécanismes de piégeage/dépiégeage et recombinaison entre les porteurs de charges, a été développé. Ce modèle simplifié permet de reproduire qualitativement les évolutions de potentiel expérimentales en fonction du débit de dose et lors d'irradiations successives
Estimation et modélisation de paramètres clés des capteurs d'images CMOS à photodiode pincée pour applications à haute résolution temporelle by Alice Pelamatti( )

1 edition published in 2015 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Poussée par une forte demande et un marché très compétitif, la technologie PPD CIS est en évolution permanente. Du fait de leurs très bonnes performances en terme de bruit, les capteurs d'image CMOS à base de Photodiode Pincée (PPD CIS) peuvent désormais atteindre une sensibilité de l'ordre de quelques photons, ce qui rend cette technologie particulièrement intéressante pour les applications d'imagerie à haute résolution temporelle. Aujourd'hui, la physique des photodiodes pincées n'est pas encore comprise dans sont intégralité et il y a un manque important d'uniformisation des méthodes de caractérisation de ces détecteurs. Ces travaux s'intéressent à la définition, à la modélisation analytique, à la simulation et à l'estimation de paramètres clés des PPD CIS, tels que le temps de transfert, la tension de pincement et la full well capacity (FWC). Comme il a été mis en évidence par cette thèse, il est de première importance de comprendre l'effet des conditions expérimentales sur les performances de ces capteurs. Ceci aussi bien pour l'optimisation de ces paramètres lors de la conception du capteur, que lors de la phase de caractérisions de celui-ci, et enfin pour choisir correctement les conditions de mesures lors de la mise en œuvre du dispositif
Caractérisation de polluants atmosphériques à haute résolution spatiale par télédétection optique by Ramzi Idoughi( )

1 edition published in 2015 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The air pollution is a very important issue for industrialized society, both in terms of health (respiratory diseases, allergies,. . . ) and in terms of climate change (global warming and greenhouse gas emissions). Anthropogenic sources, especially industrial, emit into the atmosphere gases and aerosols, which play an important role in atmospheric exchanges. However emissions remain poorly estimated as most of existing space sensors have a limited spectral range as well as a too low spatial resolution. The use of the new hyperspectral airborne image sensors in the infrared range opens the way to new development to improve the plume characterization. In our work, we developed a new method for detecting and characterizing gas plumes. It is based on an accurate non linear formalism of cloud gas radiative impact. This method was validated using synthetic scenes of industrial area, and airborne acquisitions obtained by a hyperspectral thermal infrared sensor
Modélisation pour la simulation et la prédiction des performances des photodiodes à avalanche en mode Geiger pour Lidars spatiaux by Aymeric Panglosse( )

1 edition published in 2019 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

This work focuses on modelling for simulation and prediction purposes ofCMOS SPADs performance parameters used in spaceborne Lidars. The innovative side ofthis work lies in a new methodology based on physical models for semiconductor devices,measurements performed on the targeted CMOS process and commercial simulation tools topredict CMOS SPADs performances. This method allows to get as close as possible to theprocess reality and to improve predictions. A set of SPAD has been designed and fabricated,and is used for measurements and model validation. SPAD design has been done with respectto CNES and Airbus Defence Space Lidar specification, in order to produce devices that willimprove our knowledge in terms of understanding of the involved physical mechanisms, SPADsdesign and test method, for a possible integration within their future spaceborne Lidars
Étude de l'influence de la propreté électrostatique du satellite sur les mesures du champ électrique basse fréquence de TARANIS by Oriol Jorba Ferro( )

1 edition published in 2018 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Les satellites en orbite terrestre se déplacent dans le plasma ionosphérique, un mélange de particules chargées, et éventuellement de particules neutres. Des électrons et des ions issus de ce plasma, ainsi que les émissions Ultra-Violets(UV) en provenance du soleil, interagissent avec les surfaces du satellite et modifient sa charge électrostatique. Cette chargement peut induire elle-même des décharges électrostatiques aux conséquences allant de perturbations électromagnétiques (fausses commandes par exemple) à la perte du satellite. En orbites de basse altitude (LEO) l'énergie cinétique et thermique du plasma est généralement faible et donc, les satellites vont rarement présenter des décharges importantes. Néanmoins, les missions scientifiques qui embarquent des instruments très performants et précis peuvent être affectées par cette interaction satellite-plasma-émissions UV. Cette thèse s'intéresse particulièrement à ces phénomènes de charge des structures externes du satellite et à l'impact de ce chargement sur les mesures scientifiques effectuées à bord, i.e. mesures du champ électrique et de la densité du plasma thermique
Modélisation et caractérisation expérimentale de l'influence de l'émission électronique sur le fonctionnement des propulseurs à courant de Hall by Marc Villemant( )

1 edition published in 2018 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Nowadays, plasma Hall thrusters are used in space industry for satellites orbit rising and satellites attitude control. Nonetheless, the comprehension their physical functioning remains patchy. Several phenomena such as abnormal electron mobility or the thrusters performance dependency to wall material are still not understood. Consequently the current process to improve and qualify Hall thrusters are involving expansive and time-consuming experimental validation which, in the end, does not ensure the release of an operational thruster. Consequently, plasma behaviour in Hall thruster is a key topic of research, which could lead to non-negligible improvement in Hall thruster technology development.This Ph.D. consists in the modelling and characterization of plasma/wall interaction in Hall thrusters and its impact on Hall thruster's performance. This Ph.D. has focused on the influence of the electron emission under electron impact on Hall thruster's performances. It has been divided into three parts. Firstly, an experimental investigation has been carried out in order to obtain reference data on materials commonly used as plasma thruster wall (bore nitride and silicon dioxide). A literature review has been made in order to find a theoretical basis fitted to the elaboration of an electron emission model fitting the requirement of a particle in cell simulation of a Hall thruster. In second part, a detailed electron emission model based on this literature review and validated by comparison to experimental data and to a Monte-Carlo model developed in ONERA (called OSMOSEE) has been developed. This model offers the possibility to describe electron emission yield, angular and energy distribution of emitted electrons depending on various physical parameters (e.g. incident electron energy, incident electron angle, impinged material, etc.). Besides, as it is an analytical model, it computes in a reduced time (a few minutes to one hour). In a third and last part, this electron emission model has been implemented in a Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulation of Hall thruster's plasma and a parametric study has been carried out in order to characterize the influence of electron emission phenomenon on global plasma behaviour. This parametric study has shown that electron emission has a non-negligible impact on energy balance at plasma/wall interface and on electron distribution function in the plasma, which can't be considered as Maxwellian
Optical Microwave Signal Generation for Data Transmission in Optical Networks by Christian Daniel Muñoz-Arcos( )

1 edition published in 2020 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

La croissance des services de télécommunications et l'augmentation du trafic de données à l'échelle mondiale favorise le développement et l'intégration de différents réseaux de transmission de données. Un exemple de ce développement est constitué par les réseaux de fibres optiques, qui sont actuellement chargés d'interconnecter les continents par des liaisons longues avec des taux de transfert importants. Les réseaux optiques, ainsi que les réseaux supportés par d'autres moyens de transmission, utilisent des signaux électriques à certaines fréquences pour la synchronisation des éléments du réseau. La qualité de ces signaux est un facteur décisif dans la performance globale du système, c'est pourquoi leur bruit de phase doit être aussi faible que possible.Ce document décrit la conception et la mise en œuvre d'un système optoélectronique pour la génération de signaux micro-ondes à l'aide de diodes laser à cavité verticale (VCSEL) et son intégration dans un système de transmission optique de données. Compte tenu du fait que le système proposé intègre un laser VCSEL directement modulé, une caractérisation théorique et expérimentale a été élaborée sur la base des équations d'évolution du laser, de mesures dynamiques et statiques, et d'un modèle électrique équivalent de la région active. Cette méthode a permis l'extraction de certains paramètres intrinsèques du VCSEL, ainsi que la validation et la simulation de ses performances dans différentes conditions de modulation.Le VCSEL utilisé émet en bande C et a été sélectionné en considérant que cette bande est couramment utilisée dans les liaisons à longue distance.Le système proposé est constitué d'une boucle fermée qui déclenche l'oscillation grâce aux sources de bruit des composants et module le VCSEL en fort signal pour générer des impulsions optiques (gain switching). Ces impulsions optiques, qui dans le domaine des fréquences correspondent à un peigne de fréquences optiques, sont détectées pour générer simultanément une fréquence fondamentale (déterminée par un filtre passe-bande) et plusieurs harmoniques.Le bruit de phase mesuré à10 kHz de la porteuse à1,25 GHz est de -127,8 dBc/Hz, et constitue la valeur la plus faible signalée dans la littérature pour cette fréquence et cette architecture.La gigue et la largeur d'impulsion optique ont été déterminées lorsque différentes cavités résonantes et différents courants de polarisation étaient utilisés
Imagerie térahertz utilisant des lasers à cascade quantique : application au contrôle non destructif de matériaux by Fabien Destic( )

1 edition published in 2014 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCL) are "new" THz sources that have enjoyed remarkable progress in terms of power, operating temperature and beam quality. QCLs are used in continuous wave THz imaging setups applied to Non Destructive Testing of materials. A first qualitative application of NDT allows us to highlight defects in the fibers impregnation by resin or damages caused by an impact on composite materials. Transmission and reflection images at 3.8 THz are compared with a NDT ultrasonic technique. A second quantitative application relates to the water concentration in two hydrophobic polymeric materials: polystyrene and polypropylene. Establishing a relationship between the transmittance of the sample and mass water content enables us to draw up a quantified mapping of the latter. These maps are necessary for the understanding of the water diffusion process in polymeric materials
Modèle de transport d'électrons à basse énergie (~10 eV- 2 keV) pour applications spatiales (OSMOSEE, GEANT4) by Juliette Pierron( )

1 edition published in 2017 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Space is a hostile environment for embedded electronic devices on board satellites. The high fluxes of energetic electrons that impact these satellites may continuously penetrate inside their electronic components and cause malfunctions. Taking into account the effects of these particles requires high-performant 3D numerical tools, such as codes dedicated to electrons transport using the Monte Carlo statistical method, valid down to a few eV. In this context, ONERA has developed, in collaboration with CNES, the code OSMOSEE for aluminum. For its part, CEA has developed for silicon the low-energy electron module MicroElec for the code GEANT4. The aim of this thesis, in a collaborative effort between ONERA, CNES and CEA, is to extend those two codes to different materials. To describe the interactions between electrons, we chose to use the dielectric function formalism that enables to overcome of the disparity of electronic band structures in solids, which play a preponderant role at low energy. From the validation of the codes, for aluminum, silver and silicon, by comparison with measurements from the experimental set-up DEESSE at ONERA, we obtained a better understanding of the transport of low energy electrons in solids. This result enables us to study the effect of the surface roughness. This parameter, which may have a significant impact on the electron emission yield, is not usually taken into account in Monte Carlo transport codes, which only simulate ideally flat materials. In this sense, the results of this thesis offer interesting perspectives for space applications
Développement et évaluation de nouvelles méthodes de classification spatiale-spectrale d'images hyperspectrales by Guillaume Roussel( )

1 edition published in 2012 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Thanks to a high number of thin and contiguous spectral bands, the hyperpectral imagery can associate to each pixel of animage a spectral signature representing the reflective behaviour of the materials composing the pixel. Most of theclassification algorithms use this great amount of spectral information without noticing the contextual information betweenthe pixels that belong to the same neighborhood. This study aims to realize new algorithms using simultaneously the spectraland spatial informations in order to classify hyperspectral images, and to study their complementarity in several contexts. Forthis purpose, we have developped three different classification scenarios, each one adapted to a particular type of application.The first scenario consists in a vectorial classification processus. Several spectral and spatial characteristics are extracted andmerged in order to form a unique data set, which is classified using a Support Vector Machine method or a Gaussian MixingModel algorithm. The spectral characteristics are extracted using dimension reduction method, such as PCA or MNF, while thespatial characteristics are extracted using textural characterization tools (co-occurrence matrices and texture spectra) ormorphological tools (morphological profiles). For the second scenario, we adapted a Conditional Random Field algorithm tothe hyperspectral context. Finally, the last scenario is an area-wise classification algorithm relying on a textural segmentationmethod as a pre-processing step.The spectral information is generally sufficient to deal with semantically simple classes, linked to a unique type of material.Complex classes (such as ground amenagment classes) are composed of several materials which potentially belong to morethan one class. Those classes can be characterized both spectrally and spatially, which means that they can be morecompletly described using both spectral and spatial informations. To conclude this study, we compared the threespectral/spatial classification scenarios using three criterions : classification accuracy, algorithmic complexity and strength
Caractérisation de la biodiversité végétale en milieu montagnard et de piedmont par télédétection : apport des données aéroportées à très hautes résolutions spatiales et spectrales by Thierry Erudel( )

1 edition published in 2018 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

This thesis highlighted the interest of using data with very high spatial and spectral resolution for the characterization of plant biodiversity in mountain areas. On the one hand, it has been shown that (in situ or airborne) hyperspectral data can discriminate plant habitats in a mountain peatbog. The difficulty of this study comes from the strong heterogeneity that exists within a bog that has strong floristic gradients and the definition of habitat classes that group several plant species (sometimes common from one class to another). More specifically, this thesis made it possible to highlight that discrimination could be carried out according to three approaches starting from measures of similarity applied to the spectral signature by applying a supervised classification which takes into account local information (spectral indices of vegetation) or global information (different spectral domains). The best results to distinguish these different habitat classes are not obtained with the spectral signature but with transformed spectral signatures (CRDR) in the spectral range[350-1350 nm]. The spectral vegetation indices that have been selected from a non-exhaustive base, which characterizes other plant species, are also mainly located in this spectral range. Moreover, this thesis highlighted the interest of applying a classifier little used for classification but rather for dimension reduction (RLR). Fine mapping of habitats was also carried out using airborne hyperspectral data
Evaluation de l'apport des visées multi-angulaires en imagerie laser pour la reconstruction 3D des couverts végétaux by Thomas Ristorcelli( )

1 edition published in 2013 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

This research work regards the scientific challenge of reconstructing the ground and the object presents under a vegetation cover from airborne observations. Airborne laser scanning is a promising technology. Full-waveform devices are able to record the complete temporal return signal following the emission of a short laser pulse towards the ground. This offers a great potential for remote sensing of forested areas, since the laser pulse will travel through the vegetation. Many commercial systems are already operated for topography or bathymetry. Scientists have been using these systems for vegetation observation, even if they are not dedicated to this purpose. The objective of this thesis is to study the relevance of full-waveform lidars for the geometric reconstruction of digital terrain models (DTM) under vegetation. We also aim at developing simulation and data processing toolsthat will help design and optimize future sensors dedicated to vegetation observation. Our first task was the development of a new physical simulator for full-waveform lidar measurement. The DELiS model (n-Dimensional Estimation of Lidar Signals) is able tosimulate the observation of complex and realistic vegetation scenes while accounting for atmosphere and sun perturbations, and simulating the multiple scattering of the laser pulse in the canopy. We have also implemented a sensor model for simulation of the measurement, amplification and digitization noises. This operational simulation tool is a key asset for future physical studies as well as for designing and optimizing future sensors and data processing methods. After validating the DELiS model by confrontation with analytical results, we have used it for studying the interest of full-waveform lidar for digital terrain models reconstruction under vegetation. For this purpose, we have developed a full-waveform lidar data processing method for decomposition of the signals and classification of the lidar echoes into two classes : 'ground' and 'vegetation'. We were then able to reconstruct ground geometry.Finally, we have led a study on the combination of multi-angular acquisitions for improvement of the reconstructions.Our work shows that airborne full-waveform lidar observations may allow ground reconstruction with sub-metric resolutions and a precision of 10 to 20 centimeters in forested areas. Combining multiple viewing angles provides additional data, and helps improving the precision of the reconstructions. Yet, we show that non-nadir viewing is much more sensitive to trunks and branches. These elements may be the cause of an additional error in the classification and reconstruction processes. For this reason, we recommend using nadir viewing for single-view ground reconstruction, and propose a method for optimally selecting non-nadir views for the detailed observation of restricted areas of interest
Imagerie polarimétrique de speckle statique pour l'étude de matériaux et dynamique pour la détection de micro-vascularisation tumorale by Jan Dupont( )

1 edition published in 2017 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

When an electromagnetic wave is scattered by a rough surface or in a volume, a speckle field is observed, with characterlstlcs depending on the consldered scatterer. Multiple scattering in samples immpact the State of polarizatlon of an incident light. Thus, polarization Is a sensitive parameter for material characterization and study. A spatially resolved polarlmetry method, allowing accurate measurements in speckle fields is proposed. That method is used to study the Impact of various parameters on polarimétrie measurements, especially the depolarization phenomenon due to the observation setup. A polarlzed speskle simulation model is proposed, validated by comparison with expérimentation for various scattering régime. Besides, dynamlc properties of samples can be measured by an analysis of the scattered speckle contrast. A method allowing microvascularization imaging based on dynamic polarized light scattering imaging is optlmlzed, then applied to in-vivo study of the tumor angiogenesis occuring on murine melanoma, as well as the vascularization évolution after a treatment called electrochemotherapy. Potentlal of the method for non invasive détection and study of the murine melanoma is demonstrated, its efflciency on human melanoma for biomédical applications remaning to be characterized
Etude des effets singuliers produits par les particules énergétiques chargées de l'environnement radiatif spatial sur les capteurs d'images CMOS by Valérian Lalucaa( )

1 edition published in 2013 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

This thesis studies the single event effects of space environment in CMOS image sensors (CIS). This work focuses on the effects of heavy ions on 3T standard photodiode pixels, and 4T and 5T pinned photodiode pixels. The first part describes the space radioactive environment and the sensor architecture. The most harmful events (SEL and SETs) are identified thanks to the scientific literature. The experimentally tested sensors agree with the theoretical work. SETs are compared to STARDUST simulations with a good agreement for all ions and sensors. The work explains why the SETs on 3T pixels are insensitive to the various photodiode designs, and they are decreased when an epitaxial substrate is used. A method using anti-blooming was successfully used in 4T and 5T pixels to prevent the spread of the SETs. The mechanism of latchup in 4T pixel sensors is described. All the identified mechanisms are very useful to provide hardening methods for the CISs
Lidar supercontinuum pour la caractérisation spectrale des milieux diffusants à haute résolution spatiale : Étude numérique et développement instrumental by Florian Gaudfrin( )

1 edition published in 2020 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Les méthodes de diagnostic par méthode lidar donnent des informations sur les paramètres optiques du milieu (coefficients de diffusion et d'absorption). Ces grandeurs dépendent des propriétés de la lumière (longueur d'onde, polarisation) et sont ensuite utilisées pour remonter aux propriétés microscopiques du milieu comme la distribution en taille, la morphologie, l'indice optique ou la concentration en particules. Cependant, les techniques lidar actuelles présentent des limitations. Les sources laser utilisées sont limitées à quelques longueurs d'onde visible ou proche infrarouge et l'identification des propriétés microphysiques nécessite une connaissance a priori du milieu diffusant. Des hypothèses sont formulées pour contraindre les méthodes d'inversion et remonter aux informations d'intérêt sur des aérosols naturels et anthropiques (particules carbonées, poussières désertiques, cendres volcaniques, etc.). En outre, les lidars actuels considèrent des portées kilométriques alors que de nouveaux besoins existent à courte distance : réalisation de mesures in situ en sortie de tuyères, contrôle local de panaches industriels à haute résolution spatiale... Les sources laser supercontinuum s'étendent du visible à l'infrarouge et offrent de nouvelles possibilités de mesures des propriétés optiques des aérosols sur un large domaine spectral continu. Leur utilisation dans les systèmes lidars est envisagée pour identifier les propriétés optiques du milieu sur toute une gamme continue de longueurs d'onde. L'un des objectifs majeurs de cette thèse est de démontrer la viabilité des lidars supercontinuum pour la caractérisation spectrale de cibles surfaciques et volumiques à haute résolution spatiale. Le premier axe concerne l'étude numérique du système avec le développement du simulateur PERFALIS. Le second axe se concentre sur la conception instrumentale d'un lidar appelé COLIBRIS. Il a permis de réaliser des mesures lidar à courte portée et à haute résolution spatiale (submétrique). Une première version a été proposée en analyse monochromatique et une seconde avec une analyse hyperspectrale de la lumière rétrodiffusée. Enfin, une nouvelle méthode d'inversion lidar nommée ST-LIM a été développée pour identifier les propriétés optiques d'un panache sans hypothèse a priori sur le rapport lidar (paramètre optique caractérisant le milieu sondé). La comparaison de mesures expérimentales avec les résultats de simulations valide le simulateur lidar dans ses deux modes de fonctionnement (monochromatique et hyperspectral). Les résultats montrent qu'il est important de considérer la forme réelle des impulsions laser lors de l'interaction lumière-matière dans le cas de sondages de panaches de faible épaisseur à haute résolution spatiale. À l'avenir, le simulateur lidar pourra être utilisé pour dimensionner de nouveaux instruments lidar supercontinuum ou monochromatiques et d'étudier leurs performances pour des versions embarquables
Étude et réalisation d'un oscillateur à base de VCSEL verrouillé en phase pour des applications en télécommunications by Juan Fernando Coronel-Rico( )

1 edition published in 2016 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Oscillators are present in all telecommunication systems. They synchronize the emitter and receiver of a message. The quality of the synchronization depends on the oscillator stability. To characterize the frequency domain oscillator stability, the phase noise of the carrier is used as figure of merit. An oscillator delivering a low phase noise carrier is a high spectral purity oscillator. Electronic oscillators are high performing at low frequencies. As communications systems require high data rate transmission, the electronic oscillators uses frequency multipliers that degrades the spectral purity of the carrier. The hybrid systems take advantage of the good performance of optical components at high frequency with the goal to be integrated in the electronic systems to overcome frequency limitation issues. This work use the optical injection locking technique by injecting the laser beam of a master laser inside the cavity of a VCSEL under direct modulation. The optical injection locking technique enlarges the direct modulation bandwidth of the VCSEL and reduces the Relative Intensity noise of the laser (RIN). The RIN reduction has as side effect the reduction of the additive noise inside the oscillator and, in consequence, reducing the oscillator phase noise
Ultra-high dose effects and junction leakage current in CMOS technologies for analog applications by Hugo Dewitte( )

1 edition published in 2022 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The electronics circuit has become a central and essential tool in our modern society. It invested the objects of everyday life, and we directly or indirectly use dozens of them every day without even realizing it. Since the introduction of the transistor as we know it at the end of the '40s, electronics circuits have continued to improve and specialize to become more efficient in every application. Today, the most widely used technology for designing these electronics is the MOS (Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor) technology.Therefore, it is pretty natural to find MOS electronics circuits in all the space and nuclear applications where they perform a multitude of essential functions. However, these environments have the particularity to have a high density of radiation which degrades the electronic components. These degradations are all the more problematic as the circuits exposed to such environments are often supposed to provide excellent performance and high reliability. In order to guarantee the proper functioning of these circuits, it is, therefore, necessary to study the effects of these environments on the MOS electronics performances.Moreover, and this is the motivation for this thesis, these applications in radiative environments are booming. Not only is the demand for such circuits increasing, but the maximum radiation dose received by the electronics over its lifetime is expected to exceed unprecedented levels. These new doses and their effects on electronics are still poorly investigated, and the study of these effects is, therefore, essential to allow the future use of electronics in these environments, whether in nuclear, space or elsewhere.In particular, this thesis studies the effects of high doses of ionizing radiation on MOS transistors (MOSFETs) for analog circuits, circuits that are often more exposed than others. All this with the aim of, on the one hand, being able to anticipate these effects better and, on the other hand, counteract them when possible.The thesis first deals with the degradation during irradiation of MOSFET parameters such as the maximum current, the threshold voltage, or the leakage currents. In particular, the effects of voltage, oxide thickness, design, and size of the transistor are investigated. The results highlight the decisive role of the voltages during the irradiations on the type of defects created, particularly in the gate, along with the appearance of a short channel effect (RISCE) in a larger technology node than previously observed. Finally, this study of the parameters of MOSFETs highlights the significant increase of the generation current after high ionizing doses in the pn-junctions of the transistor. An in-depth analysis of this current follows.In a second step, the thesis studies the phenomenon of RTS (Random Telegraph Signal) in this pn-junction leakage current of the transistors. For this purpose, a test structure capable of measuring tens of thousands of leakage currents in parallel is introduced. Thanks to this structure, the RTS is statistically studied before and after irradiations. The results, in agreement with atomic-scale simulations, support the hypothesis of metastable defects as the origin of the RTS phenomenon in leaky junctions
Conditioning of surfaces in particle accelerators by Valentine Petit( )

1 edition published in 2020 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The electron cloud developing in the vacuum chambers of the LHC during the protonbeam operation is responsible for heat load on the cryogenic system of the superconductingmagnets. The observed heat load exhibits a strong dispersion between the differentLHC arcs, although identical by design. Some of them are currently close to the limitof the cryoplant capacity. Under the effect of the cloud itself, conditioning of the coppersurface of the LHC beam pipes is expected, decreasing thus the secondary electronyield of the surface and leading to a decrease of the cloud intensity down to operationcompatiblelevels. Such a process seems therefore to be hindered in some parts of theLHC ring. This work aims to understand the copper conditioning processes occurringin the LHC, to unravel the origin of the heat load dispersion observed along the ring.Copper conditioning mechanisms were studied in the laboratory at room temperature bymimicking the electron cloud by an electron gun. The fundamental role of carbon, amongthe surface chemical components, in the reduction of the secondary electron yield duringconditioning was evidenced. Studying the deconditioning, occurring while exposing aconditioned surface to air (necessary step to extract beam pipes from the LHC) allowedestablishing a procedure to limit the erasing of the in-situ conditioning state of suchcomponents before the analysis of their surface in the laboratory. The surface of beampipes extracted from a low heat load magnet were found to have similar characteristicsas the ones conditioned in the laboratory. However, beam pipes extracted from a highheat load magnet exhibit cupric oxide CuO and a very low amount of surface carbon. Itis demonstrated that these modifications are induced by the LHC operation and lead toa slower conditioning of these surfaces. Therefore, these modifications are currently thebest candidate to explain the heat load dispersion observed in the LHC
Imagerie polarimétrique adaptée en lumière cohérente by Debajyoti Upadhyay( )

1 edition published in 2014 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

We propose in this thesis to study and imaging method which is adapted to the scene under investigation by the use of specific polarimetric excitations. The scenes under inversigation have two separate regions with different polarimetric properties. The specific fully polarized state of illumination is found by the physical criteria for oprimizing the polarimetric constrat in two aereas with different polarization properties. Taking into account the Shot noise of the detector, this new 2 channel imaging technique named APSCI, shows a gain in contrast quantified by the Bhattacharyya distance of up to a factor of 10 compared to what is achievable from classical Mueller imagnin. On the other hand, it uses the full polarimetric information of the scene to generate a single image at optimum contrast which makes it particularly effective to distinguish two distinct areas with slightly different polarization properties. The complete analytical solution of this problem is proposed in the next chapter with associated illustrations. The proposed model allows, in addition to a physical interpretation of the imaging problem, to quantify the limits of APSCI method based on evaluated Mueller matrices of the scene. Furthermore the relative performance of APSCI vs Classical Mueller Imaging (CMI) associated to polar decomposition has been studied numerically. Finally we have setup an hybrid CMI-APSCI imaging setup by indigenous calibration technique with a polarimetric precession of approximately 1% when room temperature varies around 1 degree C
 
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École doctorale Génie électrique, électronique et télécommunications. Equipe d'accueil OLIMPES

Équipe d'accueil ISAE-ONERA OLIMPES

Languages
French (16)

English (6)