WorldCat Identities

Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire des Environnements Continentaux (Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy)

Overview
Works: 53 works in 53 publications in 2 languages and 53 library holdings
Roles: Other
Publication Timeline
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Most widely held works by Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire des Environnements Continentaux (Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy)
Loading of dendrimer nanoparticles into layer-by-layer assembled Poly(diallyl dimethyl ammonium) chloride-(Poly(acrylic acid))n Multilayer Films : Particle Electrokinetics, Film Structure Dynamics and Elasticity by Mariam Moussa( )

1 edition published in 2017 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Une analyse détaillée des propriétés physico-chimiques des nanoparticules (NP) anthropogéniques est nécessaire pour comprendre à un niveau mécanistique leurs interactions/toxicité potentielle avec/envers les composants biotiques des systèmes aquatiques naturels. Une telle analyse est également requise pour réaliser une évaluation complète et une optimisation de la performance des méthodes d'(ultra)filtration développées pour circonscrire le relargage des NPs dans les milieux aquatiques. Dans ce contexte, l'objectif de cette thèse de doctorat était de déchiffrer les processus physico-chimiques fondamentaux régissant la capture de nanodendrimères carboxylés (PAMAM-COOH) - utilisés fréquemment dans des applications biomédicales - par des films multicouches du type (poly(diallyldiméthylammonium)chlorure-poly(acide acrylique))n ((PDADMAC-PAA)n) assemblés par déposition séquentielle des composantes polymériques cationique et anionique. À cette fin, une étude systématique des propriétés électrohydrodynamiques des NPs PAMAM-COOH a d'abord été effectuée en fonction du pH et de la concentration en sel monovalent du milieu. Sur la base de la théorie électrocinétique de particules molles ayant une fonctionnalité zwitterionique, il est démontré que les caractéristiques électriques interfaciales des NPs considérées sont déterminées à la fois par des contributions électrostatiques de surface et volumique des nanoparticules, lesquelles dependent de l'extension intraparticulaire de la double couche électrique. L'existence de ces deux types de contributions conduit à un changement remarquable de signe de la mobilité des NPs en modifiant la concentration du sel monovalent en solution et à une dépendance prononcé du point de zéro mobilité des NPs avec la concentration de l'électrolyte. En outre, une confrontation quantitative entre résultats expérimentaux et théorie souligne comment les modifications structurales des NPs induites par des changements de pH et de salinité affectent les caractéristiques électrocinétiques des dendrimères. Dans une deuxième partie, la structure, la morphologie et les propriétés mécaniques des films PDADMAC-PAA et leur évolution temporelle dans des conditions de vieillissement naturel ou après traitement thermique ont été déterminées par microscopie à force atomique (AFM) et analyses microspectroscopie Raman. Les résultats démontrent que les films multicouches PDADMAC-PAA de type exponentiel présentent des caractéristiques mécaniques et structurelles typiques de films polyélectrolytes multicouches à croissance linéaire. En particulier, leur relaxation lente vers un état d'équilibre est accélérée après traitement thermique à 60°C et se révèle être intimement liée à l'instabilité de domaines de films riches en PDADMAC, épuisés en eau (faits confirmés par la théorie de la fonctionnelle de la densité) et marqués par la présence de structures caractéristiques en forme de 'donuts'. Dans une dernière partie, des résultats préliminaires sont donnés pour la dépendance de l'élasticité des films multicouches PDADMAC-PAA avec la concentration en solution de nanodendrimères. Les résultats suggèrent que ces films multicouches complexes constituent une option prometteuse pour la capture et l'élimination de nanodendrimères carboxylés présents en milieux aqueux
Évaluation de la qualité de l'eau du bassin inférieur de la rivière du Litani, Liban : approche environnementale by Nada Nehme( )

1 edition published in 2014 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The objective of this study was to evaluate water quality of the lower Litani River and assess its feasibility for multi-purpose usage as one of the solutions to the aggravated water problems in Lebanon, To identify possible sources of metals (i.e. geological and/or anthropogenic) and then to characterize the chemical behavior of these metals in water and bed sediments, water and bed load sediments were sampled at six representatives sites which are investigated over three seasons of the year 2011-2012 (i.e. rainy, mid-rainy and dry seasons), The PCA (principal component analysis) method was used to interpret the elemental concentrations in the river water. Results show that among 18 variables, which were evaluated to characterize their physic-chemistry and metals, there are only 4 (Fe, NO2-, CaCO3, Cu) that were determined the type of environmental studied; Three groups were identified and differentiated by PCA according to the seasons. The first group includes all statements made in the mid rainy season and has a dialogue rich in Fe and NO2, and low in NH4 and EC. The second group formed in dry season, and surveys show physicochemical characteristics opposite to those in the first group, the third group formed in mid rainy, and showed the low concentration of K+, PO43- and Cl-. Sediments were characterized by a set of cations exchange capacity, granulometric, diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR( The FTIR analysis shows that the amount of montomorillonite is less than kaolinite and very much less than quartz and calcite. Pearson's correlation was also performed in this study to compare to and determine the correlation between heavy metals in the sediments. Geo-accumulation (Igeo) index, Contamination Factor (Cf), and contamination degree (Cd) were also applying to assess the level of contamination in the sites. The results shows that the concentration of Pb, Fe are high in the site S5, S6 and the value of Cr ,Ni, are high in the S6, this results suggest that special attention must be given to the issue of element re-mobilization, because a large portion of elements in sediments are likely to release back into the water column. All the sites are characterized by moderate to highly microbial polluted range. The degree of contamination was increased in dry season. However, no critical physicochemical pollution has been reported in this part of the river; except the high concentration of Fe and NO2- in all investigated sites due to the reject of wastewater and to the distribution of touristic activities in the LLRB, the Concentrations of seven heavy metals is high(Cu, Fe, Cd , Mn , Cr, Zn, Ni and Pb) for sediment is higher according to Consensus-based sediment quality guidelines of Wisconsin (Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, 2003) were applied to assess metal contamination in sediment
Déterminants spatio-temporels de la qualité des cours d'eau dans un contexte de déprise et de changement des activités : rôle possible des facteurs du passé by David Gocel-Chalté( )

1 edition published in 2020 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Human activities have been continuously affecting natural ecosystems functioning during the Holocene and it actually have an impact at a global scale. There is particular concern over the integrity of freshwater ecosystems, however local past activities can also still impact these ecosystems and are rarely considered for the management of streams. The headwater streams especially, whose functioning is based on terrestrial organic matter inputs, are sensitive to human uses of neighboring lands, and so may be actually affected by stresses of historical origin. It seems pertinent to identify such effects of past activities on freshwater ecosystems and to understand the mechanisms involved in these processes. During this thesis project we conducted a prospective in situ study, to determine the influence of the legacy of potential historical activities on the current ecological quality of headwater catchment streams. We combined an approach of historical ecology of landscapes (anthracology, study of old maps, ...) with a study of biotic and abiotic parameters of streams. The first approach aimed to study the woodland composition of last centuries and to georeference old human uses (deforested areas, charcoal production sites, homes, ponds, ...). The second aimed to determine the integrity of stream by multiparametric analyses. The results of this study, realized on forested catchments of northern Vosges mountains, revealed that the streams which are situated in a low-impacted landscape, globally have a good ecological quality. Some ponds with different ages have an impact on the composition of aquatic macroinvertebrates communities and deviation to good ecological state, maybe due to urban pollutions or acidic rainfalls. Nevertheless the exploitation of forest for the production of wood charcoal until the beginning of XXth century lead to the creation of thousands of charcoal production sites (CPS) that affect the availability of phosphorus both in environment. Moreover, woodland dynamic seems to have been conditioned by the sylviculture, leading to a higher proportion of coniferous species today than in the past (before the beginning of charcoal production). These aspects lead us to believe that human activities have been influencing organic matter inputs into streams. We can conclude that the historical building of ponds and the charcoal production in these woodlands have an influence on actual characteristics of streams, in parallel to modern stresses. Thus, this project open strong lines of research about the nutrients fluxes in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems under the influence of charcoal production sites. This could help us to better understand the impact of this activity across history
Effets de nanomatériaux chez deux espèces de bivalves le long d'un gradient de salinité : approches intégrées physiologiques et moléculaires by Vanessa Koehle-Divo( )

1 edition published in 2019 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Nanotechnology is constantly evolving and leads to the incorporation of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) into daily commercial products. The synthesis of ENM and the use of products containing those ENM leads to their release in the environment but the risk of ENM is not yet known. The particular physico-chemical properties of ENM makes the evaluation of their toxicity particularly difficult and still not completely solved now. This thesis is integrated to the ANR NanoSALT (2013-2017) and aims to evaluate the fate and the effects of cerium dioxide and copper oxide ENM in two bivalve species representative of freshwaters (Corbicula fluminea) and of seawaters (Scrobicularia plana). The organisms were exposed to realistic concentrations of these ENM at different stage of their life-cycle, and through the setting up of exposure increasingly closed to environmental conditions (micro- and mesocosms). Nowadays, few nanotoxicology studies have adopted an approach of molecular biology for the evaluation and the comprehension of ENM effects in invertebrates, and more particularly in non-sequenced species. One of the objective of the thesis was to use the qPCR approach for the evaluation of the gene expression perturbation by ENM. This work allowed to determine the fate and the behavior of ENM in the different exposure conditions. The evaluation of ENM effects has been done at different biological scales (molecular, cellular, individual). The use of multivariate statistical tools has been particularly useful for the analysis of the expression variations of the targeted genes. The multi-marker approach at different biological scales allowed the integration of a lot of data, which generally allowed us to differentiate the effects of the different forms of ENM
Mobilité et transfert des terres rares du sol aux plantes par les champignons mycorhiziens arbusculaires by Ruoyu Hu( )

1 edition published in 2021 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Rare earth elements (REE) are a group of strategic metals that have been widely used in modern technologies in the recent decades. However, due to the corresponding REE emission from industries and the over-exploitation, large amounts of anthropogenic rare earth can accumulate in the environment, and be phytotoxic. Arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) benefit to plants in metal-contaminated soils by improving their survival and growth and alleviating metal toxicity, but little information is available about soil contaminated by rare earth elements. The objective of this PhD project is to understand the transfer of REEs from soil to plants and especially the role of AM fungi on plant growth and REE transfer to plants in REE contaminated soils. Experiments were launched using a model legume plant alfalfa (Medicago sativa), a model REE samarium (Sm), and a metal-tolerant Funneliformis mosseae fungus in a growth chamber. We first studied the bioavailability and transfer of an REE to Medicago sativa grown on two contaminated soils differing in their chemical characteristics. The results showed that DTPA extractable Sm was well correlated with Sm uptake in alfalfa shoots. Although the soil to plant transfer factor was low, alfalfa biomass was reduced when the soils were spiked with 100 to 200 mg kg-1 of Sm. Then the hypothesis was drawn that arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi might protect the plant against REE toxicity. Therefore, a pot experiment was launched to study the role of AM fungi on alfalfa growth and a compartment experiment was performed to study the transfer of Sm to alfalfa via AM fungal hyphae. The biomass of alfalfa grown on Sm-spiked soil was significantly higher following arbuscular mycorrhiza inoculation. P content was also higher in mycorrhizal than nonmycorrhizal plants, but there was no significant Sm transfer to the plant by F.mosseae. Since there are often multiple REEs in contaminated soils, including light (LREE) and heavy (HREE) REEs, a compartment experiment was launched using 4 REEs, alfalfa and ryegrass, which confirmed that there was no transfer of the 4 REEs to alfalfa plants by F.mosseae. Finally, an REE mining soil collected from China was used to analyze the toxicity of REEs to AM fungal spores and to leek plants inoculated or not with the AM fungus, using spore germination assays and a plant growth experiment. The high concentration of REEs significantly inhibited plant growth and spore germination rate, and the fungus tolerated relatively high REE concentrations, but there was no significant difference in REE tolerance between two isolates of F.mosseae. Other fungi and plants should be tested, and field experiments performed, but our results suggest that arbuscular mycorrhizal plants might be considered in phytorestoration of REE-contaminated soils
Effets (sub)individuels et fonctionnels des nanoparticules manufacturées sur des Crustacés Gammaridae by Jennifer Andreï( )

1 edition published in 2015 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Qu'il s'agisse de crèmes solaires, d'additifs à carburant ou d'emballages alimentaires, ces produits d'utilisation courante contiennent des nanoparticules, et l'ensemble des processus de leur production, utilisation et vieillissement conduit à un relargage direct ou non dans les milieux aquatiques. Le rejet accru de nanoparticules dans les écosystèmes d'eau douce est donc à prendre en considération et soulève la question de leurs effets potentiels sur les organismes y vivant. Le programme collaboratif ANR P2N - MESONNET (2011 - 2015) s'est attaché à décrire le devenir des nanoparticules (transfert et transformation dans les milieux et dans les organismes vivants) ainsi qu'à déterminer leur écotoxicité. Le travail présenté dans ce manuscrit a pris part à cette évaluation en étudiant les effets de nanoparticules d'argent, de titane et de carbone (nanotubes) sur des Crustacés Amphipodes appartenant au genre Gammarus. L'approche expérimentale mise en œuvre a cherché à évaluer, en laboratoire, l'effet sur les gammares de l'exposition aux nanoparticules en focalisant sur des biomarqueurs mesurés au niveau (sub)individuel (cellulaire, physiologique, comportemental) et sur des paramètres ayant trait à leur rôle fonctionnel dans les écosystèmes. La démarche s'est voulue la plus proche possible des conditions naturelles en envisageant des scénarios de contamination environnementalement réalistes : exposition dans un milieu complexe (eau prélevée dans le milieu naturel) à de faibles concentrations en nanoparticules et en présence de nourriture. Dans ce contexte, l'étude des effets des nAg sur trois espèces de gammares a révélé une plus forte sensibilité de G. roeseli, chez lequel l'exposition a engendré une réduction de l'activité locomotrice et de la production de fines particules de matière organique (FPOM). Sur le plan physiologique, une augmentation de la consommation en oxygène a été observée chez des gammares exposés aux nAg, et ce, malgré une stabilité de réponse des marqueurs du métabolisme énergétique étudiés. La consommation en oxygène s'est avérée corrélée aux concentrations en argent mesurées dans les organismes, ainsi qu'à la taille des nanoparticules testées. L'influence de la forme des nanoparticules (nAg : triangulaires plates et sphériques ; nTiO2 : cubiques ou en bâtonnets) et de la présence de matière organique (NTC) a été étudiée en mésocosmes, en ciblant principalement des indicateurs cellulaires (réserve énergétique, réponse antioxydante, dommage...) et individuels (osmorégulation, ventilation et locomotion). Les résultats obtenus suggèrent des effets dépendants de la forme des nanoparticules. L'ensemble de ces travaux souligne l'intérêt d'une double approche, écologique et écotoxicologique, permettant de mieux appréhender les effets des nanoparticules sur les écosystèmes d'eau douce
What the Orne River tells about the former steelmaking activities : chemical and mineralogical investigations on sediments by Hussein Kanbar( )

1 edition published in 2017 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The Orne River is a tributary of the Moselle River, located northeastern France. During the last two centuries, the Orne watershed was highly industrialized. The introduction of wastes or by-products into the river is highly anticipated. Based on industrial needs, some small dams were built. However, the Directive 2000/60/EC of the European parliament strongly incite the removal of engineered structures (such as dams). This raises the question about the fate of contaminated sediment remobilization. The aims of this work are to identify the different sediment deposits along the Orne River. Surface sediments and sediment cores were collected along the Orne River. The sediments were then analyzed for water content, grain size distribution, pH, major and trace chemical composition using ICP-OES and ICP-MS, respectively, major crystalline minerals (XRD), micrometric (light microscope and SEM) and sub-micrometric (TEM) mineralogy, and Zn speciation at a molecular level (XANES). The chemical and mineralogical composition of the surface sediments revealed lithogenic as well as anthropogenic contributions. Interestingly, the sediment layers of the core collected upstream of the Beth dam showed fingerprints of the former steelmaking facilities. Those deposits were highly enriched in Fe, Zn and Pb, and were fingerprinted by crystalline iron minerals, and by newly formed Fe-aluminosilicates. TEM-EDXS and XANES at the Zn K-edge observations evidenced that Zn was mainly carried as sulfides, and to a lesser extent associated to Fe oxy-hydroxides and Fe-aluminosilicates. The remobilization of the contaminated sediments can then be traced by the unique mineralogical composition
Impacts environnementaux des agents de contraste à base de Gadolinium : situation locale, approche cellulaire et in vivo by Emilie Perrat( )

1 edition published in 2017 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The increasing use of Gadolinium-based Contrast Agents (Gd-CA) for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) results in their rejection in Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTPs). Due to the lack of specific recycling process in European WWTPs, these pharmaceutical produces enter the aquatic environment from river to tap water. The effects of Gd-CA in aquatic media have been not studied yet. The lack of knowledge about these effects highlighted the need to study their environmental impacts on aquatic organisms. In this context, we decided to measure anthropogenic concentrations of Gd in the aquatic environment in the Lorraine region (France) closed to WWTPs outputs and catchment areas used for drinking water. Our measurements underlined the presence of anthropogenic Gd on all the collected samples at concentrations ranging from few ng/L to several dozen of µg/L. In this research we focused on the effects of the most frequently used Gd-CA, the gadoteric acid (Gd-DOTA - Dotarem®) which is also the most stable one. Several representative species of aquatic environment were selected for ecotoxicological assays: i.e. unicellular green microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata), microcrustacean (Daphnia magna) and aquatic vertebrate (Danio rerio). Assays were conducted in laboratory under controlled conditions as well as in situ. Gd-DOTA accumulation was measured in the tissues of the different organisms. Environmental realistic concentrations of Gd-CA were used to assess their effects at the individual level by means of growth, reproduction and mortality measurements. The Gd-DOTA accumulation was also measured in bivalves' tissues (Corbicula fluminea and Dresseina rostriformis bugensis) and compared to Gd ones in situ in these organisms. Physiological responses were assessed based on a battery of 11 complementary biomarkers measured in the digestive gland and in the gills of both bivalve species. At cellular level, the effects of Gd-DOTA were studied in vitro on D. rerio fibroblasts (ZF4 - ATCC-2050). Indirect ecotoxicological effects of Gd-CA and of Gd-DOTA especially have been highlighted at all biological levels. Accumulation of Gd-DOTA was observed in bivalves only, but defense systems were mobilized in all organisms to limit toxicity. Our results demonstrated that following both research on ecotoxicological effects of the Gd-CA and evolution of their concentrations in aquatic ecosystem are necessary to assess more precisely their environmental risk and to propose solutions for their environmental management
Les variations spatiales et temporelles de l'occurrence et de la distribution de composés aromatiques polycycliques dans un système fluvial affecté par activités industrielles passées by Fayez Abuhelou( )

1 edition published in 2016 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The spatio-temporal variations of the concentration and distribution of dissolved and particulate polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), namely 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 11 oxygenated PACs (O-PACs) and 5 nitrogen PACs (N-PACs), were studied in the Orne, a river impacted for more than one century by iron mining and steel-making industry. The first objective of this work was to compare the influence of two different methods of separation of suspended particulate matter (SPM), filtration (FT) and field continuous flow centrifuge (CFC). Results showed that in half of the sampling campaigns, PAC concentrations were 2 to 8 times higher for PAHs and 2 to 10 times higher for O-PAC when SPM were collected by filtration. These differences that were not observed systematically over the six sampling campaigns could be explained by the retention of colloidal matter on glass-fiber filters that appeared as a very reactive phase particularly enriched in low molecular PACs. The two methods were then considered as complementary methods to study SPM. The second objective of this work was to perform a long term monitoring of PAC concentrations and distributions in dissolved and particulate fractions. The results from the six sampling campaigns between May 2014 and September 2015 in eight different sites showed that the PAC concentrations ranged between 1.6 to 223.7 ng L-1 in the dissolved fraction (?PACTD), and between 1,55 to 105,5 µg g-1 in the total particulate fraction, with maximum spatial variation of ±35% and ±45% respectively. The dissolved PACs spatial variations were strongly influenced by the hydrological conditions and less spatial variation was observed during high flow events as the result of dilution and homogenization of pollutants. During low flow events, particulate PACSPM-CFC concentrations were more stable and equivalent in values and distribution to the corresponding PACSPM-FT samples. Overall it was in a range between 2.8 to 36.3 µg g-1. The dominance of dissolved low molecular weight PAHTD in the low flow events decreased during high flow events due to the appearance of penta- and hexa-cyclic PAHs. The dissolved polar PACs were as high as the PAHs contribution and also subjected to seasonal changes, the O-PACs ranged between 5.6 to 90.3 ng L-1 and N-PAHs from 1.0 to 42.5 ng L-1. The particulate polar PACs concentrations and contribution were significantly lower, the highest concentrations of 8,76 µg g-1 and 29,41 µg g-1 was observed during high flow event for O-PACs and during low flow event for N-PAH respectively
Transport of polymer solutions in controlled low permeability porous media of various mineralogies by Imane Guetni( )

1 edition published in 2019 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

La récupération assistée du pétrole est considérée comme une option intéressante pour les réservoirs à faible perméabilité. Cependant, son application peut s'avérer difficile pour des perméabilités inférieures à 100mD, en raison des problèmes d'injectivité et de rétention élevée des additifs chimiques fréquemment observés dans ces cas. Ce travail de thèse vise à étudier l'impact des paramètres physico-chimiques et minéralogiques sur le transport des solutions de polymère dans des milieux poreux modèles de faibles perméabilités. Pour cela, des expériences d'injection de polymère ont été menées en utilisant des solutions d'HPAM de différentes forces ioniques et duretés et quatre milieux granulaires à base de quartz et trois types d'argiles: kaolinite, illite et smectite. Les résultats confirment le rôle majeur joué par la composition de l'eau d'injection (salinité et dureté) sur la conformation des polymères et sur les interactions polymères-minéraux. De fortes interactions entre le polymère et l'argile sont mises en évidence avec des différences significatives selon le type d'argile : bonne propagation et rétention élevée du polymère dans une argile non chargée et non gonflante (kaolinite) et faible propagation avec une rétention plus faible que prévu dans les argiles chargées ou gonflantes (illite, smectite). Ces résultats constituent de nouveaux éléments pour la compréhension du transport des solutions de polymères dans les réservoirs de grès à faible perméabilité
Conception de biosenseurs fluorescents multicolores pour l'identification in vivo des interactions bio-physicochimiques dans les systèmes minéral-bactérie by Damien Parrello( )

1 edition published in 2014 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Monitoring terrestrial ecosystems requires a better understanding of the interactions between microorganisms, minerals and metals in the environment. To assess in vivo availability of metals such as iron in bacteria-mineral system, an approach based on whole-cell fluorescent biosensors and non-invasive spectroscopy was explored. This work led to the construction in Pseudomonas aeruginosa of a set of gene fusions coupling iron-regulated promoters to multicolour fluorescent reporters. The recombinant strains were used as sensors of structural iron availability in nontronites NAu-1 and NAu-2. The response of these biosensors was studied by coupling synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) with canonical polyadic Candecomp/Parafac (CP) decomposition. On the basis of experimental designs favouring response diversity, the coupled SFS-CP method guarantees a joint estimate of gene expression from multiple promoters, even in highly fluorescent media. This novel method can solve the issue of spectral bleed-through of fluorescent proteins and provides a means to integrate multiple signals from combinations of whole-cell fluorescent bioreporters. In addition, we could show using SFS-CP that P. aeruginosa indirectly mobilize Fe(III) from nontronites primarily through the production of pyoverdine siderophore. The structural Fe(III) present on the edges of NAu-2 rather than NAu-1 particles appears to be more bioaccessible, suggesting that the distribution of Fe, in the tetrahedron and/or in the octahedron sites, governs the solubilization process
Modification contrôlée des propriétes cristallochimiques et physico-chimique de matériaux nanostructurés à base de TIO2 pour la maitrise des propriétés photocatalytiques by Mounir Kassir( )

1 edition published in 2013 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Protecting the environment has become a major issue. The heterogeneous photocatalysis , photochemical advanced oxidation technology has the advantage of oxidizing many contaminants from water . The most commonly used catalyst is titanium dioxide (TiO2) for reasons of efficiency, stability and low cost of production. Our goal in this thesis is to better control the surface properties of the photocatalysts from two new concepts. The first is based on the control of the hydrophilic or hydrophobic character of the surface. The second is the use of clay as catalyst support or as a composite material. A first way is to control the surface to modify the graft of different organic molecules such as organosilanes such hexadecyltrichlorosilane ( HTS , hydrophobic ) and N- (6- aminohexyl ) aminopropyl - trimethoxysilane ( AHAPS , hydrophilic ) . Another way of controlling the surface of the titanium is immobilized on a support. The selected material is clay because of their large adsorption capacity and retention of pollutants. System preparation was carried out in two methods: the copreciptation and sol/gel. At the end of each part, a the photocatalytic tests were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the system developed
Mobilisation et transfert des composés aromatiques polycycliques (HAP et CAP polaires) dans les sols historiquement contaminés par des goudrons de houille : expérimentations au laboratoire et in situ by Marine Boulangé( )

1 edition published in 2017 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

In industrial countries, many sites have been diagnosed polluted by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In addition to the regulated 16 US-EPA PAHs, other polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), especially polar PACs (oxygenated and nitrogenated) occur. They come from the same sources as PAHs but they may also be formed due to PAH degradation under biotic or abiotic processes (natural attenuation or remediation treatment). These PACs, more polar than the 16 US-EPA PAHs, are more soluble in water, resulting in a potentially increased mobility in soils and a higher risk for Humans and Environment. Thus, there is a need to increase our knowledge on polar PAC mobility in soils and their transfer to the groundwater. Combining laboratory and in situ works, this project aimed at identifying the mechanisms involved in the release and transfer mode of polar PACs in soils compared to the 16 US-EPA PAHs. Our works confirm a preferential release of polar PACs compared with PAHs. Polar PACs and low molecular weight PAHs (LMW-PAHs) are mainly released according to a coal tar dissolution mechanism (Raoult law). While satisfactory predictions are obtained for polar PAC release when the pollution is “fresh”, availability is a major parameter that needs to be taken into account for historical contamination impacted by aging. Indeed, whatever the leaching conditions (static-batch and dynamic-column), the PAC concentration in water is highly dependent on the availability level of the pollution. In addition, for a high level of PAC availability, the other parameters studied in the project (ionic strength and temperature) have a limited impact on the PAC release whereas at low availability level, these parameters can show a greater influence. Moreover, the PAC release in association with colloids seems limited for polar PACs but dominating for high molecular weight PAHs (HMW-PAHs), especially under low ionic strength conditions. Leaching tests performed on a lysimeter column (2 m3) filled with a contaminated soil in the 2/3 upper part and with a non-contaminated soil in the 1/3 lower part, both soils being sampled on a former coking plant site, confirm a release of PACs according to a coal tar dissolution mechanism although PAC concentrations are widely lower compared to those predicted by the Raoult law. Whatever the experimental scale studied (batch, laboratory or lysimeter column), a clear influence of the biological compartment has been evidenced. Once the PAHs and polar PACs are dissolved into water, they are highly biodegraded. No by-products - especially oxygenated PACs - were detected
Inventaire des Ressources en Argiles du Gabon et leurs Utilisations Conventionnelles ou non dans les régions de Libreville et de Tchibanga by Jean-Eudes Boulingui( )

1 edition published in 2015 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Materials and clayey minerals abound in the Gabon. The pioneers works reveal the presence of red clays in the barrémian series of Agoula and red clays with violets in the neocomian series of Ndombo. Clays constitute a precious and plentiful resource which was widely beneficiated as well in traditional constructions of green clays as in terra-cotta in diverse places of the country. The present researches aim at inventorying the resources in various clays easily accessible in Gabon, and in the study of selection of deposits with application potential, according to the nature of clays. This work is carried on in the regions of Libreville and Tchibanga. The collected samples are the object of macroscopic, microscopic (tiny), chemical, structural and superficial analyses. Trials of formulation are the object of applications in the domains of bricks, tiles and refractories. The population growth of the Gabonese Republic generates a demand in diverse local materials satisfying the needs for the current life. The emphasis is put on the applications concerning terra-cottas: bricks, roof tiles and floor tiles. Zones of interest with economic potential are identified. Clays of the region of Libreville, rich in kaolinites and illite are interesting for applications in terra-cotta. The characterization of the mineralogical properties of the clayey rocks is realized with the aim of identifying the most interesting industrial uses. Characterizations and tests of applications, identify raw materials for the construction, the ceramic, but also in many other domains as pharmacology (galenic), paper industry, cosmetics, food-processing industry, rubber, paint, civil engineering and environment engineering. As in all the countries of Central Africa, the sustainable development passes inevitably by a control of the local resources. The fine characterization of clays of the Cretaceous of Libreville is realized by: X-ray Diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electronic microscopy, determination of the cation exchange capacity, particle size analysis, chemical analyses, plasticity index, ceramic tests. According to the X-ray diffraction, these clays are mixtures of kaolinite, and/or illite and montmorillonite, quartz, ± muscovite, ± microcline, ± hematite, ± rutile ± anatase. The observation in Scanning Electron Microscopy and the treatment with Ethylène Glycol or heating at 550°C in XRD confirms the dominating presence of these minerals
De l'acclimatation à l'adaptation : mécanismes évolutifs, conséquences populationnelles et implication en biosurveillance by Marine Potet( )

1 edition published in 2017 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The regulatory framework defined by the Water Framework Directive requires the development of reliable methodologies for assessing and / or characterizing the health status of aquatic ecosystems. The objective of this thesis was to identify the relative roles of environmental parameters (temperature, seasonal cycle, mineralization), population characteristics and anthropic pressures on biomarker responses in a model aquatic organism, the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha). A sister species, Dreissena rostriformis bugensis, which invaded more recently our waterways, has been used in parallel and its potential as a biomonitor has also been evaluated. For this purpose, a battery of a dozen sub-cellular biomarkers was measured in different populations of the two species living in contrasting environments, at different times of the year, but also under laboratory stresses. The selected biomarkers corresponded to different physiological and / or antitoxic functions, and responses with high ecological relevance, such as oxygen consumption or filtration activity, were occasionally followed. These various parameters allowed to question the concepts of sensitivity and vulnerability of the populations and to understand the factors determining biomarker responses. Inter-population differences showed that the accumulation of contaminants by organisms and their biomarker responses depend on environmental quality at the originating site of each population, but also on the season, a confounding factor which must therefore be taken into account during biomonitoring programs. Strong differences in biomarker responses between the two species were also observed, both in situ and during laboratory experiments, emphasizing the need to differentiate the two species, so close they are. The recent invader, D. r. bugensis, presents more plastic responses in situ, but appears less able to manage acute stress in laboratory. Conversely, D. polymorpha, which is about 200 years old in France, appears to be better adapted, with less response variability and a better tolerance to contaminants. This thesis work is part of the BIOMICS convention, carried out in collaboration with ONEMA. It shows that these two species are able to inform about the contamination status of their environment. Variations in biomarker responses at the sub-cellular level indicate early changes in environmental quality. Some biomarkers, however, seem more informative than others do, so the measured battery could be reduced. In the future, this work will allow a better reading and interpretation of biomarkers measured in autochthonous or transplanted populations, and attest the value of biomarkers as tools for assessing aquatic environment quality
Étude des propriétés physico-chimiques et colloïdales du bassin de la rivière Litani, Liban by Walaa Diab( )

1 edition published in 2016 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

This thesis is part of one of the focus of research at “MCEMA Laboratory” that concerns the physicochemical study of river water and the evaluation of the possible influence of human activities on the water quality of the Litani River. This work is divided into three principal parts. In the first one, we studied the physicochemical parameters (T, pH, EC, TSS, TDS, ions, etc.) of the water. The second part focuses on the sediment analysis. We studied the sediments of Litani River, their nature, size, composition, physicochemical properties (charge and specific surface area) with the metallic contamination. The third par is devoted the adsorption study of certain pollutants present in water on activated coal in order to anticipate on a future study on the treatment of the water river. The obtained results fall within a broader project on the study of developed methods on the treatment of wastewater
Understanding the impact of engineered nanoparticles Gammarus sp. as a valuable non-vertebrate model? by Kahina Mehennaoui( )

1 edition published in 2017 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The potential toxicity of nanomaterials is of high societal and scientific interest due to the promise of ground-breaking innovations for many technical applications. However, toxicity can often not be related to the actual size, mass or surface area of the single nanoparticles (NPs) or the NP agglomerates. Therefore, it can be proposed that the toxicity is greatly influenced by other inherent and non-understood properties of the particles to which ions dissolving from the particle, surface or molecules adhering to the surface interfering with the uptake of NPs into cells, may have important contributions. The PhD project “NANOGAM”, closely linked up to CORE2012 NANION project that aims to obtain knowledge to understand some of the processes and factors involved in NP uptake and toxicity as such understanding is a prerequisite for the development of nanomaterials following the safer-by-design philosophy. This PhD project aims to investigate, based on known characteristics of the key physico-chemical parameters; as size and surface functionalities, of a well-chosen list of silver and gold NPs, the uptake, and dependent biological effects of different complexity (mortality, behavioural effects, physiological effects, transcriptomic effects, etc.), on a sensitive species; Gammarus fossarum (Crustacea Amphipoda), in order to understand to which extent toxicity of nanomaterials is due to intrinsic material properties or ion leaching. Such understanding will contribute to the prediction of toxicity based on material properties rather than repetitive testing of an indefinite number of new nanomaterials. G. fossarum were exposed at low concentrations of AgNPs and AuNPs for 72h or 15 days in presence or absence of food. The obtained results showed that (i) surface coating is the main factor governing AgNPs and AuNPs uptake by G. fossarum, (ii) both released ions and NPs themselves play a role in the potency of the studied AgNPs and AuNPs and (iii) chemical composition led to different effects at the sub-individual levels (target genes expression) and different tissue distribution as AgNPs were found in G. fossarum gills while AuNPs were found in the intestinal caeca. Additionally, this work shows that Gammarus sp. are valuable models for the study of the effects of AgNPs and AuNPs
Effets des nanoparticules de dioxyde de titane sur les bactéries : de la cellule à la communauté by Stéphane Jomini( )

1 edition published in 2014 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Nanoparticles have either natural or anthropogenic origin. By technological change, man produces increasing amounts of nanoparticles likely to end in the environment. To prevent inherent risks to human health or environment from these releases, it is necessary to characterize the best potential effects of nanoparticles and to identify the mechanisms governing their interactions with exposed organisms. In this context, the first objective of this work was to highlight the mechanisms governing interactions between nanoparticles and bacteria and document the influence of these interactions on toxicity and genotoxicity of NPs for bacteria. The second objective was to determine how this toxicity and genotoxicity could impact bacteria at community level. Results showed that electrostatic attractive interaction between bacteria and TiO2-NPs conditioned adsorption of nanoparticles on bacterial surfaces and led to the detection of toxicity modulated by electrolytes in solution. In addition, the biophysical determinants of bacterial interphase, particularly the length of LPS and protein type flush with the outer membrane surface, are key parameters in adverse potential of NPs for microorganisms. Taking into account these interactions, we highlighted the mutagenic potential of TiO2-NPs. Toxic and genotoxic effect was found, leading to study the effects on bacterial communities. It has been demonstrated that TiO2-NPs altered the composition, structure and prevalence of planktonic and sessile communities of an aquatic natural freshwater. These studies highlight the potential impact of TiO2-NPs on bacteria in a risk assessment context and suggest that nanoparticles may impact microbial communities and could present a risk to the ecosystem functioning
Oxydation par les ferrates d'un sol contaminé par du DNAPL en condition saturée : conséquences sur les Composés Aromatiques Polycycliques (HAP et CAP Polaires) : Expérimentations en batch et colonne by Clotilde Johansson( )

1 edition published in 2019 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Les sols des friches industrielles de cokeries sont souvent pollués par des Composés Aromatiques Polycycliques (CAP) issus de déversements de goudrons de houille. Le traitement des aquifères impactés par des phases organiques pures de type DNAPL (Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids) est complexe. Cette thèse s'inscrit dans le cadre du projet BIOXYVAL et s'intéresse au traitement par oxydation chimique in situ en zone saturée des phases pures résiduelles après pompage du DNAPL. Les objectifs de la thèse ont été d'étudier et comparer l'efficacité oxydante des ferrates à celle d'autres oxydants, pour (i) mieux comprendre les mécanismes de dégradation, (ii) évaluer la potentielle formation de sous-produits dangereux (CAP-O) et (iii) identifier les limitations éventuelles pour une application in situ, à l'aide de deux protocoles expérimentaux : condition batch, réacteur idéal en système clos, et condition colonne par injections dynamiques au travers d'un milieu poreux. Nos travaux mettent en évidence (batches), la formation systématique et accumulation de CAP-O cétones lors des oxydations avec les ferrates et le permanganate (mécanisme oxydo-réducteur), tandis que les oxydants suivant un mécanisme radicalaire n'induisent pas l'accumulation de ces sous-produits. Des rendements de dégradation élevés sont obtenus par tous les oxydants testés (excepté la condition Fenton-like et le peroxyde d'hydrogène). Permanganate et ferrates ont ensuite été étudiés en condition colonne. La réactivité limitée du permanganate en lien avec la stabilité et la faible disponibilité des polluants ont conduit à une faible efficacité de l'oxydation par injection continue. Les précipités de MnO2 formés ont eu peu d'impact sur la porosité mais semblent diminuer la disponibilité des polluants en cours d'oxydation. L'apparition de CAP-O a été mesuré avec les particules lixiviées. L'injection des ferrates, en revanche, induit un rapide colmatage du milieu poreux en lien avec la formation abondante de précipités ferriques. En parallèle, une forte remobilisation de phase pure de DNAPL est observée tout au long de l'oxydation. Comme pour le permanganate, des CAP-O sont détectés avec les particules lixiviées. Les ferrates dégradent les CAP constituant le DNAPL, mais leur injection in situ n'est aujourd'hui pas envisageable en termes de faisabilité technico-économique. Ce travail conduit à réfléchir à une optimisation du mode d'application des ferrates et propose d'autres solutions pour le site pilote
Influence des molécules antioxydantes produites par des plantes sur l'évolution physico-chimique et microbiologique de l'argilite du Callovo-Oxfordien by Dimitri Ubersfeld( )

1 edition published in 2016 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Cette étude s'inscrit dans le contexte du stockage profond de déchets radioactifs sur le site de Meuse-Haute Marne (Andra) et plus précisément de l'évolution bio-physico-chimique de roches sédimentaires argileuses (Callovo-Oxfordien, COx), excavées et stockées en surface sous forme de verses. Durant la phase préparatoire et la phase d'exploitation, plusieurs millions de mètres cubes d'argilites seront excavées. L'argilite stockée à l'air libre sera ainsi exposée durant plusieurs décennies aux altérations météoritiques et aux conditions oxydantes de surface et à la colonisation biologique (plantes, bactéries, champignons). L'objectif de la thèse était d'étudier l'impact de molécules antioxydantes et de la végétalisation des verses par des plantes produisant ces molécules, sur les processus d'altération physiques, chimiques ou microbiens de l'argilite du COx. Ce travail visait à (i) identifier des molécules antioxydantes et des plantes d'intérêt (ii) évaluer les effets inhibiteurs des substances antioxydantes sur l'altération des minéraux et la lixiviation des métaux du COx au laboratoire, (iv) tester la cultivabilité des plantes sélectionnées sur les verses, (iii) suivre in situ l'évolution physico-chimique et microbiologique de l'argilite d'une verse plantée ou non. Des expériences de percolation en colonnes avec des molécules antioxydantes « modèles » des Lamiacées (linalol, thymol, carvacrol) ont montré des taux d'altération/lixiviation très variables en fonction de l'élément. Ils étaient très faibles pour l'aluminium (<1‰), compris entre 1-3% pour les autres métaux (Ca, Mg, Fe...) et atteignaient plus de 60% pour le sodium. Avec le thymol à 20 mg/l ont été observés sur 3 mois une diminution des taux de lixiviation du soufre et des éléments métalliques constitutifs des sulfures (Fe, As) et carbonates (Ca, Sr) et une diminution de l'abondance microbienne bactérienne et fongique. Cependant, l'apport d'exsudats racinaires synthétiques dans les colonnes a stimulé le développement microbien et amélioré la disponibilité de l'aluminium et du fer et la séquestration du calcium. Parmi les plantes testées, la lavande et le lavandin ont été sélectionnés. Deux essais successifs de plantations ont été menés in situ sur une verse d'argilite âgée (10 ans) durant un an. Le lavandin s'est mieux développé que la lavande et a été conservé pour la deuxième étude in situ. La comparaison de la partie plantée de la verse avec la partie nue a montré (i) une diminution significative des quantités de calcium, strontium, fer et soufre lixiviées (ii) une réduction importante de la quantité de matériel érodé (de deux ordres de grandeur) sur le talus planté par rapport au non planté (iii) un développement microbien et un taux de mycorhization important des racines. En conclusion, même si les molécules antioxydantes n'inhibent pas significativement l'altération de l'argilite, le lavandin s'est révélé une plante tout à fait pertinente pour la phytostabilisation des verses et la production de molécules antioxydantes in situ a été montrée
 
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Alternative Names
Interdisciplinary Laboratory for Continental Environments facility in Vandœuvre-lès-Nancy, France

Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire des Environnements Continentaux (UMR 7360)

LIEC

Université de Lorraine. Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire des Environnements Continentaux (Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy)

Languages
French (14)

English (6)