WorldCat Identities

Université Paris-Est Créteil Val de Marne Equipe de Recherche sur l'Utilisation des Données Individuelles en lien avec la Théorie Economique

Overview
Works: 29 works in 29 publications in 2 languages and 75 library holdings
Roles: Other, isb
Publication Timeline
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Most widely held works by Université Paris-Est Créteil Val de Marne
Document de travail by Equipe de Recherche sur l'Utilisation des Données Individuelles en lien avec la Théorie Économique( )

in Undetermined and held by 17 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Series of ERUDITE working papers( )

in English and held by 17 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Économie informelle et les politiques d'emploi en Algérie : quel impact ? by Ali Souag( )

1 edition published in 2018 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Cette thèse porte principalement sur l'impact des politiques d'emploi sur l'économie informelle en Algérie. Dans le premier chapitre, nous tentons de faire le point sur les problèmes de définitions et de mesures quantitatives de l'économie informelle en essayant d'établir un cadre d'analyse standardisé permettant de réduire les conflits méthodologiques. Dans le deuxième et le troisième chapitre, nous estimons le poids réel du secteur informel et de l'emploi informel sur le marché du travail. Nous décrivons aussi les personnes qui travaillent de manière informelle. Dans le quatrième chapitre nous étudions leurs motivations et les raisons d'être de ce type d'emploi. C'est-à-dire nous chercherons à savoir s'ils relèvent d'un processus d'exclusion sociale ou bien d'un choix délibéré. Nous nous interrogeons aussi sur l'hétérogénéité de ces emplois. Dans les deux derniers chapitres nous cherchons à savoir dans quelle mesure les politiques d'emploi en Algérie ont contribué à la réduction de l'économie informelle et le chômage en Algérie respectivement. À la lumière des résultats obtenus précédemment mais aussi sur la base d'autres expériences, nous testons des mesures de politique économique. Pour réaliser cette analyse, nous exploitons les micro-données des enquêtes emplois auprès des ménages menées par l'Office National des Statistiques (ONS) entre 1997 et 2013
Disentangling occupational and health paths : employment, working conditions and health interactions by Éric Defebvre( )

1 edition published in 2017 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The objective of this Ph.D. Dissertation is to disentangle some of the many interrelationships between work, employment and health, mostly in a longitudinal approach. Establishing causal relationships between these three concepts is not easy, as many statistical biases generally undermine estimates, including selection biases and the three classical sources of endogeneity. This thesis proposes in a first chapter to study the effect of a mental health shock on workers' ability to remain in employment. The second chapter explores the possible sources of heterogeneity in the role of working conditions on health status by examining the effects of variable early-career exposures in terms of intensity and nature on the onset of chronic diseases. Finally, the third chapter deals with the end of the career and the decision to retire. The French panel data from the Health and Professional Path (Sip, Santé et Itinéraire Professionnel) survey with more than 13,000 respondents is used in this work, as well as several methodologies in order to take into account endogeneity biases, in particular methods relying on instrumental variables and methods for public policy evaluation (matching and difference-in-differences). The results confirm that employment, health and work are intimately related, with clear consequences of health shocks on employment and, conversely, a preponderant role of work on the determination of health status
L'applicabilité du système de comptabilité nationale 1993 en Syrie by Salman Maarof( )

1 edition published in 2011 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Although the SNA 1993 has been established for over fifteen years, some countries have still not yet implemented, while others pretend implementing it, without it being correctly applied.The difficulties in the implementation of the SNA 1993 are explained by a few main reasons among which we can identify the availability of data sources and databases.Syria has still not adopted the SNA 1993, and the Syrian national accounts are still set according to the 1968 SNA.In our research, we analyzed the quality of national accounts data to make a good applicability of the 1993 SNA of national accounts department of Syria.To achieve this goal, and taking advantage of the experiences that other countries offer us, it was necessary to analyze the quality of national accounts data produced in the department of the national accounts.The work should enable us to know our ability to respond to the recommendations of the system 93.The SNA 2008 has recently been published, however, we believe that when we are able to generate sound data, we will also be able to practice any developed system.It is essential to keep in mind that the goal is not to announce has only the implementation of the system. But it is urgent to produce and be able to do real data and to apply reasonably well the SNA.This research is not an end but will instead be the starting point of the national accounts, in order to produce sound data that reflect the reality of the economic in the future, for the establishment of economic strategies and economic development of Syria
Le financement des PME en France : une analyse de l'endettement by Mohamed Adaskou( )

1 edition published in 2009 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

L'objet de la thèse est d'analyser la pertinence de la théorie financière, référencée aux modèles théoriques qui servent à la compréhension du comportement financier des entreprises de grande taille, dans l'explication de la spécificité de la structure financière des PME françaises. Plus spécifiquement, il s'agit d'identifier et d'analyser empiriquement les déterminants de la structure du capital (taux d'endettement total) et de la structure de la dette (taux d'endettement à court, moyen et long terme) de ces entreprises qui a fait l'objet d'une large réflexion théorique dont le point de départ est le théorème de Modigliani & Miller(1958). Le chapitre 1 est consacré à la présentation et à la définition de notre cadre d'analyse. Le chapitre 2 expose les besoins et les sources de financement de ces entreprises. Le chapitre 3 examine les décisions d'investissement et de financement en se référant aux enseignements de la théorie du compromis, de la théorie de l'agence, de la théorie du signal, de la théorie du financement hiérarchique et de la théorie du rationnement du crédit ; la prise en compte des conflits d'intérêt et des asymétries d'information donne un pouvoir explicatif de la spécificité de la structure financière des PME. Les deux derniers chapitres (4 et 5) étudient le comportement de financement de 1520 PME françaises sélectionnées dans la base de données DIANE sur la période 2000-2004. Les résultats des régressions statistiquement significatives montrent que le crédit interentreprises joue un rôle de signal pour les créanciers qui ne disposent pas d'une information privée sur l'entreprise ; l'accès à la dette est très dépendant de la capacité de l'entreprise à offrir des garanties ; enfin, les résultats montrent l'existence de contraintes d'accès aux ressources financières pour les entreprises de petite taille ; l'âge de l'entreprise et son secteur d'activité influencent son choix de financement
Économie informelle en Haïti, marché du travail et pauvreté : analyses quantitatives by Roseman Aspilaire( )

1 edition published in 2017 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The predominance of the informal sector in the economy of Haiti, where more than 80% of the population lives below the threshold of poverty and more than 35% unemployed, suggests links between the informal economy, poverty and the labour market. Highlight these interrelationships, requires an assessment of the informal economy, which is the subject of the four chapters of this thesis, dealing successively with the evolution of the macroeconomic situation, human capital, the informal earnings of workers, and the segmentation of the labour market.The first chapter made a diagnosis of the phenomenon according to the State of affairs of the developed theories and the evolution of the macroeconomic framework of Haiti from 1980 to 2010. And then offers a macroeconomic assessment of the informal sector as a percentage of GDP from a PLS (Partial Least Squares).Chapter two sets out the relationship between the evolution of the informal economy, deregulation and neo-liberal policies through a LISREL (Linear Structural Relations) model. We look at the impact of the budgetary, fiscal and monetary policies of the past 30 years on the informal economy. We also reassess the causes of the evolution of the informal economy generally evoked by the empirical studies (taxes, social security).In the chapter three, we analyse the micro-real dimension of the informal economy through a model of the Mincer earnings estimated by the equations logit from data in a national survey on employment and the informal economy (EEEI) in 2007. We analyse the determinants of informal gains in terms of the position of the market workers (employees, entrepreneurs and self-employed); and revenues (formal and informal) and the socio-economic characteristics of the working poor and non-poor compared to the poverty line.In chapter four, we first test the competitiveness and the segmentation of the labour market by making use of model of Roy and the expanded Roy model through an estimate a model Tobit. We use a model of Dirichlet process: first analyse the segmentation and possible informal work and market competitiveness as its determinants, according to data from the EEEI 2007; then, to distinguish the fundamental characteristics of the involuntary informal (excluded from the formal labour market) than the voluntary informal who gain comparative advantages
Essays in oil and the economic development of resource rich countries by Majda Seghir( )

1 edition published in 2014 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Is natural wealth a guarantee of prosperity or is it a curse? How has petroleum shaped growth economic process in oil producing countries? To the extent that these questions have to be raise, the purpose of this thesis is to move towards a better understanding of the mechanisms that make oil becoming a curse as often as a blessing, in oil exporting countries. The empirical studies conducted in this thesis help answer three main questions: (i) What is the contribution of oil as energy (or an energy source) in the process of economic growth? (ii) What are the direct and indirect effects of dependence to oil revenues on economic growth? (iii) Is the oil curse a question of macroeconomic stability?Our contributions thus highlight the following results. (i) Abundant oil wealth and overconsumption observed in the vast majority of oil exporting countries contribute positively to the economic growth process. This result is, however, valid only in the short term. Indeed, in the long term, oil consumption appears to be a consequence of economic growth. (ii) Oil as a source of revenue impacts economic growth directly and indirectly through its effect on the amount and quality of public spending as well as on trade openness. Given these mechanisms, our results show that beyond a certain threshold of dependence on oil revenues, economic growth is constrained by the direct and indirect effects of oil revenues. However, these effects can be contained, first, by reducing dependence on oil revenues; then, by improving government effectiveness; and finally by increasing political stability. (iii) Oil revenues, due to their extreme instability may harm economic growth by inducing macroeconomic distortions. This instability results more precisely by an appreciation of the real exchange rate, a rise in public spending and inflation. The most dependent are countries, the most they are exposed to macroeconomic instability. Similarly, countries with an efficient and credible government are the one which suffer economic growth suffers the less from macroeconomic instability.Oil is, thus, a vantage for oil exporting countries but the adverse effects of such a natural resource on the economy must be mastered. One solution would, then, be to reduce the level of dependence of the economy on oil revenues to reduce the exposure to volatile oil prices and to reduce the risk of contagion to the economy. Another solution would be to improve the ability of governments to implement efficient economic policies
L'impact de la spécialisation sur la stabilité économique : le cas des pays émergents. by Ons Abbes( )

1 edition published in 2017 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

La croissance rapide du commerce mondial au cours des deux dernières décennies a été caractérisée par une évolution économique accrue couplée à de l'instabilité économique des pays émergents. D'après la littérature, la spécialisation technologique est souvent associée à la croissance, la compétitivité et la stabilité économique. Partant de ce double constat, nous analysons dans cette thèse l'impact de la spécialisation des pays émergents sur leur croissance et leur stabilité économique et nous évaluons l'impact de la compétitivité (elle-même liée à la spécialisation) de ces pays sur leurs performances à l'exportation.Dans un premier chapitre, nous délimitons le contour définitionnel des notions de spécialisation selon les différentes théories.Après avoir déterminé le plus objectivement possible une liste de pays émergents en se référant aux critères les plus utilisés dans la littérature et après avoir mesuré le degré de spécialisation de ces pays, nous étudions la carte de leur spécialisation technologique sur la période 1995-2014. D'après cette cartographie, nous remarquons une mauvaise orientation de la spécialisation dans ces pays. Ces derniers se caractérisent essentiellement par une forte spécialisation dans les articles manufacturés à forte intensité de main-d'œuvre et provenant de ressources naturelles et dans les articles à faible technologie qui sont des spécialisations à faible valeur ajoutée. La spécialisation dans la haute technologie est en grande partie tirée par les importations, les produits exportés étant principalement issus d'activités de montage.Dans le duexième chapitre, nous évaluons dans un premier temps l'impact des spécialisations technologiques des pays émergents sur la croissance économique et nous comparons les résultats trouvés à ceux des pays développés et en développement. Nous constatons que les différents types de spécialisation ont un impact positif sur la croissance des pays émergents. Mais cet impact positif, ne peut pas occulter la mauvaise orientation de cette spécialisation (résultat du chapitre 1).Dans un deuxième temps, nous étudions l'impact de la compétitivité (prix et hors-prix) des pays émergents sur l'évolution de leurs exportations. Nous remarquons que l'impact de la compétitivité-prix sur l'évolution des exportations des pays de notre échantillon varie selon l'indicateur utilisé. Il est négatif quand nous utilisons le taux de change et positif quand nous utilisons la productivité.Nous trouvons aussi que l'impact de la compétitivité structurelle, expliquée par les dépenses dans la haute technologie et par la spécialisation dans la haute technologie, est positif. Cela peut être expliqué par la demande mondiale croissante dans les produits de haute technologie.Dans le troisième et dernier chapitre, nous nous intéressons à la relation entre spécialisation et stabilité économique et nous comparerons cette relation avec celle observée dans les pays développés. Nous constatons que les pays dont la spécialisation est basée sur les ressources naturelles sont plus instables et que l'impact de la spécialisation dans la haute technologie dépend du niveau de développement du pays. L'impact est négatif pour les pays développés et positif pour les pays émergents. Cette différence dans l'impact peut être due à la politique d'assemblage utilisée par la plupart des pays émergents, politique qui consiste à importer la majeure partie des produits de haute technologie (HT) sous forme de pièces et composants
Financial frictions and monetary policy conduct by Matthieu Darracq Paries( )

1 edition published in 2018 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

La crise économique survenue à l'échelle mondiale en 2008 et dont les effets se font encore ressentir près d'une décennie plus tard, a mis en lumière le rôle déterminant des facteurs financiers dans les cycles économiques ainsi que dans la conduite de politiques de stabilisation conjoncturelle, au premier rang desquelles se trouve la politique monétaire. De ce point, les crises constituent une expérience privilégiée pour revoir les propriétés empiriques des modèles macroéconomiques et les aspects plus normatifs des politiques économiques. Par ailleurs, les développements observés au sein de la zone euro illustrent d'autant mieux les défis auxquels sont confrontés une union monétaire lorsque les risques financiers se mêlent aux risques de soutenabilités des dettes souveraines.La Thèse s'attachera à évaluer la conduite des politiques économiques en présence de frictions financières sous une perspective à la fois empirique, utilisant des modèles de séries temporelles multivariés, et structurelle, sur la base de modèles aux fondements théoriques plus explicites. La thèse présentera ainsi des contributions originales dans divers domaines de la macroéconomie financière.Premièrement, une série de travaux empiriques entendent démontrer la prééminence de chocs financiers dans les performances économiques européennes durant la crise. En particulier, deux articles utilisent les modèles BVAR pour identifier des chocs d'offre de crédit et quantifier leur contribution aux différentes récessions survenues dans la zone euro au cours des dix dernières années.En outre, si les chocs financiers peuvent expliquer certains faits stylisés de la crise, leur nature, leurs mécanismes de transmission et leur dimension asymétrique au sein des pays de la zone euro peuvent faire l'objet d'une analyse plus structurelle. Plusieurs travaux exposent des modèles DSGE incorporant un ensemble assez détaillé de frictions financières portant à la fois sur l'offre et la demande de crédit. Ces modèles apportent de nouvelles perspectives sur la propagation macroéconomique des chocs financiers en isolant en particulier le rôle des bilans bancaires et des schémas d'amplification entre la sphère réelle et la sphère financière.Un troisième axe de recherche se focalise sur l'évaluation des politiques monétaires. Dans le cadre de modèles DSGE présentant des propriétés empiriques satisfaisantes (et pour la plupart estimés sur des données macroéconomiques européennes), plusieurs articles analysent les caractéristiques de plusieurs concepts de politiques monétaires optimales. Ces travaux explorent la stabilisation optimale de chocs réels, nominaux ou financiers, dans des conditions d'économie ouverte ou fermée.Par la suite, la thèse s'attachera à examiner la conduite de la politique monétaire en situation de crise dans laquelle des chocs financiers ont poussé les taux d'intérêts sans risques à leur limite basse. Dans ces conditions, plusieurs articles étudient le rôle des politiques non-conventionnelles comme les achats de titres par la banque centrale ou encore, l'octroi de liquidité à long terme. Une attention toute particulière est portée sur canal du crédit de ces différentes mesures. Par ailleurs, la conduite optimale d'achat d'actifs est analysée.Enfin, les aspects normatifs de la conduite de la politique monétaire en présence de frictions financières amènent naturellement à considérer les interactions stratégiques avec d'autres politiques économiques et financières, et notamment les politiques macroprudentielles. Sur la base de modèles DSGE incluant une description pertinente du secteur bancaire, la transmission de politiques macroprudentielles peut être quantifiée ainsi que ses implications sur la politique monétaire. Les bénéfices d'une articulation efficace des politiques monétaires et macroprudentielles se trouvent d'ailleurs renforcer au sein une union monétaire, et peuvent être illustrés dans le cadre d'un modèle DSGE à deux pays
Les déterminants du choix des instruments de paiement by Bruno Haim Karoubi( )

1 edition published in 2013 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

La présente thèse se propose d'étudier la formation de la demande pour les instruments de paiements. Dans un premier essai, nous montrons à l'aide d'un modèle théorique et d'une étude empirique sur données françaises que la tarification des retraits déplacés réduit la demande pour les espèces. Dans un deuxième essai, nous montrons, également à l'aide d'un modèle théorique et d'une étude sur données françaises, que les marchands ajustent leur prix pour rendre les paiements en espèce plus pratiques, au sens où ils mobilisent moins de pièces et billets. Les prix convénients à payer en espèces sont plus fréquent toutes choses égales par ailleurs, et ils sont plus fréquemment payés en espèces. Les troisième et quatrième essais étudient l'impact du crime comme facteur environnemental pour les marchands, plus spécifiquement sur le niveau d'appréciation des espèces et sur l'acceptation de la carte bancaire. Nous montrons que les marchands ont une préférence plus élevée pour les espèces et acceptent moins fréquemment les cartes bancaire de paiement dans un département où la criminalité financière est importante. Les consommateurs possèdent plus souvent une carte bancaire et retirent hebdomadairement des sommes plus élevées aux distributeurs automatiques de billets. Nous mettons en évidence les effets opposés pour un niveau élevé de criminalité violente, aussi bien pour les consommateurs que pour les marchands.% Les effets de la criminalité financière sont interprétés comme résultant de sélection adverse tandis que les effets de la criminalité violente sont interprétés comme des effets de précaution.Enfin, le sixième essai étudie l'influence du risque perçu sur la fréquence de détention et la fréquence d'utilisation des instruments de paiement. Nous appliquons le modèle de Jacoby et Kaplan (1972) au choix de l'instrument de paiement, et nous concluons à partir d'une étude empirique sur données françaises que le risque de manque et le risque de temps ont les effets les plus transversaux sur la demande pour les instruments de paiement
Déterminants du commerce international de déchets dangereux et recyclables : analyse économétrique by Esther Amouzou( )

1 edition published in 2017 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This thesis consists of two empirical studies on the analysis of international waste trade determinants, more precisely the hazardous waste on the one hand and the metallic waste on the other hand. Different econometric methods were used on statistical data from Eurostat (for hazardous waste) and UN Comtrade (for recyclable waste). If the literature on the determinants of international trade in waste is scarce and limited, it is because of the absence of a universal definition of waste (due to the plurality of definitions) leading to classification problems, non-matching of waste flows and the absence of a specific database. It is up to the researcher to build his own database from his own definition. We propose, in this thesis, to provide insights on some points which have been too few studied. The first chapter studies the dialectical relationship between waste definition and its related regulations; and focuses on the theoretical aspects of international trade in waste based on those of the international trade in goods. The analysis reveals that waste is a particular good, which makes its trade also particular. Thus, its definitions are superimposed, opposed and / or complement each other. Moreover, the European Union is the pioneer zone in terms of waste policy and waste is highly regulated, especially before its generation (prevention) and from its generation to its final treatment.The second chapter examines the determinants of trade in hazardous waste and asks whether the EU waste policy has succeeded or failed. We find that proximity and differences in waste treatment capacity across countries and in regulations are important determinants of this trade. In particular, countries with high hazardous waste treatment capacities demonstrate increased hazardous waste imports. We also find that these countries have high environmental performance indices. These results imply that EU waste management policy plays an important role in shaping European trade in hazardous waste. Finally, it seems that there is no waste haven effect for the EU hazardous waste trade.The third chapter tests the determinants of international trade in metallic waste, more precisely the assumptions that industrial specialization captured by revealed comparative advantages, virgin material and secondary material prices are important determinants of international trade in metallic waste. We find that industrial specialization is a motivating factor for exports and discouraging for imports. The decision to export or import depends especially on metal and metal scrap price sensitivity. When metal costs more than metallic waste, importing countries specialized in metallurgy prefer to import metallic waste in order to substitute it to the virgin material and / or to preserve the latter. Exporting countries prefer to export metallic waste when its price is in the ascending phase and the price of virgin material is in its downward phase. This, in order to preserve the virgin material and to use the secondary material at its place. In any case, an arbitration is made between the price of the virgin material and the price of the secondary material. Furthermore, the regulation gap plays an important role in arbitration. Metallic wastes are not exported to countries with low environmental performance. Inversely, imports are made from the latter
L'accompagnement public et privé des demandeurs d'emploi : théories, institutions et évaluations by Florine Martin( )

1 edition published in 2014 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This thesis proposes to evaluate methods and organization of placement of job-seekers in a private agency, Sodie. The goal is to show the most important performance levers. In the first chapter, we discuss the theoretical and empirical effects of placement on the one hand, and, on the other hand, of the use of private agencies. The second chapter focuses on the institutional framework of placement in France. We show how the French public employment service (Pôle Emploi) meets the performance criteria identified in the previous chapter. In the third chapter, we study how the diversification of missions including outsourcing for Pôle Emploi has changed the work of placement agents and the placement methods of Sodie. Chapter 4 focuses on a randomized experiment of two provisions : the “engagements mensuels de reclassement” and the implementation of the “plateforme Relation Entreprise” for exploring the “hidden” labor market. Chapter 5 focuses on the impact of a shock of information. We show how profiling informations is used by counselors through the impact on their choice of candidates and on their performance in rehabilitation
International spillovers and productivity : the French case by Haithem Ben Hassine( )

1 edition published in 2014 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In December 2004, the French public authorities launched the first call for projects kicking off the policy clusters, including Phase 3 launched by the government on 9 January 2013, with particular emphasis on issues of economic spinoffs clusters that should be amplified. The objective of this thesis is to verify the existence of such spinoffs (spillovers) from foreign direct investment (FDI) in the French case. Specifically, we analyze the impact of spillovers on the productivity of firms located in France and we want to know if the decisions to invest in R&D are closely related to the level of spillovers flowing between local firms and foreign firms operating in France. In the first chapter, we aim at verifying the existence of knowledge spilovers through two transmission channels: horizontal and vertical ones. We highlight that the know-how spreads on the one hand, between foreign customers and local supplier in the upstream sector (backward linkages) and on the other hand, between local suppliers and foreign customers in the downstream sector (forward linkages). We suggest that, in the French case, the knowledge spillovers occur primarily through backward spillovers, while spillovers within the same sector (horizontal spillovers) and spillovers diffused from the foreign suppliers to the local customers rather act as a brake on the productivity of firms located in France. In the second chapter, we focus on the incentive of firms to further invest in R&D with respect to the intensity of spillovers resulting from these activities. For this purpose, we build a theoretical model to explain the strategies of firms in terms of R&D based on the technological know-how disseminated by a foreign subsidiary in the host country (international R&D spillovers), know-how issued by a local firm (reverse R&D spillovers) and the know-how that being exchanged between the subsidiary firm and its parent company located in its home country (internal technological transfer). We show that taking into account these different channels of exogenous spillovers refers to the prisoner's dilemma where the diffusion of a high and comparable level of know-how encourages firms to invest in R&D and a low level of spillovers compared to a threshold value (determined based on the intensity of competition) forces them to reduce their R&D investment. In a context of asymmetric spillovers, the firm which more absorbs the technology of its competitor increases its investment in R&D. In the last chapter, we focus on international spillovers and reverse spillovers not only from R&D activities but also from outsourcing activities. We suggest that the effects of international spillovers on the productivity of firms in France are more important than those of reverse spillovers. As far as R&D spillovers are concerned, their effect on a firms' productivity is positive and significant in the upstream and downstream sector, but is more important for backward linkages. Concerning spillovers from outsourcing activities, the effect is only in favor of spillovers diffused by the contractor. These effects depend on the technological level of the sector concerned. The effect of spillovers on the productivity seems to be more important for firms belonging to high-tech sectors than for firms belonging to medium- and low-tech sectors
L'accompagnement associatif vers l'emploi : le cas des Personnes vivant avec le VIH by Melaine Cervera( )

1 edition published in 2013 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This thesis proposes a socio-economic analysis of the support provided in the associative sector to People living with HIV when looking for a job in France. On the one hand, it studies how the associative support is built and on the other hand how access-to-job paths integrates in the associative landscape. By opening the black box of the social accompanying, it completes the statistical and biographical approaches of support relationship that are built by the associative instituion through two monographs. Based on the coupling institutionalized theory, the stakeholders's text analysis - using the software Alceste - identifies the institutional part with regards to social construction in the access-to-job paths and shows a tension between deliberation and access-to-job within the associative support construction. The contextualized biographical analysis identifies the institutional factors of failure and access-to-job success. The speakability release and the skills that are acquired with the experience make easier and reinforce the access-to-job when social problems and attitude towards AIDS undermines it. Those analyses show that the associative support towards employment added-value includes the support relationship under collective dynamics by making it less individual, building deliberation arenas and by valuing the experiental knowledge.The thesis finally shows that associative instituions are difficult to modify and that the practises withstand to institutional changes dynamics while get nourished by it
Towards a better integration of the informal sector : three empirical essays on the interaction between formal and informal firms in Egypt and beyond by Nesma Mohamed Ali( )

1 edition published in 2017 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Despite the impressive economic growth of African economies since 2000s, the actual context is threatening the sustainable development of the private sector. Large institutional imperfections and poor business environment are hindering the development of firms and are paving the way for a more persistent informal sector. This thesis reopens the controversial debate about the informal sector by looking at its entrepreneurial capacity rather than its threats. In order to understand the strong persistence of this sector despite its confirmed negative impacts, we investigate the extent to which the relationship between formal and informal firms, through market competition, could affect the Egyptian economy. We find that more intense competition stemming from informal firms can drive formal firms to become more productive. We also extend our analysis to Sub-Saharan African countries by underlining the effect of taxation and regulation on the strength of competition between formal and informal firms. Our findings call on the importance of introducing the informal sector in undertaken policies that target the reform of taxation and regulations in Africa. These policies should also target the firms' access to source of finance, infrastructure and training as effective tools inducing the formalization process and fostering economic growth. Therefore, this thesis provides evidence on the importance of revisiting the impacts of the informal sector in developing countries by looking at it as a driver of economic growth rather than a threat
Variabilités des pratiques et inégalités d'accès aux soins en France : le cas de la cancérologie by Dorian Verboux( )

1 edition published in 2016 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

This thesis addresses several issues: on the one hand we focus on medical practice variations; one the other hand we examine determinants of social and spatial inequalities in access to care for individuals with cancer.In recent years, high practice variations are noted by health public authorities. The first chapter wonders about the determinants of variations in the use of prostatectomy as prostate cancer management. Results indicate a strong positive influence of supply-side factors in both régions and départements.Reducing social inequalities in access to care is also achieved thanks particular scheme as the LTI system. The second chapter focuses on the determinants of health care utilization, i.e. GP and specialist physicians. For those, we differentiate between visits related (or not) to LTI conditions. Concerning GP visits, individuals with lower socio-economic status tend to have greater GP visits. Regarding specialist visits, results point out a clear influence of financial factors, especially for non LTI-related visits.Finally, since 2004 organized breast cancer screening program invites all women 50-74 to be screened. The aim of this chapter is to examine the potential influence of supplied-side factors (GP and specialist physician density) on the use of organized cancer screening in France between 2005 and 2012. Results show that a higher GP density is associated with higher screening rates. On the contrary, a higher specialist density tends to diminish the participation rate to organized screening. Results also underline the presence of a spatial effect which means that neighboring behavior in terms of cancer screening has an impact on the cancer screening rate in the observed area
La modélisation de l'indice CAC 40 avec le modèle basé agents by Nan Lu( )

1 edition published in 2018 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

We develop an agent-based model to replicate two frequently observed anomalies in the financial markets: the fat tails and the clustered volatility of the distribution of the returns. Our goal is to show conclusively that these anomalies could be attributed to a mimetic formation of the expectations of the stakeholders in the markets. We did not follow the rencent developpments in the field of the ACE model in the finance, but we propose a very simple model which is estimated from the stylized facts of the French daily index CAC 40. The hypothesis of mimetic anticipations can thus be tested: it is not rejected in our modeling
Currency Board et mouvements de capitaux dans une petite économie ouverte : modélisation en Equilibre Général Calculable appliquée à Djibouti by Moustapha Aman( )

1 edition published in 2016 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The Currency Board is an exchange system in which the search for stability and monetary credibility is not based on a discretionary regulation of the Central Bank but on an adjustment mechanism assumed to be automatic: the dynamics of money supply follow the dynamics of foreign exchange reserves. This thesis focuses on the Djibouti experiment to study the functioning of a Currency Board. The Republic of Djibouti has the only existing Currency Board on the African continent since 1949. His longevity in a context of free movement of capital offers a unique and extremely valuable lesson. The resilience of institutional and geopolitical factors fully owned by foreign banking, and informal monetary practices (hawala transfers) explain this longevity. For instance, without the hawala transfers, there is no unambiguous relationship between the long-term dynamics of the balance of payments and the monetary base. The interaction of formal and informal sector provides a macro-monetary balance and stability.A static study of the fit of a general equilibrium (CGE) including the informal sector shows that the additional entries in currencies can be the source of an unlimited accumulation of foreign reserves and lead to a change in the balance between tradable and non-tradable sector
Financial inclusion, entrepreneurship and gender : an empirical assessment using microeconomic data by Fozan Fareed( )

1 edition published in 2020 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Financial inclusion as part of the development process has gained considerable attention from policymakers worldwide. The numbers remain quite stark as 1.7 billion people worldwide remain without access to basic financial services. This PhD thesis aims to empirically disentangle some of the many interrelationships between financial inclusion, entrepreneurship and gender. It consists of four chapters and relies on the use of longitudinal data at the individual level. The first chapter studies the effect of geographical access to microfinance on entrepreneurship and examines if having this access enables individuals to move up the economic ladder in Pakistan. The second chapter examines if financial inclusion promotes women autonomy by generating women entrepreneurship. This chapter also constructs a comprehensive financial inclusion index to measure the state of financial inclusion in Mexico after taking into account access as well as the usage of different financial products. The third chapter explores the main drivers of financial exclusion in Pakistan after taking into consideration the need for credit and voluntary financial exclusion. Finally, the fourth chapter proposes a novel methodological approach of measuring household financial vulnerability by relying on unsupervised machine learning algorithms in the case of U.S. All these chapters use nationally representative survey data and rely on several methodologies to tackle endogeneity issues and concerns pertaining to selection bias. The results indicate that financial inclusion, entrepreneurship and gender are intimately related with each other. Microfinance seems to play an effective role in promoting entrepreneurship and enabling individuals to move up the economic ladder, whereas financial inclusion also seems to encourage women autonomy by fostering women entrepreneurship. The empirical results also uncover the main drivers of involuntary financial exclusion: financial illiteracy, poverty, and gender. Moreover, this thesis considers new methodological approaches to analyze household financial vulnerability and involuntary financial exclusion as an alternative to the standard line of research on these topics
 
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Alternative Names
Equipe d'accueil (437)

Equipe de Recherche sur l’Utilisation des Données Individuelles en lien avec la Théorie Economique (Créteil / Marne-la-Vallée)

ERUDITE

ERUDITE, Laboratoire d'Économie

Université Paris-Est Créteil Val de Marne Equipe de Recherche sur l'Utilisation des Données Individuelles en Lien avec la Théorie Économique

Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée Equipe de Recherche sur l'Utilisation des Données Individuelles en Lien avec la Théorie Économique

Languages
French (12)

English (7)