WorldCat Identities

Clément, Jean-Christophe

Overview
Works: 22 works in 25 publications in 2 languages and 36 library holdings
Roles: Other, Opponent, Thesis advisor, Author
Publication Timeline
.
Most widely held works by Jean-Christophe Clément
Modélisation des bouquets de services écosystémiques et intensification écologique des pratiques d'élevage dans Vercors by Pierre Gos( )

1 edition published in 2013 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

La coïncidence des services écosystémiques ainsi que la coïncidence entre 'hotspots' de servicesécosystémiques et 'hotspots' de biodiversité ont suscité un intérêt croissant dans les évaluations desservices écosystémiques. Les seuils utilisés dans ces analyses pour déterminer la présence desservices écosystémiques varient de façon importante mais les effets consécutifs à leur choix n'ontpas été envisagés. Nous proposons ici une analyse de l'effet du choix de ces seuils sur lacoïncidence entre services écosystémiques ainsi que sur la distribution des 'hotspots'. A partir d'uneétude de prairies des Alpes Centrales françaises, nous avons fait varié des seuils appliqués à troisservices écosystémiques (agronomique, de régulation et de valeur esthétique) de façon continue,puis considéré des triplets de valeurs-seuils représentant trois points de vue contrastés associés à despoints de vue d'acteurs. Ces seuils sont interprétés comme une importance accordée par chaqueacteur à chaque service écosystémique.La coïncidence entre services écosystémiques dépend de la détermination de seuils de présence.L'étendue des 'hotspots' de services écosystémiques et leur coïncidence avec les 'hotspots' debiodiversité varient largement selon les points de vue. Les coldspots ne sont jamais superposés avecles zones d'intérêt pour la biodiversité dans cette étude, quel que soit le point de vue envisagé.L'analyse de superposition s'est révélée moins informative que le test de diagnostic de la capacitéindividuelle des services écosystémiques à capturer la distribution des autres services. La valeuragronomique capturait peu les autres services écosystémiques. La biodiversité était bien capturéepar les valeurs esthétiques et de régulation, mais faiblement par les 'hotspots' de services.Cette analyse souligne l'importance de considérer les attentes variables des teneurs d'enjeux dans lesévaluations de 'hotspots' de services écosystémiques
Mécanismes fonctionnels de résilience des prairies subalpines au changement global by Lionel Bernard( )

1 edition published in 2017 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Les écosystèmes prairiaux alpestres sont supposés être très sensibles au changement climatique. Cependant leur long historique fait de variation du climat et de multiples siècles d'utilisation des terres peut avoir sélectionné des mécanismes de résilience écologique à la variabilité climatique et aux stress climatiques extrêmes. Nous avons utilisé un dispositif expérimental de grande envergure pour explorer les mécanismes de réponses des prairies subalpines à une combinaison d'extrêmes météorologiques hivernaux (fonte des neiges précoce) et estivaux (sécheresse) en fonction de la composition fonctionnelle des communautés végétales et des pratiques de gestion des terres. La composition fonctionnelle des prairies a été manipulée à l'aide d'assemblages de trois espèces de poacées en différentes abondances relatives, représentant in fine un gradient d'utilisation des ressources allant de la conservation à l'exploitation. De manière générale, la composition fonctionnelle a été le principal déterminant de tous les paramètres observés pour la performance individuelle des plantes, les réponses intraspécifiques des plantes, la décomposition de la litière et les processus de recyclage de l'azote. Le fonctionnement des écosystèmes prairiaux dominés par des plantes conservatrices a été remarquablement résistant aux traitements climatiques extrêmes, tandis que les écosystèmes prairiaux dominés par des plantes plus exploitatrices ont été plus résilients. Les pratiques de gestion ont modulé ces réponses et plus particulièrement dans le cas des communautés exploitatrices. Les allocations souterraines aux réserves glucidiques et aux pools d'azote microbiens ont été identifiées comme deux mécanismes clés sous-tendant les réponses des communautés résilientes. Néanmoins, des répercussions à plus long terme du changement climatique pourraient être observées, causées par un épuisement successif des réserves végétales et une diminution des retours azotés vers le sol via les processus de décomposition
Restauration écologique de prairies humides à vocation agricole suite au comblement d'une ballastière en basse vallée de Seine : incidence du type de sol recréé sur les fonctions pédologiques associées et sur la dynamique de colonisation végétale by Audrey Boigné( )

2 editions published in 2017 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Dans un contexte de destruction des zones humides à l'échelle mondiale, conséquence des activités d'origine anthropique, la restauration écologique de ces milieux et de leurs fonctions est devenue un enjeu écologique et sociétal. L'objectif de ce projet est de recréer des prairies humides à vocation agricole aux caractéristiques pédologiques et floristiques aussi proches que possible de celles des prairies totalement détruites par l'exploitation de matériaux alluvionnaires. L'étude présentée ici se focalise sur l'incidence des matériaux pédologiques utilisés pour la recréation de quatre sols sur les fonctions du sol et les cortèges floristiques associés. L'hypothèse principale est que la recréation d'un sol morphologiquement proche de celui détruit devrait permettre d'orienter la restauration écologique.L'hypothèse sous-jacente est qu'en utilisant différents matériaux pédologiques locaux, on hérite de leurs caractéristiques physico-chimiques et biologiques ce qui permettait de conserver les fonctions pédologiques qui leur sont associées et favorisait le retour d'un cortège floristique compatible avec un usage agricole. La première partie est consacrée à l'étude de deux fonctions remplies par les sols de zones humides à savoir le stockage du carbone organique et la dénitrification. Deux années et demi après la fin des travaux de comblement de ballastières, ces deux fonctions sont conservées au sein des quatre types de sols recréés. Les principaux résultats montrent un niveau d'efficience des matériaux pédologiques testés, fonction de leur sol origine et de leurs caractéristiques physico-chimiques. La deuxième partie est consacrée à l'étude des mécanismes de structuration des communautés végétales. Le suivi de la colonisation spontanée de la végétation a permis d'appréhender la forte contribution de la banque de graines issue des matériaux pédologiques locaux. Malgré la mise en évidence d'un début de trajectoires dynamiques au sein des quatre sols recréés, la similarité entre les communautés obtenues et les communautés cibles des prairies de référence n'excède pas 50 %. Les productions de biomasses aériennes associées à ces communautés sont comparables en quantité à celles des prairies de référence mais pas en qualité. La mise en place d'une gestion par semis associée à une fauche montre dès la première année une production de biomasses de qualité se rapprochant de celles des prairies locales.La dernière partie de ce manuscrit est consacrée à l'effet de trois niveaux d'engorgement des sols sur le processus de dénitrification et sur les traits de réponse d'une espèce prairiale, Holcus lanatus. Placer les quatre matériaux pédologiques dans des conditions identiques d'engorgement permet de souligner l'importance de l'héritage des communautés bactériennes dénitrifiantes sur le processus de dénitrification. Parallèlement, ces conditions expérimentales permettent de mettre en évidence les traits de réponses morphologiques et fonctionnels de l'espèce considérée. À l'issue de ces suivis, le meilleur compromis de restauration alliant sol, végétation et coûts économiques doit prendre en considération l'origine et l'histoire (i.e. gestion) des matériaux utilisés lors de la recréation écologique
Représentation des tourbières des hautes latitudes nord dans un modèle de surface : développement d'un schéma hydrologique et estimations des émissions de méthane by Chloé Largeron( )

1 edition published in 2016 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Peatlands are widely present in northern latitudes and especiallyin permafrost regions. They contain a high carbon stock and are one ofthe greatest natural sources of methane. Their representation in a climate model is crucial to improve the one of the carbon cycle. Moreover, the contribution of methanepeatland emissions remains uncertain.Methane emissions from peatlands strongly depend on the climate and are influenced primarily by temperature and soil moisture. Meanwhile, climate change is particularlysevere at these latitudes and leads to thawing permafrost with increasing the active layer depth. This large carbon reservoir may be partially mobilized and emitted asCO2 or CH4, depending on hydrological conditions at the surface.The aim of this PhD thesis is to represent northern peatlands in the ORCHIDEE land surface model. This development is carried out in the version of the model that incorporatesprocesses in high latitudes such as the soil freezing. Peatlands are represented by a specific hydrological scheme which improves the exchange of energy and water. The difficulty isbased on the representation of local peatlands processes across a global climate model. Some biological properties were also considered to represent bettervegetation of these environments. To do so, peatlands are integrated as a new type ofvegetation and represented by a fraction of a grid, based on observations. Thehydrological behaviour and the impact of this integration are estimated at the boreal scale as well asregionally. This development then allows estimate changes in the hydrology of peatlands due to global warming. Studying the changes in hydrology of peatlands by the end of th 21st century will improve the prediction of future changes in their CH4 emissions.This development work was then applied to determine the evolution of methane emissions. Peatlands are one of the largest natural sources of methane and control more than 70% interannual variability of atmospheric concentration of CH4. Methane emissions result from various physical and biological processes such as methanogenesis and the methanotrophy. To represent these processes, a flux density model, integratedin ORCHIDEE, was adapted for peatlands to estimate their methane emissions. The evolution of these emissions is studied between the early 20th and late 21st centuries under different climate scenarios
Une approche fonctionnelle des relations plantes-microorganismes dans le cadre du cycle de l'azote. Cas des prairies de montagnes. by Nicolas Legay( )

1 edition published in 2013 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Dans les prairies subalpines, l'abandon de certaines pratiques agricoles (fertilisation, fauche ou pâturage) ou à l'inverse, leurs intensifications entrainent une altération de la diversité fonctionnelle et spécifique des végétaux, de l'activité microbienne du sol ainsi que de la disponibilité de l'azote du sol et des processus de transformation de l'azote. L'hypothèse émise concerne les changements dans la distribution de la dominance des traits de plantes qui agiraient comme un déterminant important sur la productivité des plantes, la diversité fonctionnelle des micro-organismes du sol et sur les mécanismes des cycles de l'azote (N) et du carbone (C). Les hypothèses testées sont que : (i) l'augmentation de la dominance des traits liés aux stratégies conservatives et exploitatives promeut les espèces bactériennes K et r sélectionnées ; et (ii) ces interactions plantes-micro-organismes établiront les rythmes des cycles de l'N et du C et donc les services écologiques associés. L'approche originale de ce projet consiste en une étude de quatre espèces que l'on retrouve sur les prairies typique des bassins versant agricoles subalpins: deux espèces de monocotylédone et deux espèces dicotylédones, avec une espèce à stratégie conservative et une espèce à stratégie exploitative pour chacun des groupes. Ces plantes seront cultivées avec un sol pauvre en nutriment qui subira ou non un traitement de fertilisation ; ce qui permettra un contrôle de la disponibilité en N du sol. En parallèle, l'étude d'un mésocosme contenant un sol inoculé sera effectuée avec pour objectif de préciser le rôle des micro-organismes dans les mécanismes de rétroaction entre le sol et les plantes. Dans le cadre du projet (VITAL, EU Biodiversa) dans laquelle entre cette étude, ces mêmes espèces seront cultivées dans les Alpes autrichiennes et dans les prairies du Royaume-Unis. In subalpine grasslands, the neglect of some agricultural practices (fertilization, mowing or pasture) or on the contrary, their intensification involve a deterioration of the functional and specific diversity of plant, soil microbial diversity as well as soil nitrogen availability and nitrogen transformation processes. Our overarching hypothesis is that changes in the dominance distribution of plant traits will act as an important determinant of plant productivity, microbial functional diversity and carbon and nitrogen cycling. The hypothesis tested are that: (i) increased dominance of traits linked to conservative or exploitative strategies promotes K and r-selected microbial species; and (ii) these plant-microbial linkages will determine carbon and nitrogen cycling rates, and hence the associated ecosystem services. The original approach of this project consists studying four species from the typical grasslands of subalpine agricultural mountainside basins: two grasses species and two forbs species, with conservative strategiy species and exploitative strategy species for each group. These plants will be cultivated with low nutrient soil which will undergo or not fertilization treatement to control soil nitrogen availability. In a parallel study, mesocoms containing an inoculated soil will be carried out to clarify the role of microbe in plant-soil feedback processes. Thanks to the EU framework of the project (VITAL, EU Biodiversa) in which enters this study, these same species will be cultivated in the Austrian Alps and the United Kingdom grasslands
Hétérogénéité individuelle, variabilité temporelle et structure spatiale comme sources de variation démographique chez les grands herbivores de montagne by Quentin Richard( )

1 edition published in 2016 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In Northern hemisphere, populations of large herbivores have to cope with major environmental modifications linked to the increase of their density and to global change which strongly impacts their habitat (climate change, modification of human activities and habitat fragmentation). Understanding how these species adjust their life history strategies in response to such modifications is central for population ecology and for management issues. In this context, this work aimed to identify the sources of variation of survival and reproductive tactics in 3 species of mountain ungulate (Pyrenean chamois Rupicapra pyreneica, Alpine chamois Rupicapra rupicapra, and Mediterranean mouflon Ovis gmelini musimon × Ovis sp.). Using capture-mark-recapture monitoring we specifically investigated the role of individual heterogeneity, climate change, and spatial heterogeneity in shaping vital rates.This work relied on mixture models and an innovative combination of robust-design into a multi-events framework to explore demographic data collected at different spatio-temporal scales. Fixed heterogeneity appeared as a major demographic component in the 3 studied species by highlighting in mouflon and Pyrenean chamois two groups of females with contrasted reproductive performance, and by providing evidence in chamois of among-females differences in survival rates linked to the quality of their habitat. These models allowed us to provide evidence for the terminal investment hypothesis in female mouflon and to decompose reproductive effort in females of Pyrenean chamois from gestation to weaning, to unveil that lactation only led to cost on subsequent reproduction. Our results also highlighted the major influence of winter and spring climatic conditions on demographic parameters in the 3 studied species, and confirmed the general trend that climate effects are often species- and site-specific. Our findings provided evidence that Pyrenean chamois and mouflon evolved contrasted life history strategies, although both species share strong similarities in terms of body mass, ecological traits and phylogenetic position.Finally, our work stresses the importance of conducting comparative demographic studies, based on longitudinal monitoring of marked individuals, at inter-specific, inter-population and within population levels, to better understand and predict the future of large herbivores populations in the current context of global changes
Services écosystémiques rendus par les prairies de marais et les prairies mésophiles : diversité floristique, qualité fourragère et stock de carbone. by Elise Tasset( )

2 editions published in 2018 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Permanent grasslands are recognized for the many agronomic and environmental services they provide. However, they are still plowed or threatened to be in favor of more productive cultures, or abandoned in the case of wet grasslands, where the conditions of exploitation are subjected to many constraints. Reconciling production and environmental objectives in order to maintain extensive agricultural activities is therefore essential in permanent grasslands. In this context, multi-service studies have been carried out in the wet grasslands of the Regional Natural Park (PNR) of the Cotentin and Bessin marshes (Normandy, France) as well as in a set of mesophilous grasslandsofcontrasting pedoclimatic conditions located in Normandy, Lorraine and Auvergne. The study focused on 3 categories of Ecosystem Services (ES) as defined by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: floristic and functional diversity as support services, quality and forage production as supply services and stocks of organic carbon and soluble carbon soil contents as regulatory services. In order to analyzethe role of plant community functioning in the ES determinism, the measurement of leaf functional traits was carried out at the species and/or the plant community scales. Part of this work focuses particularly on the relationships between plant communities functioning and forage quality, and soil moisture conditions impact on micronutrient contents of species in wet grasslands. The results showed that, depending on the functional group, SLA or LDMC were good proxies for the digestibility of wet grassland forages. Dicots have higher micronutrient contents than Monocots. Our results show that flooding influences the elemental composition of flood-intolerant species more than adapted species and does not affect biomass production. In general, the plant community functioning does not explain all the relationship between ESs. Forage quality is linked to the plant community functioning as well as thefloristic and functional diversity but only forwet grasslands. In mesophilic grasslands, the history of management or the landscape structure could be important drivers. In addition, our results show that organic C stocks in the soil of wet and mesophilic grasslands are closely related to soil nature. ESs indicators have brought together 4 distinct groups of wet grasslands according to soil nature and management practices (mowing or grazing). Overall, the ESs packages offered by wet grasslands are better balanced than those provided by mesophilic grasslands, the latter being indistinguishable from another according to the geographical location. Extensively managed grasslands provide better environmental services than intensively managed grasslands and equivalent forage quality
Rôle de l'hydrologie sur la variabilité saisonnière hydro-biogéochimique d'un lac alpin : Cas des lacs alpins naturels ou équipés pour la production hydroélectrique by Yann Guenand( )

1 edition published in 2020 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In a context of climate change, high-altitude lakes represent a major global issue both for the development of hydropower generation and for the future management of water resources. However, these extreme environments remain little studied, especially when their hydrology has been modified for hydroelectric production. Thus, current knowledge does not allow to anticipate how the hydro-electric use of lakes at high altitude changes the thermal behavior and water quality of these water reserves at the head of basins.The aim of this doctoral work is to quantify the thermal and ecological sensitivity of high altitude lakes and reservoirs to natural and human environmental factors. To answer this problem, the work is based on the analysis of data collected in the field and their integration into 3-dimensional models of thermal behavior and water quality. The acquisition of the necessary data is based on the implementation of a monitoring of the meteorological and bio-physicochemical parameters of the environment for a set of three alpine lakes (Sept-Laux, 2060-2260m, Belledonne Massif), two of which are exploited for hydro-electric production by pump-storage. Their close geographical location guarantees similar weather conditions, while their morphology and different uses make it possible to evaluate the role of these natural and human factors on their internal dynamics. The results of this doctoral work presented in three articles show that:1. The geomorphology and local natural context of each of these lakes dictate first of all the thermal and ecological behavior of these lakes.2. The thermal and water quality of these highland lakes are very sensitive to stormy episodes, cloud dynamics and transparency of their waters, while atmospheric temperatures play a lesser role than for large lakes in the lowlands. Summer hydroelectric management essentially modifies the thermal behavior of these lakes with more limited impacts on water quality.3. Adjustments in pumping depths lead to modulating the effects of hydro-electric power management on the thermal behavior and water quality of interconnected reservoirs
Importance des interactions entre plantes et mycorhizes dans le maintien de la productivité des écosystèmes pastoraux montagnards soumis à des forçages climatiques by Anne-Lena Wahl( )

1 edition published in 2016 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Even though arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are present from foothills to all alpine habitats, research on their role in mountain ecosystems remains incomplete. The main objective of this dissertation was to investigate interactions between AMF and plants along altitudinal gradients under both, natural conditions and simulated future climate change conditions.A novel framework is suggested for the functioning of the AMF-plant relationship along altitudinal gradients based on the stress gradient hypothesis. The first hypothesis expects the AMF-relationship to shift along the mutualism-parasitism continuum following changing environmental stress along the altitudinal gradient. The relationship might be most mutualistic at the subalpine zone. In a second hypothesis, this shift along the mutualism-parasitism continuum is predicted to be different under climate change conditions, and the most mutualistic expression of the AMF-plant relationship expected in the montane and alpine zone. Studies to validate the presented hypotheses will help to identify important mechanisms underlying plant-AMF interaction and with that the mediation of plant-plant interactions by AMF. In the scope of this thesis, the framework was addressed in field experiment as well as under controlled conditions in a climate chamber experiment.From a literature review and from a field experiment along a dry inner-alpine altitudinal gradient this thesis proposes the following conclusions: First, AMF are also ubiquitous in mountain ecosystems, but a decrease in their abundance with increasing altitude is dependent on the overall climatic context. Second, their relationship to plants is however strongly dependent on the host plant species as well as the biotic and abiotic context. Third, a shift of the AMF-relationship along with altitude is expected but will quite possibly also depend on the plant species identity. Fourth, to fully assess the suggested working hypotheses for AMF-plant interactions field studies must be conducted at different spatial scales and covering different mountain systems.It is particularly important to understand and investigate the drivers of AMF plant relationship in mountain ecosystems to be able to make sound predictions for AMF-plant interactions under future climate change conditions. The presented field and climate chamber experiments on climate change show that temperature is an important factor because it aggravates the conditions of drought in lowland and a threshold is surpassed. It becomes also clear that whether AMF mitigate climate change effects for plants or not is dependent on the plant species. Altogether this thesis contributes to current research questions in ecology, climate change mitigation and plant-soil interactions, because it addresses the role of AMF in mountain grassland ecosystem, investigates the effects of climate change and provides a new framework concerning the functioning of the AMF-plant relationship ranging from parasitism to mutualism
Dépôt des nitrates atmosphériques sur les prairies subalpines du Lautaret by Ilann Bourgeois( )

1 edition published in 2017 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

L'accroissement des dépôts de nitrate atmosphérique (NO3-atm) sur les bassins versants d'altitude, limités en ressources, entraîne des changements nets de disponibilité d'azote. Ces apports modifient la diversité biologique (végétation, plantes), les processus des sols liés à l'azote et conduisent à l'eutrophisation des cours d'eau. A terme, l'impact sur les populations humaines se traduira par la perte d'importants services fournis par ces écosystèmes (alimentation en eau, qualité du fourrage, contrôle de l'érosion, biodiversité). Si les effets des dépôts de NO3-atm sur les bassins versants pauvres en azote sont maintenant bien documentés, il n'en reste pas moins à comprendre les processus régissant la rétention de NO3-atm dans les écosystèmes de montagne. Pour ce faire, la variabilité spatio-temporelle de la répartition du NO3-atm dans tous les compartiments subalpins est ici étudiée en utilisant un traceur multi-isotopique (17O, 18O, 15N) du NO3-. L'importante proportion de NO3-atm dans les cours d'eau de montagne, tout au long de l'année et plus particulièrement à la fonte des neiges, laisse à penser que les bassins versants sont cinétiquement saturés en azote. La composition isotopique du NO3- dans les eaux de surface illustre la transformation rapide de l'ammonium de la neige et confirme que la fonte des neiges est une période cruciale du cycle de l'azote dans les montagnes enneigées. La proportion de NO3-atm dans les sols varie, quant à elle, en fonction du type d'occupation des sols et des propriétés biotiques et abiotiques afférentes. Le suivi de la végétation a montré une forte teneur en NO3-atm dans les tissus, par assimilation racinaire et foliaire. Ces avancées scientifiques permettront, à terme, de mieux comprendre comment les dépôts de NO3-atm affectent l'environnement
The effects of snowpack properties and plant strategies on litter decomposition during winter in subalpine meadows by Patrick Saccone( )

1 edition published in 2012 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Stronger Short-Term Effects of Mowing Than Extreme Summer Weather on a Subalpine Grassland by Marie-Lise Benot( )

1 edition published in 2013 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Effects of snow pack reduction and drought on litter decomposition in subalpine grassland communities by Lionel Bernard( )

1 edition published in 2018 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Résilience des écosystèmes prairiaux aux stress climatiques selon l'intensité de gestion. Une approche par le concept de trait fonctionnel microbien by Gabin Piton( )

1 edition published in 2019 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In the current context of climate change, associated with increases of climate extremes frequency and intensity, understanding the ecosystem response to climate variability is a central challenge in ecology. Soil microbial communities control most ecosystem processes driving energy and nutrients fluxes. In the context of agriculture management, an important question is to understand the influence of farming practices on soil microbial communities and their capacity to maintain ecosystem functioning under climate change. Ecological-intensive agriculture has been recently proposed as an approach integrating ecological processes in management strategies to optimise agroecosystems functioning and resilience to climate change. Functional ecology might be relevant to address these challenges associated with climate change and ecological-intensification of agriculture.In this PhD thesis, I used the functional trait framework to grassland ecosystems to address how different modalities of management intensity (extensive, conventional-intensive, ecological-intensive management) influence: 1) functional parameters of soil microbial communities; 2) the capacity of these soil microbial communities to maintain ecosystem functioning during and after climatic stresses (Resilience). During my PhD, three experiments have been conducted using different degrees of control of management factors and simulating different kind of climatic stresses, with different durations. Based on grassland agroecosystems in three countries across Europe (France, Switzerland, Portugal), results from the first two experiments of this PhD showed that ecological-intensive management select soil microbial communities with a lower capacity to maintain microbial ecosystem properties during stresses (resistance) but with higher capacity to recover compared with soil microbial communities of soils under conventional-intensive management. Moreover, another study showed that ecological-intensive management promotes beneficial proteolytic soil microbial communities for plant nitrogen uptake under climate change-induced rain regimes. Plant functional traits assessment suggest this management effect on microbial communities composition and resilience to be explained by higher litter phosphorous content in ecological-intensive systems. Indeed, this plant functional trait affect microbial traits, favouring copiotrophic microbial community characterized by a lower nitrogen:phosphorous ratio of their biomass and a lower investment in extracellular enzymes production, two traits decreasing stress resistance but increasing recovery capacities. Thereby, these two experiments stress the relevance of plant traits management to control soil microbial traits and the resilience of soil microbial communities to climate changes. A third experiment tested specifically the impact of a mineral fertilisation event on the resilience of soil microbial communities to different climatic stresses. Results clearly demonstrated that fertilization modify soil microbial community composition and soil microbial traits and decrease ecosystem stability under climatic stresses.Implementing an approach based on the microbial functional trait concept, this thesis brings new insights on the effects of management intensity on grassland ecosystem resilience to climatic stress
Valorisation des activités biologiques de certaines espèces végétales sahariennes nord-africaines by Ionut-Florin Palici( )

1 edition published in 2016 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The Saharan desert is one of the most unfavorable areas, to the plant life. However, a small number of plants possesses both morphological and ecophysiological mechanisms ensuring their survival in the arid soil and on the sand dunes.It can be estimated that the secondary metabolism biosynthesizes considerable amounts of bioactive compounds, meant to ensure the development and the continuity of these species.The pharmacological properties of saharan plant extracts may bring benefits in the healing of certain microbial or proliferative diseases or contributes to the supply of antioxidants activities.The study of toxic properties is meant to enrich the knowledge of Saharan plants'bioactive potential.The biological activities of Anthyllis henoniana Coss., Centropodia forskalii (Vahl)Cope, Cornulaca monacantha Delile, Ephedra alata var. alenda (Stapf.) Trabut,Euphorbia guyoniana Boiss & Reut., Henophyton deserti Coss. & Durieu, Helianthemum confertum Dunal, Moltkiopsis ciliata (Forssk.) I.M.Johnst. and Spartidium saharae (Coss.& Durieu) Pomel have been studied. It can be seen that these species possess interesting properties, capitalized in the treatment of some human diseases. But, on the other hand in certain concentrations, extracts from these species may exhibit toxic effects onorganisms.Despite the extreme conditions, the Saharan desert represents the area of development for some valuable plant species, whose scientific knowledge is necessary
Impact du couvert arboré et herbacé sur le cycle de l'azote : cas de la savane de Lamto by Tharaniya Srikanthasamy( )

1 edition published in 2018 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Une savane est définie par la coexistence entre des arbres et des Poacées. Dans la savane de Lamto en Côte d'Ivoire, l'espèce dominante de Poacée est connue pour inhiber la nitrification et avant mon étude, l'impact des arbres sur la nitrification était très mal connu. L'étape de la nitrification est conduite par deux différentes communautés, les archées et les bactéries nitrifiantes ayant le gène amoA. Le but de cette étude est de comprendre l'impact de ces deux types de végétaux sur le cycle de l'azote, notamment sur les communautés nitrifiantes et également de comprendre l'impact de la saisonnalité et du passage du feu sur ces processus. Des échantillonnages ont été réalisés sous les Poacées et les arbres à Lamto durant les saisons humides et sèche et également avant et après le passage du feu. Cela a mis en évidence plusieurs effets : (i) les Poacées dominantes de la savane inhibent la nitrification, (ii) les arbres dominants stimulent la nitrification, (iii) les archées nitrifiantes son prédominantes dans cette savane et elles contribueraient majoritairement à la nitrification, (iv) la saisonnalité à un impact direct sur les abondances et l'activité des micro-organismes du sol (l'activité transcriptionelle des archées nitrifiantes diminuent en saison humide), (v) le feu a un effet indirect sur les communautés microbiennes du sol par son impact sur les caractéristiques physico-chimiques des sols, notamment il diminue l'activité des archées nitrifiantes. Enfin, la dénitrification est supérieure sous les arbres que sous les Poacées. Cette étude a permis de mieux comprendre les interactions entres les bactéries et archées nitrifiantes, la végétation et la saisonnalité
Les zones humidesde fonds de vallée et la régulation des pollutions azotées diffusées by Jean-Christophe Clément( Book )

2 editions published in 2001 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Dynamiques de la matière organique des sols de montagne : analyse de chronoséquences et de climatoséquences by Norine Khedim( )

1 edition published in 2022 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The accumulation dynamics of soil organic matter stocks, their variability and their relationships with the other biotic and abiotic components are poorly documented at the landscape scale. This understanding of the interdependencies between the soil system and other environmental compartments is essential to predict global changes and measure the impact of human activities. In this context, mountain environments present strong specificities due to their important spatial variability, the high stocks of organic matter contained in their soils and their vulnerability to global change. Moreover, they are intensely affected by climate change and land use changes. For all these reasons, they present a great interest for the temporal study of soil organic matter dynamics.By studying mountain soils with contrasting trajectories, we aimed to understand the qualitative and quantitative dynamics of organic matter over time. For that, this research was based (i) on the study of recently formed soils along chronosequences, (ii) climatosequences to examine the variability of organic matter at the landscape scale in soils with different trajectories and finally (iii) on experimental simulations of pedoclimatic changes to analyze the reactivity of organic carbon stored on high elevation grassland topsoils.Irrespective of the local conditions of each site, our results highlighted a common pattern of organic matter accumulation at the initial stage of new terrestrial ecosystem formation after glacial retreat in different parts of the world. This accumulation is affected by time and accelerated by a warmer climate. Vegetation contributes largely to the incorporation of relatively labile organic matter into these newly formed soils. In more evolved ecosystems, environmental stabilization by climate partially structures the quantitative and qualitative variability of mountain soil organic matter at the landscape scale. The importance of this climatic structuring is greater in the topsoil than more in-depth soil. By preserving vulnerable organic matter at high altitude from degradation, environmental stabilization by climate maintains particularly reactive organic carbon in mountain soils. By simulating a 3°C warming by transplanting an alpine soil to the subalpine belt, we have demonstrated the rapid release of this labile organic carbon.These results provide new insights into the nature of organic matter in mountain soils, and also into its dynamics over time. The stability of organic matter in soils is clearly a function of the ecosystem
Effets du chaulage sur le fontionnement de l'écosystème prairial en moyenne montagne by Iris Lochon( )

1 edition published in 2018 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The development of sustainable agriculture requires greater understanding of the impact of management practices on agroecosystem functioning, and on the ecosystem services provided by these agroecosystems. Representing nearly 68% of world's agricultural surfaces and contributing to the livelihoods of more than 800 million people, grasslands are one of the major agroecosystems where optimized agricultural practices are of concern. This PhD focuses on liming, a well-known practice for counteracting soil acidification (due to ongoing natural processes or accelerated by management practices), but which has variable efficiency in permanent grasslands. Indeed, liming effects on grassland are poorly documented and existing studies rarely take into account grassland multifunctionality. My thesis uses an integrated approach to improve the knowledge of liming impacts on grassland functioning. Different types of experiments - in the field (in situ), in semi-controlled conditions (mesocosms) and laboratory soil incubations (microcosms) - were used to study liming effects on different grassland compartments (vegetation, microorganisms, soil) along with possible interacting factors. Liming effectively increased soil pH in all the experiments. However, improving pH status did not always lead to greater forage production or increases in microbial and root biomass. My results showed that liming can enhance greenhouse gas emissions through several pathways (reemission of lime-derived carbon or stimulation of carbon mineralization), but may also reduce CO2 emissions from ecosystem respiration. Collectively, my findings emphasize the importance of pedoclimatic conditions for liming impacts on permanent grasslands and highlight the difficulty of upscaling liming effects, particularly on forage production and greenhouse gas emissions. The efficiency of liming appears to depend on the type and dose of soil improvers and can also interact with other management practices such as nitrogen fertilization and management intensification
Rôle écologique de la sporulation in-planta dans les symbioses actinorhiziennes : cas de la symbiose Alnus - Frankia by Guillaume Schwob( )

1 edition published in 2018 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Microbial biogeography would be based on the ability of microorganisms to disperse across time and space, as a function of abiotic factors such as soil properties, climate, and of biotic interactions, in particular with the host in the case of symbionts, but also on life history traits such as the ability to sporulate. Frankia sp. is a spore-forming and nitrogen-fixing actinobacterium that has a complex biogeography given its abilities for both saprophytic life and root symbiotic interaction with actinorhizal plants such as alders (Alnus, Betulaceae). Two distinct groups of Frankia lineages have been described according to a major phenotypic divergence, based on the presence (Sp+) or the absence (Sp-) of spores in planta.. To the best of our knowledge, this endophytic sporulation is an original trait in a symbiotic context and very little is known about its incidence in Frankia biogeography. This work integrates descriptive and experimental approaches on both field and laboratory areas, in order to improve the understanding of the ecological role of Frankia in planta sporulation. First, we have extended the description of the phylobiogeography of Sp+ Frankia strains to validate the previously proposed distribution pattern focused on cold environements at high altitude or high latitude. A phylogeny has been computed using a large number of nodular strains coming from the 3 continents of the Northern Hemisphere and 10 different Alnus species. Special attention was paid to geographic areas where a higher diversity was expected, in Asia, and in its glacial refuges. Second, we studied the influence of the host-plant on the distribution of Fankia Sp+ and the incidence of Sp+ in the symbiotic interaction. Experimental crosses have been performed to disentangle host and climate effects and to test the incidence of the Sp+ trait in terms of infectivity, competitiveness and host-range. Finally, we studied the ecological consequences of the Alnus/Frankia symbiotic complex, on the microbial diversity and on the nitrogen cycle functionning, with respect to the sporulation of Frankia and to the Alnus expansion on sub-/alpine grasslands. Soils analyses were performed in association with measures of nitrification and denitrification, as well as global and functional microbial diversity analyses, in Sp+, Sp- or mixed alder stands and at different colonization stages. In each part of this work, alder ectomycorhizae were analyzed to compare the distribution pattern between the two symbionts and to highlight potential interactions with the Sp+ trait of Frankia. Our results show the dominance of Sp+ strains in nodules of alder species from cold environments over the 3 continents of the Holarctic zone, with original diversity patterns in alder area of origin and in glacial refuges. Even if these strains are genetically homogenous, host-specific clusters were observed in the phylogeny. Crosses revealed that Sp+ strains were more infective and competitive than Sp- strains. Moreover, unlike Sp- strains that harbor a wide host-range, Sp+ strains have a narrower specificity leading to association's incompatibilities and suggesting strong host dependence. For the first time, modifications of microbial communities were revealed in response to the Alnus-Frankia symbiotic complex colonization and were linked to a stimulation of the nitrogen cycle in the sub-/alpine grasslands. The first comparative results of nitrogen fixation between Sp+ and Sp- strains in natura suggest a maximal efficiency of fixation, representing almost 100% of the alder nitrogen. However, unlike previous reports in literature, no pattern was observed between Sp+ and Sp- strains, suggesting a complex effect of seasonality, alder age as well as that of nodules. Altogether, the previous results contribute to a better understanding of the Frankia biogeography drivers and allow us to discuss the expected evolution of distribution pattern in response to the global warming
 
moreShow More Titles
fewerShow Fewer Titles
Audience Level
0
Audience Level
1
  General Special  
Audience level: 0.00 (from 0.00 for Rôle de l ... to 0.00 for Rôle de l ...)

Alternative Names
Jean-Christophe Clément wetenschapper

Languages
French (18)

English (5)