WorldCat Identities

Rozental, Alexander

Overview
Works: 26 works in 33 publications in 3 languages and 44 library holdings
Roles: Author, the
Publication Timeline
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Most widely held works by Alexander Rozental
Dansa på deadline : uppskjutandets psykologi by Alexander Rozental( Book )

4 editions published in 2014 in Swedish and held by 7 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Dansa på deadline ger en vetenskaplig förklaring till varför vi skjuter upp saker och hur vi kan göra för att förändra vårt beteende. Utgångspunkten är forskning inom beteendeekonomi, kognitiv neurovetenskap och inlärningspsykologi. Exempel varvas med övningar som har visat sig vara användbara både för enskilda individer och organisationer. Dansa på deadline riktar sig till dig som har svårt att ta tag i saker, som vill veta varför du prokrastinerar och vill ändra detta mönster – eller som vill få någon annan att komma till skott
Dansen på deadline : udskydelsens psykologi( Book )

2 editions published in 2014 in Danish and held by 6 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Selvhjælpsbog, der forklarer grundene til og konsekvenserne af udsættelsesadfærd, og hvordan man kan ændre denne vane. Med øvelser baseret på kognitiv adfærdsterapi
Targeting Procrastination Using Psychological Treatments: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis by Alexander Rozental( )

2 editions published in 2018 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Background: Procrastination can be stressful and frustrating, but it seldom causes any major distress. However, for some people, it can become problematic, resulting in anxiety, lowered mood, physical complaints, and decreased well-being. Still, few studies have investigated the benefits of targeting procrastination. In addition, no attempt has previously been made to determine the overall efficacy of providing psychological treatments. Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted by searching for eligible records in Scopus, Proquest, and Google Scholar. Only randomized controlled trials comparing psychological treatments for procrastination to an inactive comparator and assessing the outcomes by a self-report measure were included. A random effects model was used to determine the standardized mean difference Hedges g at post-treatment. Furthermore, test for heterogeneity was performed, fail-safe N was calculated, and the risk of bias was explored. The study was pre-registered at Prospero: CRD42017069981. Results: A total of 1,639 records were identified, with 12 studies (21 comparisons, N = 718) being included in the quantitative synthesis. Overall effect size g when comparing treatment to control was 0.34, 95% Confidence Interval [0.11, 0.56], but revealing significant heterogeneity, Q(20) = 46.99, p amp;lt; 0.00, and I-2 = 61.14%, 95% CI [32.83, 84.24]. Conducting a subgroup analysis of three out of four studies using cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) found an effect size g of 0.55, 95% CI [0.32, 0.77], and no longer showing any heterogeneity, Q(4) = 3.92, p = 0.42, I-2 = 0.00%, 95% CI [0.00, 91.02] (N = 236). Risk of publication bias, as assessed by the Eggers test was not significant, z = -1.05, p = 0.30, fail-safe N was 370 studies, and there was some risk of bias as rated by two independent researchers. In terms of secondary outcomes, the self-report measures were too varied to present an aggregated estimate. Conclusions: Psychological treatments seem to have small benefits on procrastination, but the studies displayed significant between-study variation. Meanwhile, CBT was associated with a moderate benefit, but consisted of only three studies. Recommendations for future research are provided, including the use of more valid and reliable outcomes and a screening interview at intake
Consensus statement on the problem of terminology in psychological interventions using the internet or digital components by Ewelina Smoktunowicz( )

1 edition published in 2020 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Abstract: Since the emergence of psychological interventions delivered via the Internet they have differed in numerous ways. The wealth of formats, methods, and technological solutions has led to increased availability and cost-effectiveness of clinical care, however, it has simultaneously generated a multitude of terms. With this paper, we first aim to establish whether a terminology issue exists in the field of Internet-delivered psychological interventions. If so, we aim to determine its implications for research, education, and practice. Furthermore, we intend to discuss solutions to mitigate the problem; in particular, we propose the concept of a common glossary. We invited 23 experts in the field of Internet-delivered interventions to respond to four questions, and employed the Delphi method to facilitate a discussion. We found that experts overwhelmingly agreed that there were terminological challenges, and that it had significant consequences for conducting research, treating patients, educating students, and informing the general public about Internet-delivered interventions. A cautious agreement has been reached that formulating a common glossary would be beneficial for the field to address the terminology issue. We end with recommendations for the possible formats of the glossary and means to disseminate it in a way that maximizes the probability of broad acceptance for a variety of stakeholders
Bättre än perfekt : självhjälpsbok för perfektionister by Alexander Rozental( Book )

2 editions published in 2021 in Swedish and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Att vara noggrann, ambitiös och ha höga mål är förstås bra men kan också vara stressigt, ångestskapande och riskera att ens nära relationer påverkas. Bättre än perfekt är en konkret handbok med verktyg för förändring i de delar som vållar problem i tillvaron
Tio i tolv : En bok om att lyckas med nyårslöften, mål och bete by Alexander Rozental( Book )

2 editions published in 2018 in Swedish and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

När det börjar dra ihop sig till tolvslag nyårsnatten är vi många lovar att ta tag i saker under det nya året enligt undersökningar avger var åttonde man och var femte kvinna i Sverige ett nyårslöfte. Ofta håller dock våra föresatser inte särskilt länge, framåt februari är det redan glesare på gymmen. Det är vanligt att gå ut för hårt i början samtidigt som det är lätt att falla tillbaka i gamla ovanor. Efter ett bakslag eller två är det lätt att ge upp. Trots detta visar psykologisk forskning att nyårslöften är förvånansvärt bra på att skapa varaktiga beteendeförändringar. Det gäller bara att komma lite mer förberedd till tolvslaget, ha realistiska förutsättningar och understryka att förändringsarbetet inte handlar om en kort sprint utan snarare utgör ett maratonlopp kombinerat med hinderbana. Tio i tolv förklarar varför nyårslöften är ett smart sätt att komma igång med nya vanor och överge gamla. Med hjälp av studier och undersökningar inom bland annat målsättning, rutiner och prokrastinering får läsaren kunskap om hur hen lättare kan lyckas med en förändring. Intressanta rön om svenskar egna nyårslöften presenteras, varvat med handfasta tips för att lättare uppnå våra mål vare sig det handlar om ett nyårslöfte eller en nystart efter semestern. Boken bygger på världens största vetenskapliga studie kring människors nyårslöften, utförd av Per Carlbring, Alexander Rozental och Martin Oscarsson vid Stockholms universitet. [Elib]
Dansa på deadline uppskjutandets psykologi by Alexander Rozental( Recording )

1 edition published in 2014 in Swedish and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Knowledge About Treatment, Anxiety, and Depression in Association With Internet-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adolescents Development and Initial Evaluation of a New Test by Matilda Berg( )

1 edition published in 2020 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Evaluating knowledge and learning in psychotherapy is a growing field of research. Studies that develop and evaluate valid tests are lacking, however. Here, in the context of internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (ICBT) for adolescents, a new test was developed using subject matter experts, consensus among researchers, self-reports by youths, and a literature review. An explorative factor analysis was performed on 93 adolescents between 15 and 19 years old, resulting in a three-factor solution with 20 items, accounting for 41% of the total variance. The factors were Act in aversive states, Using positive reinforcement, and Shifting attention. The internal consistency for the whole instrument was good (alpha = .84). Hopefully, the procedure presented here can contribute to the field by illustrating one way of evaluating knowledge in ICBT. The clinical use of the knowledge test needs further investigation
Dansa på deadline, nyutgåva by Alexander Rozental( Book )

1 edition published in 2021 in Swedish and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

A randomised controlled trial of therapist-assisted online psychological therapies for posttraumatic stress disorder (STOP-PTSD) trial protocol by Anke Ehlers( )

1 edition published in 2020 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Background Over the last few decades, effective psychological treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been developed, but many patients are currently unable to access these treatments. There is initial evidence that therapist-assisted internet-based psychological treatments are effective for PTSD and may help increase access, but it remains unclear which of these treatments work best and are most acceptable to patients. This randomised controlled trial will compare a trauma-focussed and a nontrauma-focussed therapist-assisted cognitive behavioural Internet treatment for PTSD: Internet-delivered cognitive therapy for PTSD (iCT-PTSD) and internet-delivered stress management therapy (iStress-PTSD). Methods/design The study is a single-blind, randomised controlled trial comparing iCT-PTSD, iStress-PTSD and a 13-week wait-list condition, with an embedded process study. Assessors of treatment outcome will be blinded to trial arm. Two hundred and seventeen participants who meet DSM-5 criteria for PTSD will be randomly allocated by a computer programme to iCT-PTSD, iStress-PTSD or wait-list at a 3:3:1 ratio. The primary assessment point is at 13 weeks, and further assessments are taken at 6, 26, 39 and 65 weeks. The primary outcome measure is the severity of PTSD symptoms as measured by the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5). Secondary measures of PTSD symptoms are the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-5 (CAPS-5) and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R). Other symptoms and well-being will be assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), Generalised Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7), WHO (Five) Well-Being Index, Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS), Endicott Quality of Life Scale (QoL), and Insomnia Sleep Index (ISI). Health economics analyses will consider quality of life, productivity, health resource utilisation, employment status and state benefits, and treatment delivery costs. Process analyses will investigate candidate mediators and moderators of outcome. Patient experience will be assessed by interview and questionnaire. Discussion This study will be the first to compare the efficacy of a trauma-focussed and nontrauma-focussed therapist-assisted online cognitive behavioural treatment for people with posttraumatic stress disorder
Response and Remission Rates in Internet-Based Cognitive Behavior Therapy An Individual Patient Data Meta-Analysis by Gerhard Andersson( )

1 edition published in 2019 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Background: Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) was developed over 20 years ago and has since undergone a number of controlled trials, as well as several systematic reviews and meta-analyses. However, the crucial question of response rates remains to be systematically investigated. The aim of this individual patient meta-analysis (IPDMA) was to use a large dataset of trials conducted in Sweden to determine reliable change and recovery rates across trials for a range of conditions. Methods: We used previously collected and aggregated data from 2,866 patients in 29 Swedish clinical trials of ICBT for three categories of conditions: anxiety disorders, depression, and others. Raw scores at pre-treatment and post-treatment were used in an IPDMA to determine the rate of reliable change and recovery. Jacobson and Truax's, (1991) reliable change index (RCI) was calculated for each primary outcome measure in the trials as well as the recovery rates for each patient, with the additional requirement of having improved substantially. We subsequently explored potential predictors using binomial logistic regression. Results: In applying an RCI of z = 1.96, 1,162 (65.6%) of the patients receiving treatment were classified as achieving recovery, and 620 (35.0%) were classified as reaching remission. In terms of predictors, patients with higher symptom severity on the primary outcome measure at baseline [odds ratio (OR) = 1.36] and being female (OR = 2.22) increased the odds of responding to treatment. Having an anxiety disorder was found to decrease the response to treatment (OR = 0.51). Remission was predicted by diagnosis in the same direction (OR = 0.28), whereas symptom severity was inversely predictive of worse outcome (OR = 0.81). Conclusions: Response seems to occur among approximately half of all clients administered ICBT, whereas about a third reach remission. This indicates that the efficacy of ICBT is in line with that of CBT based in prior trials, with a possible caveat being the lower remission rates. Having more symptoms and being female might increase the chances of improvement, and a small negative effect of having anxiety disorder versus depression and other conditions may also exist. A limitation of the IPDMA was that only studies conducted in Sweden were included
Treating Procrastination Using Cognitive Behavior Therapy: A Pragmatic Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Treatment Delivered via the Internet or in Groups( )

1 edition published in 2018 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Abstract: Procrastination is a common problem among university students, with at least half of the population reporting great difficulties initiating or completing tasks and assignments. Procrastination can have a negative impact on course grades and the ability to achieve a university degree, but can also lead to psychological distress. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is believed to reduce procrastination, but few studies have investigated its effectiveness in a regular clinical setting. The current study explored its effects using a pragmatic randomized controlled trial comparing treatment delivered during 8 weeks as self-guided CBT via the Internet (ICBT) or as group CBT. In total, 92 university students with severe procrastination were included in the study (registered as a clinical trial on Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02112383). Outcome measures on procrastination, depression, anxiety, and well-being were distributed at pre- and posttreatment as well as 6-month follow-up. An outcome measure of procrastination was administered weekly. Linear mixed and fixed effects models were calculated, along with improvement and deterioration rates. The results showed large within-group effect sizes on procrastination, Cohen's d of 1.29 for ICBT, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) [0.81, 1.74], and d of 1.24 for group CBT, 95% CI [0.76, 1.70], and small to moderate benefits for depression, anxiety, and well-being. In total, 33.7% were regarded as improved at posttreatment and 46.7% at follow-up. No differences between conditions were observed after the treatment period, however, participants in group CBT continued or maintained their improvement at follow-up, while participants in self-guided ICBT showed some signs of deterioration. The findings from the current study suggest that CBT might be an effective treatment for those struggling with severe procrastination, but that a group format may be better for some to sustain their benefits over time and that the clinical significance of the results need to be investigated further. Highlights: Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) may be effective for treating procrastination. Self-guided Internet-CBT and group CBT led to similar improvement. Participants in group CBT maintained and further improved to follow-up. The results from unguided Internet-CBT were not sustained to follow-up
The Negative Effects Questionnaire psychometric properties of an instrument for assessing negative effects in psychological treatments by Alexander Rozental( )

1 edition published in 2019 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Background: Psychological treatments provide many benefits for patients with psychiatric disorders, but research also suggests that negative effects might occur from the interventions involved. The Negative Effects Questionnaire (NEQ) has previously been developed as a way of determining the occurrence and characteristics of such incidents, consisting of 32 items and six factors. However, the NEQ has yet to be examined using modern test theory, which could help to improve the understanding of how well the instrument works psychometrically. Aims: The current study investigated the reliability and validity of the NEQ from both a person and item perspective, establishing goodness-of-fit, item bias, and scale precision. Method: The NEQ was distributed to 564 patients in five clinical trials at post-treatment. Data were analysed using Rasch analysis, i.e. a modern test theory application. Results: (1) the NEQ exhibits fairness in testing across sociodemographics, (2) shows comparable validity for a final and condensed scale of 20 instead of 32 items, (3) uses a rating scale that advances monotonically in steps of 0 to 4, and (4) is suitable for monitoring negative effects on an item-level. Conclusions: The NEQ is proposed as a useful instrument for investigating negative effects in psychological treatments, and its newer shorter format could facilitate its use in clinical and research settings. However, further research is needed to explore the relationship between negative effects and treatment outcome, as well as to test it in more diverse patient populations
Paradoxical intention for insomnia A systematic review and meta-analysis by Markus Jansson-Fröjmark( )

1 edition published in 2021 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Paradoxical intention (PI) has been considered an evidence-based treatment for insomnia since the 1990s, but it has not been evaluated with modern review techniques such as meta-analysis. The present study aimed to conduct the first systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that explore the effectiveness of PI for insomnia on insomnia symptomatology and theory-derived processes. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted by searching for eligible articles or dissertations in six online bibliographic databases. Randomised controlled trials and experimental studies comparing PI for insomnia to active and passive comparators and assessing insomnia symptoms as outcomes were included. A random effects model was estimated to determine the standardised mean difference Hedge's g at post-treatment. Test for heterogeneity was performed, fail-safe N was calculated, and study quality was assessed. The study was pre-registered at International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO, CRD42019137357). A total of 10 trials were identified. Compared to passive comparators, PI led to large improvements in key insomnia symptoms. Relative to active comparators, the improvements were smaller, but still moderate for several central outcomes. Compared to passive comparators, PI resulted in great reductions in sleep-related performance anxiety, one of several proposed mechanisms of change for PI. PI for insomnia resulted in marked clinical improvements, large relative to passive comparators and moderate compared to active comparators. However, methodologically stronger studies are needed before more firm conclusions can be drawn
Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy of perfectionism Comparing regular therapist support and support upon request by Molly Zetterberg( )

1 edition published in 2019 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Perfectionism may be a clinically relevant problem on its own or as part of the etiology and maintenance of psychiatric disorders, e.g., anxiety disorders, depression, and eating disorders. Cognitive behavior therapy has been shown to be a promising treatment for managing perfectionism and its associated problems, including when being administered via the Internet, i.e., Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (ICBT). In the current study, seventy-eight self-referred participants underwent ICBT after an initial eight-week wait-list period, i.e., second wave of treatment. These were randomized to receive regular support from a therapist (ICBT-support) or ICBT with support on request (ICBT-request), in an eight-week treatment of perfectionism. Assessments of perfectionism were made at pre-, mid-, and post-treatment, as well as six-month follow-up, using the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, subscale Concern over Mistakes. Mixed effects models revealed large symptom reductions for both conditions; Concern over Mistakes, Cohens d = 1.40, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) [0.85, 1.95] for ICBT-support, and d = 1.00, 95% CI [0.51, 1.47] for ICBT-request. The effects were maintained at six-month follow-up and there were no differences between the conditions in terms of the results, opened modules, or completed exercises. A total of 28 out of 70 participants (42.4%; ICBT-support, 37.8%; ICBT-request) were classified as improved at post-treatment. Both types of ICBT may thus be beneficial in treating perfectionism, suggesting that just having the opportunity to ask for support from a therapist, when regular support is not provided, could be sufficient for many participants undergoing ICBT. However, the study was underpowered to detect differences between the conditions. The lack of a cutoff also makes it difficult to differentiate a dysfunctional from a functional population in terms of perfectionism. In addition, the study design could have affected the participants motivational level from start, given their initial eight-week wait-list period. Recommendations for future studies include recruiting a larger sample size, a clearer cutoff for perfectionism, and the use of a non-inferiority test with a predetermined margin of change
Knowledge gain and usage of knowledge learned during internet-based CBT treatment for adolescent depression a qualitative study by Matilda Berg( )

1 edition published in 2020 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Background The role of explicit learning of treatment content in internet-based cognitive-behavioural treatment (ICBT) is an emerging field of research. The objective of this study was to explore clients experiences of their ICBT treatment for depression with a focus on knowledge gain and usage of knowledge learned during treatment. Methods A strategic sample of ten adolescents, aged between 15 and 19 years, who had received ICBT for major depression within a clinical controlled trial were recruited for the study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted 6 months following trial completion. Data were transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis. The participants had a general adherence rate of 6-8 opened modules out of 8 possible. Results Two main themes were identified; "Active agents of CBT" and "Passive agents of CBT", with each theme consisting of three and two sub-themes. Active agents of CBT reflect a tendency to specifically remember and actively apply specific CBT principles in present life situations. Passive agents of CBT reflect a tendency to remember CBT treatment principles vaguely and express a passive or reactive usage of learned therapy content. Conclusion The findings suggest that young clients can remember and apply CBT principles 6 months after their treatment. However, while experiencing benefits of treatment, clients recall and application of treatment strategies vary. The study emphasizes the importance of exploring client recall of CBT components and how valuable it is to explicitly remember contents of a treatment in order to improve and maintain improvement. Further studies on the role of knowledge and memory of ICBT for adolescent populations are warranted
The Role of Learning Support and Chat-Sessions in Guided Internet-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adolescents With Anxiety: A Factorial Design Study by Matilda Berg( )

1 edition published in 2020 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Background Increased awareness of anxiety in adolescents emphasises the need for effective interventions. Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (ICBT) could be a resource-effective and evidence-based treatment option, but little is known about how to optimize ICBT or which factors boost outcomes. Recently, the role of knowledge in psychotherapy has received increased focus. Further, chat-sessions are of interest when trying to optimize ICBT for youths. This study aimed to evaluate the role of learning support and chat-sessions during ICBT for adolescent anxiety, using a factorial design. Method A total of 120 adolescents were randomised to one of four treatment groups, in a 2x2 design with two factors: with or without learning support and/or chat-sessions. Results Anxiety and depressive symptoms were reduced (Beck Anxiety Inventory- BAI; Cohensd=0.72; Beck Depression Inventory- BDI;d=0.97). There was a main effect of learning support on BAI (d=0.38), and learning support increased knowledge gain (d =0.42). There were no main effects or interactions related to the chat-sessions. Treatment effects were maintained at 6-months, but the added effect of learning support had by then vanished. Conclusion ICBT can be an effective alternative when treating adolescents with anxiety. Learning support could be of importance to enhance short-term treatment effects, and should be investigated further
Patient-controlled admissions to inpatient care A twelve-month naturalistic study of patients with schizophrenia spectrum diagnoses and the effects on admissions to and days in inpatient care by Maria Skott( )

1 edition published in 2021 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Background: Patients with schizophrenia spectrum diagnoses have a poor prognostic outlook and rates of recovery. Inpatient care is common, but the decision to initiate such care is not solely up to the patient but also influenced by the healthcare providers. Recent ideas about shared decision-making however challenges this idea. Patient-Controlled Admissions (PCA) refers to a care model where a patient signs a contract that allows the decision for admission into inpatient care to be transferred onto the patient. Methods: In Region Stockholm's public healthcare PCA was introduced to patients with schizophrenia spectrum diagnoses deemed to have the greatest care needs. Outcomes of a 12-month naturalistic within-group follow-up was analyzed using Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results: In total, 56 patients fulfilled the study's inclusion criteria, with between 20 to 42 patients having complete data and being able to analyze statistically, depending on the variable. Number of admissions, inpatient days, number of involuntary admissions, and involuntary admission days decreased, but only significantly so for inpatient days, p < .01 (a mean reduction of 11.5 days). Neither self-rated well-being, as assessed using the EQ5D-3L, or a clinician-administered rating of overall health status, the Clinical Global Impression Scale, demonstrated a significant change. Conclusions: The use of PCA points towards a trend in decreased hospitalization for patients with schizophrenia spectrum diagnoses, although this needs to be explored further in larger samples and over a longer follow-up
Treating perfectionism using internet-based cognitive behavior therapy A study protocol for a randomized controlled trial comparing two types of treatment by Monica Buhrman( )

1 edition published in 2020 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Perfectionism is characterized by setting high standards and striving for achievement, sometimes at the expense of social relationships and wellbeing. Despite sometimes being viewed as a positive feature by others, people with perfectionism tend to be overly concerned about their performance and how they are being perceived by people around them. This tends to create inflexible standards, cognitive biases, and performance-related behaviors that maintain a belief that self-worth is linked to accomplishments. Cognitive behavior therapy has been shown to be a viable treatment for perfectionism, both in terms of reducing levels of perfectionism and improving psychiatric symptoms. Furthermore, a number of recent studies indicate that it can be successfully delivered via the Internet, both with regular support and guidance on demand from a therapist. In the present study protocol, a clinical trial for perfectionism is described and outlined. In total, 128 participants will be recruited and randomized to either a treatment that has already been demonstrated to have many benefits, Internet-based Cognitive Behavior Therapy for perfectionism (iCBT-P), or an active comparison condition, Internet-based Unified Protocol (iUP), targeting the emotions underlying depression and anxiety disorders. The results will be investigated with regard to self-reported outcomes of perfectionism, psychiatric symptoms, self-compassion, and quality of life, at post-treatment and at six- and 12-month follow-up. Both iCBT-P and iUP are expected to have a positive impact, but the difference between the two conditions in terms of their specific effects and adherence are currently unknown and will be explored. The clinical trial is believed to lead to a better understanding of how perfectionism can be treated and the specificity of different treatments
 
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