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Procédés et Ingeniérie en Mécanique et Matériaux (Paris)

Works: 86 works in 90 publications in 2 languages and 91 library holdings
Roles: Other
Publication Timeline
Most widely held works by Procédés et Ingeniérie en Mécanique et Matériaux (Paris)
Modélisation Multiéchelle du Comportement Mécanique d'un Matériau Energétique : Le TATB by Paul Lafourcade( )

2 editions published in 2018 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The construction of mesoscopic (micrometer scale) constitutive laws in materialsscience is studied for a long time. However, the constant progress in high performance computing changes the perspectives. Indeed, constitutive laws now aim at explicitly take into account the microstructure and its underlying physics at the atomic scale, for which simulation techniques prove to be very accurate but definitely expensive. The multiscale approach is therefore perfectly adapted to such a challenge and the dialogue between scales necessary. In this thesis, the mechanical behavior of the energetic material TATB in temperature and pressure is investigated using molecular dynamics simulations in order to understand the microscopic deformation mechanisms responsible for plastic activity. The local computation of mechanical variables was developed in atomistic simulations, allowing the dialogue with continuum mechanical methods. Additionally, prescribed deformation paths were coupled with molecular dynamics, allowing to reveal the plasticity mechanism of TATB single crystal. Nucleation of complex dislocation structures with intrinsic dilatancy, twinning transition pathway and a twinning-buckling pseudo phase transition are three distinct behaviors triggered for different loading directions. Then, mesoscopic simulations inferred by atomic scale observations aim at reproducing the twinning-buckling pseudo-phase transition under tri-axial compression using a Lagrangian code. The comparison between both simulation techniques is made possible thanks to the mechanical tools that have been implemented in themolecular dynamics code. Finally, polycrystalline TATB is simulated with non linear elasticity and we demonstrate the necessity to consider an equation of state compatible with this pseudo phase transition, which has a strong influence on the polycristal behavior
Contrôle santé des structures composites : génération de délaminages par choc laser et quantification par apprentissage machine by Meriem Ghrib( )

2 editions published in 2017 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In this work, we approach delamination quantification in Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) laminates as a classification problem whereby each class corresponds to a certain damage extent. A Support Vector Machine (SVM) is used to perform multi-class classification task. Classically, Signal Based Features (SBF) are used to train SVMs when approaching SHM from a machine learning perspective. In this work, starting from the assumption that damage causes a structure to exhibit nonlinear response, we investigate whether the use of Nonlinear Model Based Features (NMBF) increases classification performance. NMBF are computed based on parallel Hammerstein models which are identified with an Exponential Sine Sweep (ESS) signal. Dimensionality reduction of features vector using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is also conducted in order to find out if it allows robustifying the quantification process suggested in this work. The proposed quantification approach was first tested and validated using simulation results. Thereafter, experimental results on CFRP composite plates equipped with piezoelectric elements and containing various delamination severities are considered for demonstration. Delamination-type damage is introduced into samples in a calibrated and realistic way using LASER Shock Wave Technique (LSWT) and more particularly symmetrical LASER shock configuration. We have experimentally demonstrated that such a configuration of LASER shock is an effective alternative to conventional damage generation techniques such as conventional impacts and Teflon inserts since it allows for a better calibration of damage in type, depth and size
Méthode de corrélation calcul/essai pour l'analyse du crissement by Guillaume Martin( )

1 edition published in 2017 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Le crissement de frein est une nuisance sonore récurrente dans l'automobile qui, bien qu'il n'existe pas de solution robuste lors de la conception, se traduit souvent par des pénalités économiques envers les équipementiers. La simulation numérique et les caractérisations expérimentales sont les deux voies classiques pour analyser les phénomènes crissants. La simulation permet une analyse fine des comportements vibratoires et l'évaluation de l'impact de modifications de conception, mais les modèles sont imparfaits et leur domaine de validité doit être établi. La mesure garantit que tous les paramètres sont pris en compte, mais elle est souvent spatialement pauvre et peu adaptée à la prédiction de modifications. Dans ce contexte, les objectifs de la thèse sont de faire un bilan des méthodes d'exploitation des essais, de fournir des outils permettant une interaction facilitée entre les équipes d'essai et de simulation et de mettre en œuvre les développements dans une application métier.Après un rappel sur les hypothèses et les méthodes pour l'identification modale, une analyse critique des résultats d'identification aboutit à la caractérisation des biais et à l'introduction de critères détaillés permettant d'évaluer la qualité du résultat. La corrélation calcul/essai permet de qualifier les modèles et des outils sont intégrés pour faciliter sa mise en œuvre. Plusieurs critères sont définis pour mettre en évidence les sources de mauvaise corrélation venant de la mesure d'une part et du modèle d'autre part. Les sources de mauvaise corrélation sont également identifiées avec l'algorithme d'expansion MDRE, dont les limitations sont comparées à celles des expansions statiques et dynamiques.Le recalage des modèles est ensuite traité par une procédure systématique imbriquant les étapes de recalage de la géométrie, des propriétés matériau et des contacts entre composants. Une paramétrisation du contact est proposée avec une réduction multi-modèle permettant des temps de calculs compatibles avec le temps industriel. Elle permet également des études de sensibilités avec l'introduction de la notion de modes de composant dans un assemblage.Une analyse détaillée d'une campagne de mesure sur un système de frein en conditions crissantes est enfin réalisée. Un parallèle entre les évolutions du cycle limite et le degré de couplage des modes complexes est proposé. Dans le domaine temps-fréquence, la variabilité, la répétabilité, la reproductibilité et la possibilité d'agréger des mesures séquentielles sont évaluées. Le résultat obtenu est finalement étendu sur le modèle éléments finis, ce qui permet des interprétations utiles
Mesures de champs de déformations élastique et totale pour la détermination du comportement mécanique local de matériaux cristallins. by Emeric Plancher( Book )

2 editions published in 2015 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The prediction of damage occurring in metallic materials is dependent on the knowledge of the mechanical behavior at a micron scale. Crystal plasticity laws are often used to describe the behavior of a single grain in polycrystals. Such laws include many parameters which should be tuned according to the metallurgical and mechanical state of the material.An original way to identify theses parameters is presented in this work. The local constitutive behavior is measured at the local scale. It is used to adjust the parameters' value on a single point calculation without the need for a finite element mesh. To observe the local behavior two types of full filed measurements are carried out: (i) stress measurements using diffraction-based Laue microdiffraction and high angular resolution EBSD - HR-EBSD - and (ii) strain measurements by digital image correlation.To ensure trustworthy results, the accuracy of Laue microdiffraction (Laue-DIC) and HR-EBSD measurements are determined for the first time in a plastically deformed material. Then, stress and strain fields are monitored at the surface of a single crystal bent in-situ in the low deformation regime (0.5%). The local behavior is determined and used to identify two parameters of a crystal plasticity law, in a 316L stainless steel single crystal
Mechanical performances of PEKK thermoplastic composites linked to their processing parameters by Tanguy Choupin( )

2 editions published in 2017 in French and English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Poly(ether-ketone-ketone) (PEKK) high performance thermoplastics are currently studied with a great interest by the aeronautic industry as matrix for carbon fiber reinforced structural parts. In fact, PEKK composites can be consolidated out of autoclave and they have lower processing temperatures than PEEK composites.The aim of the study was to investigate and predict the evolution of PEKK composite mechanical properties depending on the processing thermal cycle to determine the best processing parameters for PEKK composite part manufacturing regarding processing times and final mechanical performances.A first part investigates the crystallization kinetics modelling of PEKK matrices and the influence of crystallinity and crystalline morphologies on PEKK matrix mechanical properties. A second part focuses on the macromolecular modifications of PEKK matrices at high processing temperatures under air and nitrogen and their impact on PEKK matrices crystallization and mechanical properties. A last part presents the influence of carbon fibers on crystalline morphologies and crystallization kinetics, the manufacturing of unidirectional and ± 45° PEKK composites under press and autoclave and finally the impact of crystallinity and crystalline morphologies on PEKK composite mechanical properties
Durabilité des élastomères thermoplastiques pour applications marines by Antoine Bardin( )

1 edition published in 2020 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Thermoset elastomers are currently used for watertightness applications on marine structures, due to their interesting elastic properties and their important chemical resistance. However, thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs) represent an interesting alternative in an industrial context being increasingly restrictive toward chemical risks. In order to determine their behaviour in marine environment, hydrolytic and oxidative ageing of several TPEs was investigated. Degradation was particularly assessed with molecular chain scission measurement. Based on these data, a hydrolytic kinetic model predicting scissions was developed, including the autocatalytic effect as well as the use of a hydrolytic stabilizer. Meanwhile, characterization of mechanical properties change enabled to highlight strong correlation between molar mass and failure properties, including all TPEs and all exposure conditions. Finally, in situ XRD analyses showed that the failure properties loss is associated with a weakening of the strain-induced crystallization phenomenon. Coupling the hydrolytic kinetic model and the relationships between chain scissions and mechanical behaviour, a prediction of the mechanical failure properties change for all exposure conditions was proposed
Tolérance aux Défaillances par Capteurs Virtuels : application aux Systèmes de Régulation d'un Turboréacteur by Yani Souami( )

1 edition published in 2015 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Over the years, market pressure has ensured that engine manufacturers invest in technology to provide clean, quiet, affordable, reliable, and efficient power. One of the last improvements is the introduction of virtual sensors that make use of non-like signals (analytical redundancy). This, is expected to improve weight, flight safety and availability. However, this new approach has not been widely investigated yet and needs further attention to remove its limitations for certificated applications.The concept of virtual sensors goes along with fault tolerance control strategies that help in limiting disruptions and maintenance costs. Indeed, a fault-tolerant control (FTC) scheme, allows for a leaner hardware structure without decreasing the safety of the system.We propose in this thesis work, to monitor through a passive FTC architecture, the Variables Geometries subsystems' of the engine: the VSV (Variable Stator Vane) and FMV (Fuel Metering Valve). A strong constrains, is not to change the parameters of the existing controllers. The approach named AVG-FTC (Variable Geometries Aircraft-Fault-Tolerant Control) is based on several cascaded sub-systems that allow to deal with the Linear Parameter Varying (LPV) model of the systems and modelling errors. The proposed FTC scheme uses a neural model of the sensor associated with a Takagi-Sugeno observer and a Neuronal Extended Kalman Filter Neural (NEKF) to account for those dynamics that cannot be explained with the LPV model to produce a real-time estimate of the monitored outputs. In case of sensor abnormality, the proposed virtual sensors can then be used as an arbitrator for sensor monitoring or as a healthy sensor used by the controller. To evaluate the approach, serval closed-loop simulations, on SNECMA jet-engine simulator have been performed. The results for distinct flight scenarios with different sensors faults have shown the capabilities of the approach in terms of stability and robustness
Etude de la diffusion de l'eau dans une jonction HTA by Maxime Lacuve( )

1 edition published in 2019 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Les élastomères à base d'Ethylène Propylène Diène Monomère (EPDM) sont utilisés dans les accessoires du réseau de distribution d'électricité sous-terrain pour assurer l'isolation des jonctions de câbles. En effet, la structure chimique de ce polymère est apolaire et induit donc l'hydrophobicité désirée pour cette application. Cependant, en conditions de service, la thermo-oxydation provoque l'incorporation d'atomes d'oxygène (formation de fonctions hydrophiles) aux chaines EPDM. Ainsi, l'objectif de cette thèse était d'étudier l'influence du vieillissement thermo-oxydant sur les propriétés de transport d'eau dans les accessoires en EPDM. Trois formulations d'EPDM sans charges (une réticulée au peroxyde et deux autres réticulées au soufre) ainsi que six formulations industrielles (toutes réticulées au soufre) ont subi un vieillissement thermique accéléré en étuve ventilée d'air entre 90 et 190°C. L'analyse multi-échelle (combinant plusieurs techniques expérimentales) a permis de mettre en évidence les modifications structurales dans les matrices EPDM et d'établir des corrélations entre les propriétés physico-chimiques mesurées au cours du vieillissement. Les propriétés de transport d'eau ont ensuite été caractérisées entre 30 et 70°C et entre 10 et 100 % HR à l'état initial et pour différents états d'oxydation. Ces résultats ont permis d'établir des relations structure/propriété entre les propriétés de transport d'eau et l'incorporation d'oxygène, mais aussi de simuler l'influence cruciale des charges
Compréhension de la formation de porosités en fabrication additive (LBM). Analyse expérimentale de l'interaction laser - lit de poudre - bain liquide. by Valérie Gunenthiram( )

1 edition published in 2018 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The selective laser melting (SLM) process allows to produce dense metal parts directly from the melting of successive powder layers. However, many technical issues are still to overcome for making SLM a fully viable manufacturing process. This is the case of surface finishing and the systematic occurrence of porosities, which require post machining steps. Up till now, the origin of porosities remains unclear but is expected to be related to the stability of the process. This thesis proposes an original study of the laser-powder-melt pool interaction on 316 L and on two aluminum alloys (5086 and 4047) before studying the material's densification conditions. The work is structured in two parts. In the first part, an experimental study of the laser-matter interaction has been carried out on an instrumented SLM setup equipped with a fast camera (>10 000 images /s). The conditions of formation of metal ejections, denudation and hydrodynamics of melt pool (including humping) have been characterized and quantified. All these phenomena are related to the high power densities used in SLM, which favor keyhole regime and vaporization. The aim of the second part of this work was to characterize the origin and the porosity fraction on an SLM machine. A first correlation has been made between the dimensions of the fusion beads and the densification conditions. A strong interaction (Rayleigh scattering or absorption) has been observed between the incident laser beam and the nanoparticles contained in the metal vapor column: this interaction is responsible for the significant dispersion of melting depths
Development of an Integrated Approach for PHM - Prognostics and Health Management : Application to a Turbofan Fuel System by Benjamin Lamoureux( )

1 edition published in 2014 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Pour les constructeurs de moteurs d'avions comme Snecma, la disponibilité est un des enjeux clés de l'avenir. En effet, la limitation des retards et annulations de vols ainsi que la réduction de la fréquence et de la durée des opérations de maintenance pourraient entraîner des économies importantes. Pour accroître la disponibilité, l'outil le plus utilisé actuellement est le "prognostics and health management" (PHM). La première contribution de la thèse est de proposer des cadres terminologique et fonctionnel pour le développement du PHM adapté aux spécificités des moteurs d'avions. Par la suite, une approche intégrée basée sur le nouveau modèle en V3 est formalisée. La seconde contribution est un processus basé sur les modèles pour le développement de la partie embarquée chargée de l'extraction des indicateurs de santé. Elle est basée sur l'analyse de sensibilité, la régression par vecteurs supports et des nouveaux indicateurs de performances. Puisque ce processus est réalisé avant l'entrée en service, les données stochastiques sont obtenues par propagation d'incertitudes. Pour surmonter les temps de calcul liés aux évaluations du modèle, des métamodèles sont utilisés. Plus particulièrement, la troisième contribution de la thèse est une technique originale combinant régression par vecteurs supports et Krigeage. L'approche globale est finalement testée sur le système carburant d'un moteur d'avion. Les résultats sont prometteurs, tant au niveau industriel pour les précieuses informations qu'elle fournit sur la qualité du jeu d'indicateurs de santé qu'au niveau académique pour la précision apportée par la nouvelle approche du Krigeage-SVR
Analyse et modélisation cinétique du vieillissement thermique des matrices PEI et PEEK et ses conséquences sur l'absorption d'eau by Emilie Courvoisier( )

1 edition published in 2017 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

PEI and PEEK are high performance aromatic thermoplastics. They are planned to be used as matrices of composite materials in aircraft engine environment. In service conditions, they will be subjected to complex hygrothermal cycles consisting in a series of thermo-oxidative agings up to 180 °C and humid agings at 70 °C in 85 % RH. As their durability has been little studied in the literature, the aim of this PhD thesis is to study the separated and combined effects of thermal and humid agings of these two matrices. At first, thin PEI and PEEK films have been oxidised at different temperatures (between 180 and 320 °C) and oxygen partial pressures (between 0.21 and 50 bars). There have been then characterized at different structural scales: molecular, macromolecular, morphological and macroscopic. This multi-technique and multi-scale characterization has enabled the determination of their thermal degradation mechanisms. Then, the humid aging of PEI and PEEK has been studied between 30 and 70 °C and between 10 and 100 % RH, before and after thermal aging. From a literature compilation of data for a large variety of polymers containing a single type of polar group in their monomer unit, structure - water transport property relationships have been established. They confirm that hydrophilicity and water diffusion result essentially from the molecular interactions between water molecules and polar groups in polymer matrices. Finally, a thermos-oxidation kinetic model has been established for PEI and PEEK matrices and has been juxtaposed with the structure - water transport property relationships. It enables to simulate all the experimental data obtained in this PhD work
Vers de nouveaux outils pour l'anticipation des besoins utilisateurs : apports méthodologiques pour l'ergonomie prospective by Jessy Barre( )

1 edition published in 2015 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Requirements analysis is the first step of the design process. It is also animportant source of innovation in companies, particularly when it is shared and fulfilled by themultidisciplinary design team. The prospection and anticipation of future needs are therefore animportant challenge for the development of new products adapted to their user. The goal of thisthesis is to optimize the anticipation of future needs in order to foster innovation. Ourassumptions include methodological and technological factors to improve the collaboration ofthe multidisciplinary team and the performance of requirements anticipation. Theseassumptions are operationalized through three different ways of running the Persona methodand tested in the context of three industrial projects. We show that a method combining severalreasoning modes adapted to the various professional backgrounds in the multidisciplinary team,the anticipation of needs is improved quantitatively and qualitatively (i.e. usefulness assessedby users). We also show that the technological support plays an important role in theeffectiveness of methods: a collaborative and playful technology such as an interactive tabletopcan increase the number of strategic ideas for the company (i.e. useful and technically feasible);an immersive and playful technology such as a virtual world can shape needs anticipation inaccordance with the project priorities (Techno-Centered or User-Centered). These results openmany opportunities for the methodological and technological evolution of front-end innovationphases towards the anticipation of future needs
Vieillissement thermique d'isolants en PVC et PELX de câbles électriques en environnement automobile by Tetiana Salivon( )

1 edition published in 2017 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

In the automotive industry, the issue of electrical harness dimensioning consists in an optimal definition of the cross-section of metallic conductors, which increases the wire heating due to Joule effect. However, polymers are the most used materials for insulation despite their high sensitivity to thermal ageing. That is the reason why their durability must be determined in automotive environment to be then taken into account during the dimensioning of electrical harness. For this purpose, we analyzed the thermal aging of two insulation sheaths made of PVC and XLPE in air at temperatures of qualification tests (typically between 100°C and 200°C). For PVC, the main ageing mechanism is the physical loss of plasticizer. The material embrittlement occurs when the concentration of the non-dissolved plasticizer phase, which is dispersed as nodules in the weakly plasticized PVC matrix, reaches a critical value of about 0,2 mol.L-1. In contrast, for XLPE, oxidation leads to material embrittlement at the end of the induction period, i.e. when the totality of antioxidants has been consumed. For each insulation sheath, a kinetic model was derived from the ageing mechanisms and a structural end-of-life criterion was established. This model gives access to the remaining life potential and lifetime of electrical cables in service conditions
Développement de méthodologies dédiées à l'analyse robuste de la tenue de structures composites sous chargements complexes tridimensionnels. by Jean-sebastien Charrier( )

1 edition published in 2013 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

L'usage des matériaux composites, et en particulier des stratifiés d'unidirectionnels, ne cesse de croître dans les structures aéronautiques en raison de leur rapport masse/rigidité/résistance très intéressant. Leur utilisation s'étend désormais aux structures primaires (jusqu'ici en matériaux métalliques) des futures gammes d'avions. Dans les structures vitales de l'avion, les pièces en composites contenant des cornières composites sont de plus en plus nombreuses. Ces pièces sont soumises à des sollicitations complexes qui induisent des modes de rupture tridimensionnelle. Or, la tenue mécanique hors-plan est l'une des principales faiblesses des stratifiés d'unidirectionnels et la prévision de la tenue de structures soumises à des chargements tridimensionnelles reste actuellement un challenge scientifique. Il semble indispensable de proposer des modèles matériaux innovants offrant un degré moindre d'empirisme que les approches actuellement utilisées en bureau d'études pour le dimensionnement de structures composites mais aussi il s'avère nécessaire de proposer les procédures d'identification associées. L'objectif de cette thèse est donc de proposer une stratégie robuste pour l'analyse de la tenue de structures composites soumises à des sollicitations tridimensionnelles. Nous avons proposé une approche progressive de la rupture 3D permettant de prévoir les différents types d'endommagement et modes de ruine pouvant intervenir dans un composite stratifié. Une procédure originale d'identification des résistances hors-plan de traction et de cisaillements à partir d'essais sur cornières composites stratifiées a également été proposée. Enfin, des essais de dépliages/pliages sur cornières ont été réalisés afin valider l'approche 3D de la rupture proposée
Comparaison des lasers holmium : yag et thulium fibre sur des applications tissulaires by Steeve Doizi( )

1 edition published in 2020 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The Holmium: YAG (Ho: YAG) laser is currently the benchmark laser in urology due to its efficiency and versatility: lithotripsy, incision of strictures (endopyelotomy, ureter and urethra), coagulation of tumors of the upper urinary excretory tract, and enucleation of the prostate for benign hyperplasia. However, this laser has several limitations:- Its wavelength of 2140 nm differs from the maximum absorption peak of water in tissue which is 1940 nm,- The laser pulse duration of around 250 microseconds is not optimal for applications requiring cutting or coagulation,- The laser beam produced (of the order of 300 µm) must be focused in optical fibers of small diameter (<365 µm) in order to be able to be used in flexible endoscopes. The scattering of laser radiation in these fibers can cause a loss of transmission as well as damage to the latter, which can lead to its rupture.- Finally, a high electrical intensity is necessary in order to make it work (laser + water cooling circuit), with a low efficiency (<0.1%)For these reasons, other options have been explored to improve these limits. A promising solution is the arrival of the Thulium fiber laser which offers several theoretical advantages:- Its wavelength ranges from 1750 nm to 2220 nm and therefore includes the maximum absorption spectrum of water (1940 nm)- The laser beam is 18 µm, which allows the use of optical fibers of smaller diameter, thus providing more flexibility when using with flexible endoscopes- it is a fiber laser pumped by means of diode lamps instead of a flash lamp and offering a better efficiency (> 5%) which allows a greater compactness of the laser and a cooling system to air.Thulium fiber laser is not currently marketed in Europe and does not have any evaluations on its effects on tissue or on lithotripsy compared to them of the current reference laser (Ho: YAG laser). Preliminary work has been carried out at the tissue level with a Thulium fiber laser different from that proposed [1]. Likewise, studies evaluating the Ho: YAG laser are rare [2].The objectives of this science thesis will be to compare the pulsed Thulium fibered and Ho: YAG lasers on an ex vivo tissue application:- Material: Thulium fiber laser (IPG, 50W) and Lumenis 120 W- Comparison of the efficiencies on different tissues (urothelial (bladder and ureter) and prostate) by varying the following parameters: laser parameters (pulse duration, energy, frequency), the laser mode used (Ho: YAG standard mode and Thulium fiber in standard mode), diameter of the laser fibers, the distance between the end of the laser fiber and the fabric. The experiments will be repeated 5 times. The effect will be appreciated by a blind histological study of the laser used to study the depth of the laser incision, the area of ​​coagulation produced.- Study the volume of prostate tissue ablation by laser vaporization by varying the following parameters: laser parameters (pulse duration, energy, frequency), the laser mode used (Ho: YAG standard mode, MOSES Technology mode for Ho : YAG and Thilium fiber in standard mode), diameter of the laser fibersClinical applications:- It will be a question of determining the laser parameters that can be recommended according to the type of surgical intervention (coagulation of tumor of the upper urinary excretory tract, prostatic enucleation, stenosis incision) and the desired effect
Étude du comportement mécanique et de l'endommagement de divers matériaux composites smc soumis à des chargements de type dynamique, fatigue et dynamique post-fatigue by Mohammadali Shirinbayan( )

1 edition published in 2017 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Le dimensionnement au crash des structures automobiles en matériaux composites à renforts discontinus tels que les SMC est généralement réalisé sur la base de données expérimentales recueillies sur des matériaux vierges n'ayant subi aucun chargement depuis leur mise en œuvre. Or, les accidents proviennent après quelques années de mise en service durant lesquelles la structure composite est soumise généralement à des sollicitations de type fatigue à plus ou moins grande amplitude. La prise en compte d'un pré-endommagement éventuel en fatigue devient alors essentielle si l'on veut rester réaliste. Par ailleurs, de nouvelles formulations de matériaux composites SMC ont été récemment développées. Leur comportement en fatigue et sous sollicitation rapide étaient jusqu'à lors inexplorés. Cette étude à caractère fortement expérimentale a donc pour but d'apporter la connaissance nécessaire au dimensionnement de structures en matériaux SMC de diverses formulations, notamment le A-SMC et le LD-SMC. Le premier correspond à une matrice vinylester fortement renforcée de mèches de fibres de verre (50%). Le second correspond à une formulation proche de celle d'un SMC standard dans laquelle on a rajouté un fort taux de billes de verre creuse afin de réduire la densité. Une analyse multi-échelle permet de mettre en évidence l'influence de la microstructure sur les phénomènes d'endommagement sous sollicitation quasi-statique, dynamique et fatigue. Des méthodes originales d'analyse expérimentale sont développées afin de corréler ces mécanismes aux comportements macroscopiques observés. Les essais dynamiques rapides optimisés sont réalisés jusqu'à des vitesses de déformation de l'ordre de 80 s-1 et mettent en évidence un comportement visco-endommageable pour les deux matériaux SMC étudiés. Le décalage du seuil d'endommagement et la baisse de la cinétique d'endommagement observés à l'échelle macroscopique sont directement corrélés au seuil et cinétique des mécanismes d'endommagement observés à l'échelle locale telles que la rupture à l'interface fibre-matrice ou bille-matrice, la microfissuration de la matrice et le pseudo-délaminage entre les mèches de fibres de verre. Par ailleurs, une analyse multi-échelle du même type est également réalisée sous sollicitation de type fatigue dans laquelle les fréquences varient de 10 à 100 Hz. Une étude de l'influence des phénomènes d'auto-échauffement sur l'endommagement et le comportement du A-SMC est proposée. Enfin, une analyse originale des propriétés résiduelles sous sollicitation rapide d'échantillons préalablement fatigués à différents niveaux de fraction de durée de vie met en évidence une forte influence de l'histoire du chargement sur la sensibilité du A-SMC à la vitesse de sollicitation. L'ensemble des résultats de cette étude, de par son apport de compréhension des phénomènes mis en jeu, constitue la base expérimentale nécessaire à la construction d'outils de dimensionnement adaptés aux structures SMC sous sollicitations cycliques et dynamiques
Modélisation et simulation du rotomoulage réactif du polyuréthane by Abdelmoumen Hamidi( )

1 edition published in 2015 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Reactive Rotational molding (RRM) is a process for manufacturing hollow plastic products with no weld lines, in virtually any shape, size, color and configuration, using biaxial rotation and high temperature. Understanding and modelling of physical phenomena provide a great contribution for process control that is the purpose of a more general program.Firstly, a characterization and the kinetic modeling of the thermoset polyurethane are performed in anisothermal conditions followed by rheological measurements in order to establish rheokinetik model and the the viscoelastic behavior of the reactive system according with RRM conditions.Afterwards, to simulate the RRM, Smoothed Particles Hydrodynamics (SPH) method is applied which is suited method to simulate the fluid flow with free surface such as occurs at RRM. This solver is developed by our team. Modelling and simulating reactive system flow depend on different parameters; the physical phenomena involved are: surface tension force and non-newtonian fluid behavior.The surface tension method has been successfully applied to simulate RRM using SPH solver taking into account free surface tension force. Surface tension force is given explicitly in the current model. After detecting the boundary particles, the interface is locally fitted by using Lagrangian interpolation polynomial or fitting circle in 2D and by using fitting sphere in 3D, respectively. To study the non-newtonian fluid flow during RRM, a power law describes the evolution of the viscosity versus shear rate was adopted to describe the viscoelastic nature of the reactive fluid during its shaping.The implementation of surface tension and viscoelasticity allows us to present the wettability of internal surface of the mold and the spreading of different polymers layers.Keywords : Reactive rotational molding, thermoset polyurethane, rheokinetik, Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics, surface tension, non-newtonian fluid, simulation
Modélisation du Comportement Thermomécanique des Polymères à mémoire de Forme by Juan Sebastian Arrieta escobar( )

1 edition published in 2014 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

A chemically crosslinked amorphous acrylate network has been prepared in the laboratory. Its mechanical properties were characterized by quasi-static and cyclic uniaxial tensile tests, while varying the temperature. The shape memory property of the polymer was recognized by the application of specific thermomechanical cycles in uniaxial tension (free-length and constrained-length recovery). During the experimental study, the thermomechanical cycle parameters were varied in order to study their influence on the shape memory behavior. Two additional studies were included to improve the potential applications of shape memory polymers. The first study targeted the use of the material shape memory property for subsequent shape memory cycles. The second study aimed at improving the material shape memory properties during fixed length heating (constrained-length recovery) by adding fillers .In order to improve the shape memory polymers application design, a large strain model, combining the material viscoleasticity and its time-temperature superposition property, was chosen to predict the shape memory behavior of the material. The model features, existing in the material behavior libraries of the finite element code Abaqus, allowed simulating numerically the experimental thermomechanical shape memory cycles. Results of the simulations showed good agreements when compared with the experimental results, reproducing the shape memory cycles influence to loading parameters. A parameter sensitivity analysis revealed the shape memory property dependence on the time-temperature superposition
Contrôle Santé des Structures Composites : application à la Surveillance des Nacelles Aéronautiques. by Claude Fendzi( )

1 edition published in 2015 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

This work aims at designing a Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system for complex composite structures, with an application to elements of aeronautical nacelles. This work is original and is in the framework of a project, coordinated by AIRBUS Operations SAS and headed by AIRCELLE (SAFRAN Group). The main parts of the nacelle concerned with our approach are the fan cowl (composite monolithic) and the inner fixed structure (IFS, sandwich structure with honeycomb core) of the thrust reverser. These structures made from composite materials are subjected to many damages types which can affect nacelle's useful life (fiber breaking, delamination, crack, etc...). Furthermore these structures are exposed to many environmental constraints which are for instance important thermal variations (from -55°C to +120°C). The objective of this work is to develop a SHM system aimed at detecting and localizing these damages, before the degradation of the whole structureoccurs. Piezoelectric (PZT) actuators and sensors are bonded on the structure and they are used to generate Lamb wave signals and perform measurements. The proposed SHM approach is based on successive measurements starting from an initial state, considered as healthy and regularly conducting follow-up. The difference in signals measured between two states is analyzed in order to extract some damages-sensitivesfeatures. After validation, PZT elements were glued to the fan cowl and to the IFS as well as on representative coupons and a suitable test bench is designed in order to validate our approach. Since one has to work on difference in signals, damage detection algorithms based on statistical hypothesis testing and PrincipalComponent Analysis (PCA) have been developed and validated. This was first tested for the detection of controlled damages introduced in coupons, and thereafter on the fan cowl and IFS. Robust damage localization algorithms (including with temperature variations) based on Time-of-flight (ToF) extraction from difference in signals, were developed and validated for these structures. A Bayesian approach for uncertainties quantification in the damage localization is also developed, leading to more accuracy in the damage localization results
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Audience level: 0.94 (from 0.92 for Modélisat ... to 0.95 for Etude de l ...)

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Arts et Métiers ParisTech. Procédés et Ingeniérie en Mécanique et Matériaux



Conservatoire national des arts et métiers (France). Procédés et Ingeniérie en Mécanique et Matériaux


Laboratoire Procédés et ingénierie en mécanique et matériaux


Processes and Engineering in Mechanics and Materials facility in Paris, France

UMR 8006


French (21)

English (3)