Institut Néel (Grenoble)
Overview
Works:  268 works in 272 publications in 2 languages and 486 library holdings 

Roles:  Other 
Publication Timeline
.
Most widely held works by
Institut Néel (Grenoble)
Contrôle de l'émission spontanée de boîtes quantiques semiconductrices insérées dans des microstructures à confinement
optique originales by
Maela Bazin(
Book
)
3 editions published between 2010 and 2011 in French and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This study deals with the control of spontaneous emission, InAs quantum dot emitters, confined via original microstructures: GaAs photonic wires and micropillars with GaAs/AlAs Bragg mirrors. We present a higly efficient singlephoton source based on a photonic wire. Correlation mesurements performed on a single quantum dot inserted in a photonic wire led to a pure and high broadband singlephoton generation. The optimization of this geometry including an original mirror at the wire bottom and a taper at its top demonstrated a record efficiency of 70%. In addition, the systematic lifetime study of single quantum dots underlined the ability to observe a high inhibition of spontaneous emission in the leaky modes with this geometry. In the last part of this PhD Thesis, we show the laser effect in whispering gallery mode micropillars. Those modes have an almost stable behaviour in terms of wavelengh and a spectral narrowing maintained up to power corresponding to 7 times the laser threshold. This result confirms a better thermal stability of micropillars compared to microdisks, a geometry usually used to observe the whispering gallery modes
3 editions published between 2010 and 2011 in French and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This study deals with the control of spontaneous emission, InAs quantum dot emitters, confined via original microstructures: GaAs photonic wires and micropillars with GaAs/AlAs Bragg mirrors. We present a higly efficient singlephoton source based on a photonic wire. Correlation mesurements performed on a single quantum dot inserted in a photonic wire led to a pure and high broadband singlephoton generation. The optimization of this geometry including an original mirror at the wire bottom and a taper at its top demonstrated a record efficiency of 70%. In addition, the systematic lifetime study of single quantum dots underlined the ability to observe a high inhibition of spontaneous emission in the leaky modes with this geometry. In the last part of this PhD Thesis, we show the laser effect in whispering gallery mode micropillars. Those modes have an almost stable behaviour in terms of wavelengh and a spectral narrowing maintained up to power corresponding to 7 times the laser threshold. This result confirms a better thermal stability of micropillars compared to microdisks, a geometry usually used to observe the whispering gallery modes
Nonlinéarités quantiques d'un qubit en couplage ultrafort avec un guide d'ondes by
Nicolas Gheeraert(
)
1 edition published in 2018 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
In the recent years, the field of lightmatter interaction has made a further stride forward with the advent of superconducting qubits ultrastrongly coupled to open waveguides. In this setting, the qubit becomes simultaneously coupled to many different modes of the waveguide, thus turning into a highly intricate lightmatter object. Investigating the wealth of new dynamical phenomena that emerge from the high complexity of these engineered quantum manybody systems is the main objective of this thesis.As a first crucial step, we tackle the timeevolution of such a nontrivial system using a novel numerical technique based on an expansion of the full state vector in terms of multimode coherent states. Inspired by earlier semiclassical approaches, this numerically exact method provides an important advance compared to the stateoftheart techniques that have been used so far to study the manymode ultrastrong coupling regime. Crucially, it also keeps track of every detail of the dynamics of the complete qubitwaveguide system, allowing both to perform the tomography and to extract multiparticle scattering of the waveguide degrees of freedom.An exploration of the manymode ultrastrong coupling regime using this new technique led to the two core theoretical predictions of this thesis. The first demonstrates that the radiation spontaneously emitted by an excited qubit takes the form of a Schrödinger cat state of light, a result strikingly different from the usual singlephoton emission known from standard quantum optics. The second prediction concerns the scattering of lowpower coherent signals on a qubit, a very common experimental protocol performed routinely in laboratories. Most remarkably, it is shown that the qubit nonlinearity, transferred to the waveguide through the ultrastrong lightmatter interaction, is able to split photons from the incoming beam into several lowerenergy photons, leading to the emergence of a lowfrequency continuum in the scattered power spectrum that dominates the inelastic signal. By studying the secondorder correlation function of the radiated field, it is also shown that emission at ultrastrong coupling displays characteristic signatures of particle production.In the final part of the thesis, the secondorder correlation function is investigated again, but this time experimentally, and in the regime of moderate coupling. Although the results are still preliminary, this part of the thesis will provide an instructive account of signal measurement theory and will allow to understanding indepth the experimental procedure involved in measuring quantum microwave signals. Moreover, the experimental developments and microwave simulations tools described in this section could be applied in the future to signals emitted by ultrastrongly coupled qubits, in order to observe the signatures of particle production revealed by the secondorder correlation function
1 edition published in 2018 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
In the recent years, the field of lightmatter interaction has made a further stride forward with the advent of superconducting qubits ultrastrongly coupled to open waveguides. In this setting, the qubit becomes simultaneously coupled to many different modes of the waveguide, thus turning into a highly intricate lightmatter object. Investigating the wealth of new dynamical phenomena that emerge from the high complexity of these engineered quantum manybody systems is the main objective of this thesis.As a first crucial step, we tackle the timeevolution of such a nontrivial system using a novel numerical technique based on an expansion of the full state vector in terms of multimode coherent states. Inspired by earlier semiclassical approaches, this numerically exact method provides an important advance compared to the stateoftheart techniques that have been used so far to study the manymode ultrastrong coupling regime. Crucially, it also keeps track of every detail of the dynamics of the complete qubitwaveguide system, allowing both to perform the tomography and to extract multiparticle scattering of the waveguide degrees of freedom.An exploration of the manymode ultrastrong coupling regime using this new technique led to the two core theoretical predictions of this thesis. The first demonstrates that the radiation spontaneously emitted by an excited qubit takes the form of a Schrödinger cat state of light, a result strikingly different from the usual singlephoton emission known from standard quantum optics. The second prediction concerns the scattering of lowpower coherent signals on a qubit, a very common experimental protocol performed routinely in laboratories. Most remarkably, it is shown that the qubit nonlinearity, transferred to the waveguide through the ultrastrong lightmatter interaction, is able to split photons from the incoming beam into several lowerenergy photons, leading to the emergence of a lowfrequency continuum in the scattered power spectrum that dominates the inelastic signal. By studying the secondorder correlation function of the radiated field, it is also shown that emission at ultrastrong coupling displays characteristic signatures of particle production.In the final part of the thesis, the secondorder correlation function is investigated again, but this time experimentally, and in the regime of moderate coupling. Although the results are still preliminary, this part of the thesis will provide an instructive account of signal measurement theory and will allow to understanding indepth the experimental procedure involved in measuring quantum microwave signals. Moreover, the experimental developments and microwave simulations tools described in this section could be applied in the future to signals emitted by ultrastrongly coupled qubits, in order to observe the signatures of particle production revealed by the secondorder correlation function
Contribution à l'étude des aimants supraconducteurs utilisant des matériaux supraconducteurs à haute température de transition by
Thibault Lecrevisse(
)
1 edition published in 2012 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The new industrial superconductors using high critical temperature compounds offer new possibilities for superconducting magnetism. Indeed they allow higher magnetic field with the same classical cryogenics at 4.2 K on one hand, and on the other hand they also pave the way for superconducting magnets working between 10 K and 30 K. The high temperature superconductors are then needed in order to produce magnetic fields higher than 16 T (case of HTS dipole insert for Large Hadron Collider at CERN) or to increase the specific density stored in one SMES (Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage, in the case of the SuperSMES ANR Project).Nevertheless the indisputable assets (critical temperature, critical magnetic field, mechanical stresses) brought by the use of High critical temperature superconductors like YBCO, used in superconducting magnets, require to solve some challenges. Their behavior is still badly understood, especially during the resistive transitions. To succeed in protecting these conductors we need a new reflection on protection schemes designed to avoid the thermal and mechanical damages. The answer to the question: “Can we use those materials in the long run inside superconducting magnets?” is now inescapable.Some answers are given here. The use of the conductors is approached through various experimental studies to understand the material (electrical characterization and modeling of the critical surface) and to define the key stages of high critical temperature superconducting magnets manufacturing (work on the junctions between conductors and pancakes). This study led to the creation of two coils in order to identify the issues related to the use of YBCO tapes. A numerical thermoelectrical model of the high critical temperature superconductor has been developed and a numerical code based on the CEA software CASTEM (Finish Elements Model) allowed to study the resistive transition (or quench) behavior of those conductor and coil. The code has been confirmed by comparison with some experimental data obtained by the Laboratoire National des Champs Magnétiques Intenses in Grenoble. The results have allowed to define the conductors for the two projects of this thesis and to validate the feasibility of the protection of those conductors
1 edition published in 2012 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The new industrial superconductors using high critical temperature compounds offer new possibilities for superconducting magnetism. Indeed they allow higher magnetic field with the same classical cryogenics at 4.2 K on one hand, and on the other hand they also pave the way for superconducting magnets working between 10 K and 30 K. The high temperature superconductors are then needed in order to produce magnetic fields higher than 16 T (case of HTS dipole insert for Large Hadron Collider at CERN) or to increase the specific density stored in one SMES (Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage, in the case of the SuperSMES ANR Project).Nevertheless the indisputable assets (critical temperature, critical magnetic field, mechanical stresses) brought by the use of High critical temperature superconductors like YBCO, used in superconducting magnets, require to solve some challenges. Their behavior is still badly understood, especially during the resistive transitions. To succeed in protecting these conductors we need a new reflection on protection schemes designed to avoid the thermal and mechanical damages. The answer to the question: “Can we use those materials in the long run inside superconducting magnets?” is now inescapable.Some answers are given here. The use of the conductors is approached through various experimental studies to understand the material (electrical characterization and modeling of the critical surface) and to define the key stages of high critical temperature superconducting magnets manufacturing (work on the junctions between conductors and pancakes). This study led to the creation of two coils in order to identify the issues related to the use of YBCO tapes. A numerical thermoelectrical model of the high critical temperature superconductor has been developed and a numerical code based on the CEA software CASTEM (Finish Elements Model) allowed to study the resistive transition (or quench) behavior of those conductor and coil. The code has been confirmed by comparison with some experimental data obtained by the Laboratoire National des Champs Magnétiques Intenses in Grenoble. The results have allowed to define the conductors for the two projects of this thesis and to validate the feasibility of the protection of those conductors
La réfrigération magnétique : conceptualisation, caractérisation et simulation by
Morgan Almanza(
)
1 edition published in 2014 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Magnetic refrigeration is a relevant alternative in consideration of environmental restrictions of refrigerants gases. These restrictions require to improve the current technology or to pave the way for a new one, hence the opportunity for magnetic refrigeration to demonstrate its potential. Indeed, it could be energetically efficient and with higher power densities. This work aims to estimate the potential of magnetic refrigeration. Magnetism and thermodynamic, essential tools for our study, are developed in a case of magnetocaloric effect. With some care, we show that material characterizations are able to give consistence and relevant model. Magnetocaloric effect suffers of small temperature variations; therefore structures that increase the temperature span and give competitive system are studied. Finally numerical models are developed to optimize active magnetic regenerators, which are currently the most used. These models are used to calculate and design systems close to their optimum
1 edition published in 2014 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Magnetic refrigeration is a relevant alternative in consideration of environmental restrictions of refrigerants gases. These restrictions require to improve the current technology or to pave the way for a new one, hence the opportunity for magnetic refrigeration to demonstrate its potential. Indeed, it could be energetically efficient and with higher power densities. This work aims to estimate the potential of magnetic refrigeration. Magnetism and thermodynamic, essential tools for our study, are developed in a case of magnetocaloric effect. With some care, we show that material characterizations are able to give consistence and relevant model. Magnetocaloric effect suffers of small temperature variations; therefore structures that increase the temperature span and give competitive system are studied. Finally numerical models are developed to optimize active magnetic regenerators, which are currently the most used. These models are used to calculate and design systems close to their optimum
Graphène CVD macroscopique en régime de supraconductivité de proximité : applications à l'électronique flexible et radiofréquence by
Pauline Ronseaux(
)
1 edition published in 2018 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Superconducting proximity effect in macroscopic CVDgrown graphene decorated by tin nanoparticles is the central topic of this thesis. In this manuscript, two experimental projects are presented.The first of these projects consisted in developing and studying a new easy to handle and flexible material in which superconducting correlations extend over macroscopic scales. This material is a composite film made from the stacking of three original components: a few micrometers thin plastic film in parylene, a several centimeters squares layer of graphene, and a cluster of nanoparticles achieved by natural dewetting of tin on the graphene surface.Cryogenic transport measurements highlighted an induced superconductivity on the scale of the studied composite films pieces dimensions, of the order of the centimetre square. The superconducting critical current of the composite films showed gate tunability of about one hundred nanoamperes by volt. The behaviour of the composite films under a transverse magnetic field is similar to the one of granular superconductors and is characterised, especially under weak transverse magnetic field, by a high sensitivity of the superconducting transition. An indepth study showed that the G/Sn hybrid material is a bidimensional percolating system that, when approaching the superconducting transition, behaves like a single mesoscopic Josephson junction.Within the framework of the second project, superconducting radiofrequency (RF) cavities have been developed. G/Sn patches have been integrated into these superconducting circuits in order to build gate tunable resonators. A process allowing to integrate G/Sn patches jointly to a series of several cavities from a single graphene transfer have been developed. Transmission measurements in cryogenic conditions have been performed to characterise these hybrid devices and to study their radiofrequency response
1 edition published in 2018 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Superconducting proximity effect in macroscopic CVDgrown graphene decorated by tin nanoparticles is the central topic of this thesis. In this manuscript, two experimental projects are presented.The first of these projects consisted in developing and studying a new easy to handle and flexible material in which superconducting correlations extend over macroscopic scales. This material is a composite film made from the stacking of three original components: a few micrometers thin plastic film in parylene, a several centimeters squares layer of graphene, and a cluster of nanoparticles achieved by natural dewetting of tin on the graphene surface.Cryogenic transport measurements highlighted an induced superconductivity on the scale of the studied composite films pieces dimensions, of the order of the centimetre square. The superconducting critical current of the composite films showed gate tunability of about one hundred nanoamperes by volt. The behaviour of the composite films under a transverse magnetic field is similar to the one of granular superconductors and is characterised, especially under weak transverse magnetic field, by a high sensitivity of the superconducting transition. An indepth study showed that the G/Sn hybrid material is a bidimensional percolating system that, when approaching the superconducting transition, behaves like a single mesoscopic Josephson junction.Within the framework of the second project, superconducting radiofrequency (RF) cavities have been developed. G/Sn patches have been integrated into these superconducting circuits in order to build gate tunable resonators. A process allowing to integrate G/Sn patches jointly to a series of several cavities from a single graphene transfer have been developed. Transmission measurements in cryogenic conditions have been performed to characterise these hybrid devices and to study their radiofrequency response
Théorie des systèmes de lanthanide : transitions de valence et effet Kondo en presence de désordre by
José Luiz Ferreira Da Silva jr(
)
1 edition published in 2016 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The topics of the thesis concerns two theoretical aspects of the physics of 4f electron systems.In the first part the topic of intermediate valence and valence transitions in lanthanide systems is explored. For that purpose, we study an extended version of the Periodic Anderson Model which includes the Coulomb interaction between conduction electrons and the localized f electrons (FalicovKimball interaction). If it is larger than a critical value, this interaction can transform a smooth valence change into a discontinuous valence transition. The model is treated in a combination of HubbardI and meanfield approximations, suitable for the energy scales of the problem.The zero temperature phase diagram of the model is established. It shows the evolution of the valence with respect to the model parameters. Moreover, the effects of an external magnetic field and ferromagnetic interactions on the valence transitions are investigated. Our results are compared to selected Yb and Eubased compounds, such as YbCu2Si2, YbMn6Ge6xSnx and EuRh2Ir2.In the second part of the thesis, we study lanthanide systems in which the number of local magnetic atoms is tuned by substitution of nonmagnetic atoms, also known as Kondo Alloys. In such systems it is possible to go from the single Kondo impurity to the Kondo lattice regime, both characterized by different type of Fermi liquids. The Kondo Alloy model is studied within the Statistical Dynamical MeanField Theory, which treats different aspects of disorder and is formally exact in a Bethe lattice of any coordination number.The distributions of the meanfield parameters, the local density of states and other local quantities are presented as a function of model parameters, in particular the concentration of magnetic moments x, the number of conduction electrons per site nc and the Kondo interaction strength JK. Our results show a clear distinction between the impurity (x<<1) and the lattice (x≈1) regimes for a strong Kondo interaction. For intermediate concentrations (x≈nc), the system is dominated by disorder effects and indications of NonFermi liquid behavior and localization of electronic states are observed. These features disappear if the Kondo interaction is weak. We further discuss the issue of low dimensionality and its relation to the percolation problem in such systems
1 edition published in 2016 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The topics of the thesis concerns two theoretical aspects of the physics of 4f electron systems.In the first part the topic of intermediate valence and valence transitions in lanthanide systems is explored. For that purpose, we study an extended version of the Periodic Anderson Model which includes the Coulomb interaction between conduction electrons and the localized f electrons (FalicovKimball interaction). If it is larger than a critical value, this interaction can transform a smooth valence change into a discontinuous valence transition. The model is treated in a combination of HubbardI and meanfield approximations, suitable for the energy scales of the problem.The zero temperature phase diagram of the model is established. It shows the evolution of the valence with respect to the model parameters. Moreover, the effects of an external magnetic field and ferromagnetic interactions on the valence transitions are investigated. Our results are compared to selected Yb and Eubased compounds, such as YbCu2Si2, YbMn6Ge6xSnx and EuRh2Ir2.In the second part of the thesis, we study lanthanide systems in which the number of local magnetic atoms is tuned by substitution of nonmagnetic atoms, also known as Kondo Alloys. In such systems it is possible to go from the single Kondo impurity to the Kondo lattice regime, both characterized by different type of Fermi liquids. The Kondo Alloy model is studied within the Statistical Dynamical MeanField Theory, which treats different aspects of disorder and is formally exact in a Bethe lattice of any coordination number.The distributions of the meanfield parameters, the local density of states and other local quantities are presented as a function of model parameters, in particular the concentration of magnetic moments x, the number of conduction electrons per site nc and the Kondo interaction strength JK. Our results show a clear distinction between the impurity (x<<1) and the lattice (x≈1) regimes for a strong Kondo interaction. For intermediate concentrations (x≈nc), the system is dominated by disorder effects and indications of NonFermi liquid behavior and localization of electronic states are observed. These features disappear if the Kondo interaction is weak. We further discuss the issue of low dimensionality and its relation to the percolation problem in such systems
Etude de composés magnétoélectriques et multiferroïques by
Mickael Loire(
)
1 edition published in 2011 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This Phd report shows several aspects of multiferroic and magnetoelectric properties and especially the effect of magnetic properties on dielectric and magnetoelectric behavior of two families of compounds : the manganese trisulfure phosphorus MnPS3 and the iron langasite.We also present in details the magnetic dynamical chirality properties of the compound Ba3NbFe3Si2O14 of the langasite family.Iron langasites show a non centrosymetric and a chiral crystal structure. The macroscopic magnetization measurements and neutron scattering experiments, including the use of polarized neutrons and polarization analysis, have allowed to enlighten a double magnetic chirality (helical and triangular). This chirality has a signature in the magnetic excitations and notably by non zero cross sections associated to dynamical antisymmetric correlations of spins. Those results are interpreted by spinwave calculations in a linear approach. At last, different energy scales appear in the paramagnetic fluctuations with, in particular, magnetic fluctuations associated to antisymmetric correlations.The MnPS3 manganese trisulfure compound exhibits an antiferromagnetic order with an non zero macroscopic toroidization and a non zero non diagonal magnetoelectric coupling. This coupling has been enlightened by spherical neutron polarimetry experiment. We played with antiferromagnetic domains by cooling the sample through its Néel température under crossed magnetic and electric fields
1 edition published in 2011 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This Phd report shows several aspects of multiferroic and magnetoelectric properties and especially the effect of magnetic properties on dielectric and magnetoelectric behavior of two families of compounds : the manganese trisulfure phosphorus MnPS3 and the iron langasite.We also present in details the magnetic dynamical chirality properties of the compound Ba3NbFe3Si2O14 of the langasite family.Iron langasites show a non centrosymetric and a chiral crystal structure. The macroscopic magnetization measurements and neutron scattering experiments, including the use of polarized neutrons and polarization analysis, have allowed to enlighten a double magnetic chirality (helical and triangular). This chirality has a signature in the magnetic excitations and notably by non zero cross sections associated to dynamical antisymmetric correlations of spins. Those results are interpreted by spinwave calculations in a linear approach. At last, different energy scales appear in the paramagnetic fluctuations with, in particular, magnetic fluctuations associated to antisymmetric correlations.The MnPS3 manganese trisulfure compound exhibits an antiferromagnetic order with an non zero macroscopic toroidization and a non zero non diagonal magnetoelectric coupling. This coupling has been enlightened by spherical neutron polarimetry experiment. We played with antiferromagnetic domains by cooling the sample through its Néel température under crossed magnetic and electric fields
Propriétés électriques, optiques et électrooptiques de microfils GaN pour la réalisation de LEDs by
Pierre Tchoulfian(
)
1 edition published in 2015 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This thesis deals with the characterization of GaN microwires (µwires) at the single wire level,toward the development of a lightemitting diode (LED) technology based on an ensemble of standing GaN µwires grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy. Each µwire is actually an LED consisting of an ntype core and a ptype shell, between which an InGaN/GaN multiquantum well active region is inserted. First, the electrical properties of the different parts of the ntype core were determined using resistivity measurements at the single wire level. The GaN:Si µwire exhibits conductivity values never reported by the planar layer counterparts. An original technique combining resistivity and thermoelectric measurements was developed to infer the electron density and mobility in these µwires. Spatially resolved optical measurements such as cathodoluminescence (CL) and µRaman confirmed the electron density values. The second part describes a spatially resolved study of the coreshell pn junction using electron beam probing techniques. On a cleaved wire, the tridimensional (axial and radial) junction was highlighted by mapping the electric field (electron beam induced current, EBIC) or the electrostatic potential (secondary electron voltage contrast). These techniques yielded the donor and acceptor doping levels as well as the minority carriers diffusion lengths in the vicinity of the junction. EBIC mapping also provided the activation state of Mg dopants in the pGaN:Mg shell. Finally, a study of the electrooptical properties of a single µwire LED, combined with EBIC and CL measurements, paves the way to the fabrication of more efficient µwirebased LED
1 edition published in 2015 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This thesis deals with the characterization of GaN microwires (µwires) at the single wire level,toward the development of a lightemitting diode (LED) technology based on an ensemble of standing GaN µwires grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy. Each µwire is actually an LED consisting of an ntype core and a ptype shell, between which an InGaN/GaN multiquantum well active region is inserted. First, the electrical properties of the different parts of the ntype core were determined using resistivity measurements at the single wire level. The GaN:Si µwire exhibits conductivity values never reported by the planar layer counterparts. An original technique combining resistivity and thermoelectric measurements was developed to infer the electron density and mobility in these µwires. Spatially resolved optical measurements such as cathodoluminescence (CL) and µRaman confirmed the electron density values. The second part describes a spatially resolved study of the coreshell pn junction using electron beam probing techniques. On a cleaved wire, the tridimensional (axial and radial) junction was highlighted by mapping the electric field (electron beam induced current, EBIC) or the electrostatic potential (secondary electron voltage contrast). These techniques yielded the donor and acceptor doping levels as well as the minority carriers diffusion lengths in the vicinity of the junction. EBIC mapping also provided the activation state of Mg dopants in the pGaN:Mg shell. Finally, a study of the electrooptical properties of a single µwire LED, combined with EBIC and CL measurements, paves the way to the fabrication of more efficient µwirebased LED
Diamond nanostructure fabrication by etching and growth with metallic nanoparticles by
HasanAl Mehedi(
)
1 edition published in 2012 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Onedimensional structures with nanometre diameters, such as nanotubes and nanowires, have attracted extensive interest in recent years and form new family of materials that have characteristic of low weight with sometimes exceptional mechanical, electrical and thermal properties. Without any change in chemical composition, fundamental properties of bulk materials can be enhanced at the nanometre scale leading to extraordinary nanodevices.Since a few years, nanowires of different semiconducting materials have been grown. To mention few of these, Si, GaN, SnO, SiC and ZnO nanowires were all successfully demonstrated. However, the growth of diamond nanowires has not yet been demonstrated, despite the strong interest for this material. Bulk diamond combines various exceptional properties for a wide range of applications: Chemical inertness, radiation hardness, biocompatibility, high hole/electron mobility (2000/1000 cm2/V/s), high thermal conductivity (22 W/cm/K), wide bandgap (5.5 eV), and wide electric potential window (3.25 eV HO evolutions).Since about 30 years, the growth of diamond thin film is well controlled either as insulator or as semiconductor with p and n type dopants. Fabrication of 25x25 mm2 monocrystalline diamond wafer has already been reported, and two inches wafers are expected in a couple of years demonstrating the growing interest for this material. Among present or shortterm applications one can mention alphaparticle detectors, solarblind UV sensors, high voltage electronic devices, biosensors and single photon source. The realization of nanowires should improve the performance of some of these devices and also open a range of new high performance applications.The stability of 0D (nanocrystals) and 1D (nanowires) diamond nanostructures has been extensively studied using ab initio modelling and indicates that for specific crystallographic orientations clusters of nanometric size are thermodynamically stable. One experimental indication for diamond nanowire growth has been published by Sun et al. in 2005, based on nanocrystal nucleation and growth on carbon nanotubes followed by 1D growth. This particular nucleation process on carbon nanotube has furthermore been explained theoretically in 2009.Based on these experimental and theoretical results, the first objective of this thesis was to explore the growth of diamond nanowire and find suitable conditions to obtain nanowires in a reproducible way. A wide range of process conditions were explored, first without any catalyst, then with metallic catalyst in order to promote VapourLiquidSolid (VLS) growth. Although a comprehensive knowledge regarding carbon nanotube stability in hydrogen atmosphere and diamondcatalyst interaction has been obtained and some carbon nanostuctures were grown, no diamond nanowires were obtained in a reproducible way.However, the careful study of the diamondcatalyst interaction revealed a very interesting etching process that could be very useful for the fabrication of diamond nanostructures. A second objective was then defined: development of the etching process for diamond using transition metal as catalyst and optimization of the process parameters for specific applications such as the fabrication of porous diamond membranes for biosensors
1 edition published in 2012 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Onedimensional structures with nanometre diameters, such as nanotubes and nanowires, have attracted extensive interest in recent years and form new family of materials that have characteristic of low weight with sometimes exceptional mechanical, electrical and thermal properties. Without any change in chemical composition, fundamental properties of bulk materials can be enhanced at the nanometre scale leading to extraordinary nanodevices.Since a few years, nanowires of different semiconducting materials have been grown. To mention few of these, Si, GaN, SnO, SiC and ZnO nanowires were all successfully demonstrated. However, the growth of diamond nanowires has not yet been demonstrated, despite the strong interest for this material. Bulk diamond combines various exceptional properties for a wide range of applications: Chemical inertness, radiation hardness, biocompatibility, high hole/electron mobility (2000/1000 cm2/V/s), high thermal conductivity (22 W/cm/K), wide bandgap (5.5 eV), and wide electric potential window (3.25 eV HO evolutions).Since about 30 years, the growth of diamond thin film is well controlled either as insulator or as semiconductor with p and n type dopants. Fabrication of 25x25 mm2 monocrystalline diamond wafer has already been reported, and two inches wafers are expected in a couple of years demonstrating the growing interest for this material. Among present or shortterm applications one can mention alphaparticle detectors, solarblind UV sensors, high voltage electronic devices, biosensors and single photon source. The realization of nanowires should improve the performance of some of these devices and also open a range of new high performance applications.The stability of 0D (nanocrystals) and 1D (nanowires) diamond nanostructures has been extensively studied using ab initio modelling and indicates that for specific crystallographic orientations clusters of nanometric size are thermodynamically stable. One experimental indication for diamond nanowire growth has been published by Sun et al. in 2005, based on nanocrystal nucleation and growth on carbon nanotubes followed by 1D growth. This particular nucleation process on carbon nanotube has furthermore been explained theoretically in 2009.Based on these experimental and theoretical results, the first objective of this thesis was to explore the growth of diamond nanowire and find suitable conditions to obtain nanowires in a reproducible way. A wide range of process conditions were explored, first without any catalyst, then with metallic catalyst in order to promote VapourLiquidSolid (VLS) growth. Although a comprehensive knowledge regarding carbon nanotube stability in hydrogen atmosphere and diamondcatalyst interaction has been obtained and some carbon nanostuctures were grown, no diamond nanowires were obtained in a reproducible way.However, the careful study of the diamondcatalyst interaction revealed a very interesting etching process that could be very useful for the fabrication of diamond nanostructures. A second objective was then defined: development of the etching process for diamond using transition metal as catalyst and optimization of the process parameters for specific applications such as the fabrication of porous diamond membranes for biosensors
Solitons magnétiques topologiques dans des couches minces epitaxiées à symétrie réduite by
Lorenzo Camosi(
)
1 edition published in 2018 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
In this thesis I studied the relationship between the crystal symmetry, the symmetry of the magnetic interactions and topological solitons in epitaxial magnetic thin films. The case of thin films with C2v symmetry has been considered. These systems are particularly interesting for the anisotropic properties that allow stabilising magnetic solitons with different symmetries and topology. I used theoretical and experimental approaches to investigate this phenomenon:Micromagnetic approach:The relationship between the atomistic and the micromagnetic formulations of magnetic interactions was studied as a function of the crystal symmetry.This allowed to explain the presence of anisotropicinteractions and study their effect on the configurations of 1D and 2D magnetic solitons. The discussion starts from the simplest 1D soliton, the domain wall, and stepbystep new interactions and symmetries are added in order to characterize the stability conditions and the properties of 2D solitons, skyrmions and antiskyrmions. Our method allowed to study 2D topological solitons over a wide range of parameters and build a phase diagram as a function of the DzyaloshinskiiMoriya interaction (DMI) strength and magnetic field intensity. This allowed us to distinguish three kinds of 2D topological solitons (skyrmions, skyrmionic bubbles and supercritical skyrmions) as a function of their size and response to an external magnetic field. We show that an inversion of DMI strength along perpendicular directions allows the stabilisation of antiskyrmions. A micromagnetic model is developed to study the configuration and energy differences between skyrmions and antiskyrmions. This shows that the dipolar interaction breaks the circular symmetry of the antiskyrmion and makes it more stable than the skyrmion.Experimental approach:Epitaxial magnetic systems with C2v symmetry have been grown. For each system I describe the growth parameters and crystal symmetry, followed by the results of the magnetic characterisation and finally the results from the magnetic microscopy measurements.I have investigated the DMI symmetry and strength in an outofplane magnetised epitaxial Au/Co/W trilayer. The DMI in this system promotes a clockwise chirality of the spin modulation with a strong anisotropy in the DMI strength. This anisotropy arises from the C2v symmetry of the Co/W stack.Skyrmions in this system should have an elliptical shape. We stabilised skyrmions in continuous films and in nanopatterned structures. Their magnetic configurations have been displayed with different microscopic techniques, XMCDPEEM and MFM, without identifying anisotropic properties.We designed the W/Co/AuPt (solid solution) system to increase the effect of the anisotropic interactions on the skyrmion configuration. Microscopy studies in naturally demagnetised areas show that stripe domains parallel to the inplane easy axis are stable in this system. The configuration with a larger periodicity has been found even for thinner Co layer after demagnetisation with a magnetic field. Kerr microscopy studies of the DW dynamics allowed to evidence the origin of this magnetic configuration, which arises from a strong anisotropy in the DW motion.MFM measurements with the application of a static magnetic field have been performed in order to confine elliptical skyrmionic bubbles but the reduced sensitivity of this technique to thin magnetic systems did not allow to display and characterise them. XMCDPEEM measurements allowed to display the internal structure of the DWs along the inplane hard axis of the system. They show the presence of a Néel DW component. Finally I have grown and studied a W/Fe/Co/Au system where antiskyrmions may in principle be stabilised. However, the system did not show the outofplane magnetisation which is fundamental for the stabilisation of skyrmions. This means that the W/Fe inplane anisotropy dominates the Co/Au outofplane anisotropy
1 edition published in 2018 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
In this thesis I studied the relationship between the crystal symmetry, the symmetry of the magnetic interactions and topological solitons in epitaxial magnetic thin films. The case of thin films with C2v symmetry has been considered. These systems are particularly interesting for the anisotropic properties that allow stabilising magnetic solitons with different symmetries and topology. I used theoretical and experimental approaches to investigate this phenomenon:Micromagnetic approach:The relationship between the atomistic and the micromagnetic formulations of magnetic interactions was studied as a function of the crystal symmetry.This allowed to explain the presence of anisotropicinteractions and study their effect on the configurations of 1D and 2D magnetic solitons. The discussion starts from the simplest 1D soliton, the domain wall, and stepbystep new interactions and symmetries are added in order to characterize the stability conditions and the properties of 2D solitons, skyrmions and antiskyrmions. Our method allowed to study 2D topological solitons over a wide range of parameters and build a phase diagram as a function of the DzyaloshinskiiMoriya interaction (DMI) strength and magnetic field intensity. This allowed us to distinguish three kinds of 2D topological solitons (skyrmions, skyrmionic bubbles and supercritical skyrmions) as a function of their size and response to an external magnetic field. We show that an inversion of DMI strength along perpendicular directions allows the stabilisation of antiskyrmions. A micromagnetic model is developed to study the configuration and energy differences between skyrmions and antiskyrmions. This shows that the dipolar interaction breaks the circular symmetry of the antiskyrmion and makes it more stable than the skyrmion.Experimental approach:Epitaxial magnetic systems with C2v symmetry have been grown. For each system I describe the growth parameters and crystal symmetry, followed by the results of the magnetic characterisation and finally the results from the magnetic microscopy measurements.I have investigated the DMI symmetry and strength in an outofplane magnetised epitaxial Au/Co/W trilayer. The DMI in this system promotes a clockwise chirality of the spin modulation with a strong anisotropy in the DMI strength. This anisotropy arises from the C2v symmetry of the Co/W stack.Skyrmions in this system should have an elliptical shape. We stabilised skyrmions in continuous films and in nanopatterned structures. Their magnetic configurations have been displayed with different microscopic techniques, XMCDPEEM and MFM, without identifying anisotropic properties.We designed the W/Co/AuPt (solid solution) system to increase the effect of the anisotropic interactions on the skyrmion configuration. Microscopy studies in naturally demagnetised areas show that stripe domains parallel to the inplane easy axis are stable in this system. The configuration with a larger periodicity has been found even for thinner Co layer after demagnetisation with a magnetic field. Kerr microscopy studies of the DW dynamics allowed to evidence the origin of this magnetic configuration, which arises from a strong anisotropy in the DW motion.MFM measurements with the application of a static magnetic field have been performed in order to confine elliptical skyrmionic bubbles but the reduced sensitivity of this technique to thin magnetic systems did not allow to display and characterise them. XMCDPEEM measurements allowed to display the internal structure of the DWs along the inplane hard axis of the system. They show the presence of a Néel DW component. Finally I have grown and studied a W/Fe/Co/Au system where antiskyrmions may in principle be stabilised. However, the system did not show the outofplane magnetisation which is fundamental for the stabilisation of skyrmions. This means that the W/Fe inplane anisotropy dominates the Co/Au outofplane anisotropy
Elaboration et caractérisation d'un matériau magnétique autosoufflant pour dispositifs de coupure électrique by
Alexandre Vassa(
)
1 edition published in 2012 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
L'auteur n'a pas fourni de résumé en français
1 edition published in 2012 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
L'auteur n'a pas fourni de résumé en français
Modélisation par éléments finis des dispositifs pour la spintronique : couplage autocohérent des équations du micromagnétisme
et du transport dépendant du spin by
Magali Sturma(
)
1 edition published in 2015 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
In the context of spintronics this thesis studies the mutual interaction between a spin polarised current and the magnetization of magnetic structures. During this work, the diffusive spin transport equations were coupled in a selfconsistent manner with the magnetization dynamics equations in the micromagnetic approach in our homemade finite element code. This numerical tool applied to the study of domain walls dynamics in different geometries under the action of spin polarized current highlighted several new phenomena related to the mutual interaction between the magnetization and the spins of electrons. For rectangular cross section stripes, the impact of this interaction, usually neglected in simplified models, is quantified by the computation of the domain wall velocity and the Walker critical current. These quantities were studied as a function of the domain wall width, the applied current, and the spin polarised transport characteristic lengths. Increasing the nonadiabatic parameter of the system related to the increase in the magnetization gradient and a strong nonlocality of the coupled model was demonstrated. For circular cross section wires with a modulated diameter, an additional contribution to the nonadiabaticity of the system related to the confined geometry is highlighted. Then the different dynamic regimes and domain wall unpinning conditions are characterised according to the constriction size
1 edition published in 2015 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
In the context of spintronics this thesis studies the mutual interaction between a spin polarised current and the magnetization of magnetic structures. During this work, the diffusive spin transport equations were coupled in a selfconsistent manner with the magnetization dynamics equations in the micromagnetic approach in our homemade finite element code. This numerical tool applied to the study of domain walls dynamics in different geometries under the action of spin polarized current highlighted several new phenomena related to the mutual interaction between the magnetization and the spins of electrons. For rectangular cross section stripes, the impact of this interaction, usually neglected in simplified models, is quantified by the computation of the domain wall velocity and the Walker critical current. These quantities were studied as a function of the domain wall width, the applied current, and the spin polarised transport characteristic lengths. Increasing the nonadiabatic parameter of the system related to the increase in the magnetization gradient and a strong nonlocality of the coupled model was demonstrated. For circular cross section wires with a modulated diameter, an additional contribution to the nonadiabaticity of the system related to the confined geometry is highlighted. Then the different dynamic regimes and domain wall unpinning conditions are characterised according to the constriction size
Quantum information processing using a molecular magnet single nuclear spin qudit by
Clément Godfrin(
)
1 edition published in 2017 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The application of quantum physics to the information theory turns out to be full of promises for our information society. Aware of this potential, groups of scientists all around the world have this common goal to create the quantum version of the computer. The first step of this ambitious project is the realization of the basic block that encodes the quantum information, the qubit. Among all existing qubits, spin based devices are very attractive since they reveal electrical readout and coherent manipulation. Beyond this, the more isolated a system is, the longer its quantum behaviour remains, making of the nuclear spin a serious candidate for exhibiting long coherence time and consequently high numbers of quantum operation.In this context I worked on a molecular spin transistor consisting of a TbPc2 singlemolecule magnet coupled to electrodes (source, drain and gate) and a microwave antenna. This setup enabled us to readout electrically both the electronic and the nuclear spin states and to coherently manipulate the nuclear spin of the Terbium ion. I focus during my Ph.D. on the study of the spins dynamic and mainly the 3/2 nuclear spin under the influence of a microwave pulse. The first step was to measure the energy difference between these statesleading in a second time to the coherent manipulation of the three nuclear spin transitions using only a microwave electric field. To further characterize the decoherence processes that break the phase of the nuclear spin states, I performed Ramsey and Hahnecho measurements. These preliminary results show that we were in presence of three qubits with figure of merit higher than two thousands, thus meeting the expectations aroused by the use of a nuclearspin as the basic block of quantum information.More than demonstrating the qubit dynamic, I demonstrated that a nuclear spin embedded in the molecular magnet transistor is a four quantum states system that can be fully controlled, a qudit. Theoretical proposal demonstrated that quantum information processing such as quantum gates and algorithms could be implemented using a 3/2 spin. I focused on a research algorithm which is a succession of an Hadamard gate, that creates a coherent superposition of all the nuclear spin sates, and an unitary evolution, that amplified the amplitude of a desired state. It allows a quadratic speedup to find an element in an unordered list compared to classical algorithm. During my Ph.D., I demonstrated the experimental proof of feasibility of this Grover like algorithm applied to a multilevels system. The first step was to experimentally create coherent superposition of 2, 3 and 4 states. Then I measured coherent oscillations inbetween a 3 state superposition and a selected state which is the signature of the research algorithm implementation.In summary, this Ph.D. exposed the first quantum search algorithm on a singlemolecule magnet based qudit. These results combined to the great versatility of molecular magnet holds a lot of promises for the next challenge: building up a scalable molecular based quantum computer
1 edition published in 2017 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The application of quantum physics to the information theory turns out to be full of promises for our information society. Aware of this potential, groups of scientists all around the world have this common goal to create the quantum version of the computer. The first step of this ambitious project is the realization of the basic block that encodes the quantum information, the qubit. Among all existing qubits, spin based devices are very attractive since they reveal electrical readout and coherent manipulation. Beyond this, the more isolated a system is, the longer its quantum behaviour remains, making of the nuclear spin a serious candidate for exhibiting long coherence time and consequently high numbers of quantum operation.In this context I worked on a molecular spin transistor consisting of a TbPc2 singlemolecule magnet coupled to electrodes (source, drain and gate) and a microwave antenna. This setup enabled us to readout electrically both the electronic and the nuclear spin states and to coherently manipulate the nuclear spin of the Terbium ion. I focus during my Ph.D. on the study of the spins dynamic and mainly the 3/2 nuclear spin under the influence of a microwave pulse. The first step was to measure the energy difference between these statesleading in a second time to the coherent manipulation of the three nuclear spin transitions using only a microwave electric field. To further characterize the decoherence processes that break the phase of the nuclear spin states, I performed Ramsey and Hahnecho measurements. These preliminary results show that we were in presence of three qubits with figure of merit higher than two thousands, thus meeting the expectations aroused by the use of a nuclearspin as the basic block of quantum information.More than demonstrating the qubit dynamic, I demonstrated that a nuclear spin embedded in the molecular magnet transistor is a four quantum states system that can be fully controlled, a qudit. Theoretical proposal demonstrated that quantum information processing such as quantum gates and algorithms could be implemented using a 3/2 spin. I focused on a research algorithm which is a succession of an Hadamard gate, that creates a coherent superposition of all the nuclear spin sates, and an unitary evolution, that amplified the amplitude of a desired state. It allows a quadratic speedup to find an element in an unordered list compared to classical algorithm. During my Ph.D., I demonstrated the experimental proof of feasibility of this Grover like algorithm applied to a multilevels system. The first step was to experimentally create coherent superposition of 2, 3 and 4 states. Then I measured coherent oscillations inbetween a 3 state superposition and a selected state which is the signature of the research algorithm implementation.In summary, this Ph.D. exposed the first quantum search algorithm on a singlemolecule magnet based qudit. These results combined to the great versatility of molecular magnet holds a lot of promises for the next challenge: building up a scalable molecular based quantum computer
Optique quantique des atomes unidimensionnels, avec application aux interfaces spinphoton by
Bogdan Reznychenko(
)
1 edition published in 2018 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Quantum phenomena give rise to new and revolutionary possibilities in the fields of computation and cryptography. The problems that are unsolvable with classical means are expected to be solved by quantum computers, and communication becomes absolutely secure, if it is encoded in a state of a quantum system. A large effort has been recently paid to research of deterministic transfer of information between photons and atoms, acting as flying and stationary quantum bits respectively. The interaction between these two components is enhanced, if they are put in a unidimensional medium, realizing a so called "1D atom". The study of this specific optical medium and its applications to quantum technologies constitutes the objective of this thesis.First, we explore the lightmatter interface realized as a 1D atom, with a semiconductor quantum dot in a micropillar cavity as an example. We study the coherent control of this system with light pulses in order to find an optimal way to control its state, varying the power, shape and duration of a pulse and statistics of the state of light field. We also study the impact of the 1D atom on the state of the reflected field as a function of parameters of the experimental device, describing the filtering of single photon Fock state from incident pulse.We continue with the study of the quantum state of the scattered light field, focusing on its purity. This is required to faithfully transmit the superposition state of one stationary qubit to another using light as a flying quantum bit. We develop a method to experimentally characterize the purity, and apply it to experimental data, showing that the state of art technology allows to create highpurity superpositions.Finally, we focus on the readout of a stationary qubit based on a single spin in a unidimensional environment. We study how to efficiently use polarized light for this purpose, showing that it is possible to readout the spin state, by detection of only one photon. We explore different deviations from this optimal regime. We also study the decoherence of the spin state due to interaction with the light field and the backaction of the measurement, showing that it is possible to freeze the spin state due to the quantum Zeno effect, which allows the preparation of the qubit, based on it, in an arbitrary superposition state. This opens perspectives towards efficient realization of stationary quantum bits based on single spins embedded in unidimensional electromagnetic environment
1 edition published in 2018 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Quantum phenomena give rise to new and revolutionary possibilities in the fields of computation and cryptography. The problems that are unsolvable with classical means are expected to be solved by quantum computers, and communication becomes absolutely secure, if it is encoded in a state of a quantum system. A large effort has been recently paid to research of deterministic transfer of information between photons and atoms, acting as flying and stationary quantum bits respectively. The interaction between these two components is enhanced, if they are put in a unidimensional medium, realizing a so called "1D atom". The study of this specific optical medium and its applications to quantum technologies constitutes the objective of this thesis.First, we explore the lightmatter interface realized as a 1D atom, with a semiconductor quantum dot in a micropillar cavity as an example. We study the coherent control of this system with light pulses in order to find an optimal way to control its state, varying the power, shape and duration of a pulse and statistics of the state of light field. We also study the impact of the 1D atom on the state of the reflected field as a function of parameters of the experimental device, describing the filtering of single photon Fock state from incident pulse.We continue with the study of the quantum state of the scattered light field, focusing on its purity. This is required to faithfully transmit the superposition state of one stationary qubit to another using light as a flying quantum bit. We develop a method to experimentally characterize the purity, and apply it to experimental data, showing that the state of art technology allows to create highpurity superpositions.Finally, we focus on the readout of a stationary qubit based on a single spin in a unidimensional environment. We study how to efficiently use polarized light for this purpose, showing that it is possible to readout the spin state, by detection of only one photon. We explore different deviations from this optimal regime. We also study the decoherence of the spin state due to interaction with the light field and the backaction of the measurement, showing that it is possible to freeze the spin state due to the quantum Zeno effect, which allows the preparation of the qubit, based on it, in an arbitrary superposition state. This opens perspectives towards efficient realization of stationary quantum bits based on single spins embedded in unidimensional electromagnetic environment
Magnetic anisotropies and exchange bias in ultrathin cobalt layers for the tunnel anisotropic magnetoresistance by
Filippo Jacopo Ferraro(
)
1 edition published in 2015 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
In the context of studying magnetic and spintronics phenomena occurring at the nanoscale, we investigated several aspects of Pt/Co/AlOx asymmetric structures. One of the objectives of this thesis was the control of the oxidation and the tailoring of the magnetic properties of these multilayers. We combined structural (XRay Reflectivity), transport (Anomalous Hall Effect) and magnetic measurements (VSMSQUID), to study the interplay of magnetic and interfacial effects. One objective was to analyze the role that few monolayers (MLs) of CoO (which can form when overoxidizing the Al layer), could have on the properties of the stack. We used a wedge deposition techniques to control the oxidation on a subnanometer scale. We established that few MLs of CoO largely affect the total anisotropy of the stack. To further investigate the impact of the CoO, we engineered ultrathin Co(0.6nm)/CoO(0.6nm) bilayers. We performed field cooled measurements on this system and we found a large exchange bias anisotropy. These results indicate that the CoO keeps a large anisotropy even in the ML regime, help to rule out some of the models proposed to explain the exchange bias effect and imply that the usually neglected CoO presence must be considered in the energy balance of the system. We build perpendicular Tunneling Anisotropic MagnetoResistance (TAMR) devices based on the Pt/Co/AlOx structure. The TAMR is a relatively new spintronics effect in which the rotation of the magnetization in a single magnetic electrode (combined with the SpinOrbit Coupling) can cause a change of the tunnel probability, which manifests as a magnetoresistance effect. We demonstrated that a careful control of the interface oxidation is crucial for the TAMR effect. The large induced magnetic anisotropy allowed us to achieve enhanced TAMR values compared to similar Pt/Co/AlOx structures
1 edition published in 2015 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
In the context of studying magnetic and spintronics phenomena occurring at the nanoscale, we investigated several aspects of Pt/Co/AlOx asymmetric structures. One of the objectives of this thesis was the control of the oxidation and the tailoring of the magnetic properties of these multilayers. We combined structural (XRay Reflectivity), transport (Anomalous Hall Effect) and magnetic measurements (VSMSQUID), to study the interplay of magnetic and interfacial effects. One objective was to analyze the role that few monolayers (MLs) of CoO (which can form when overoxidizing the Al layer), could have on the properties of the stack. We used a wedge deposition techniques to control the oxidation on a subnanometer scale. We established that few MLs of CoO largely affect the total anisotropy of the stack. To further investigate the impact of the CoO, we engineered ultrathin Co(0.6nm)/CoO(0.6nm) bilayers. We performed field cooled measurements on this system and we found a large exchange bias anisotropy. These results indicate that the CoO keeps a large anisotropy even in the ML regime, help to rule out some of the models proposed to explain the exchange bias effect and imply that the usually neglected CoO presence must be considered in the energy balance of the system. We build perpendicular Tunneling Anisotropic MagnetoResistance (TAMR) devices based on the Pt/Co/AlOx structure. The TAMR is a relatively new spintronics effect in which the rotation of the magnetization in a single magnetic electrode (combined with the SpinOrbit Coupling) can cause a change of the tunnel probability, which manifests as a magnetoresistance effect. We demonstrated that a careful control of the interface oxidation is crucial for the TAMR effect. The large induced magnetic anisotropy allowed us to achieve enhanced TAMR values compared to similar Pt/Co/AlOx structures
Etude théorique et expérimentale de la génération et des corrélations quantiques de photons triplets générés par interaction
non linéaire d'ordre trois by
Audrey Dot(
)
1 edition published in 2011 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This work deals about the study of coherence between triple photon beams generated by a third order non linear interaction. A protocol, based on the study of the field arising from sumfrequency of the triplet fields in a non linear crystal, was proposed. A theoretical model, in the quantum formalism, was developed, leading to an exhaustive research of the potential signature of the correlations. All the possible schemes were studied : triple fields generation from parametric fluorescence or from stimulated interaction, and recombination of two or three of the triple fields. The experiments we led, i.e. the bistimulated non linear generation and the recombination of the soborn fields, agree with our theoretical model and put into light the correlations hiding in this highly stimulated regime, since these correlations lie in the quantum fluctuations of the fields operators. The theoretical calculations predicts a strong correlations signature when the fields are generated from parametric fluorescence, and a weaker one in the case of a generation monostimulated
1 edition published in 2011 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This work deals about the study of coherence between triple photon beams generated by a third order non linear interaction. A protocol, based on the study of the field arising from sumfrequency of the triplet fields in a non linear crystal, was proposed. A theoretical model, in the quantum formalism, was developed, leading to an exhaustive research of the potential signature of the correlations. All the possible schemes were studied : triple fields generation from parametric fluorescence or from stimulated interaction, and recombination of two or three of the triple fields. The experiments we led, i.e. the bistimulated non linear generation and the recombination of the soborn fields, agree with our theoretical model and put into light the correlations hiding in this highly stimulated regime, since these correlations lie in the quantum fluctuations of the fields operators. The theoretical calculations predicts a strong correlations signature when the fields are generated from parametric fluorescence, and a weaker one in the case of a generation monostimulated
Propriétés optiques non linéaires quadratiques des cristaux La3Ga5.5Nb0.5O14 (LGN) et Rb : KTiOPO4 à domaines ferroélectriques
alternés périodiquement (PPRKTP) by
Dazhi Lu(
)
1 edition published in 2018 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Nonlinear optics converting the frequency range of laser sources to ultraviolet, visible, infrared or terahertz ranges for example, plays a crucial role in medicine, industry, military applications, research and so on. Birefringence phasematching (BPM) or quasiphasematching (QPM) from quadratic nonlinear processes, can be used for frequency conversion in the transparency range of nonlinear crystals. In this PhD work, a La3Ga5.5Nb0.5O14 (LGN) uniaxial crystal was grown using a Czochralski method and then studied for BPM. We also validated the theory of angularQPM (AQPM), corresponding to a generalization of QPM achieved at any angle with respect to the grating vector. For that purpose, we studied a periodicallypoled largeaperture Rb:KTiOPO4 (PPRKTP) biaxial crystal cut a sphere. All the results provide a reliable basis for further studies devoted to the design of frequency conversion devices
1 edition published in 2018 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Nonlinear optics converting the frequency range of laser sources to ultraviolet, visible, infrared or terahertz ranges for example, plays a crucial role in medicine, industry, military applications, research and so on. Birefringence phasematching (BPM) or quasiphasematching (QPM) from quadratic nonlinear processes, can be used for frequency conversion in the transparency range of nonlinear crystals. In this PhD work, a La3Ga5.5Nb0.5O14 (LGN) uniaxial crystal was grown using a Czochralski method and then studied for BPM. We also validated the theory of angularQPM (AQPM), corresponding to a generalization of QPM achieved at any angle with respect to the grating vector. For that purpose, we studied a periodicallypoled largeaperture Rb:KTiOPO4 (PPRKTP) biaxial crystal cut a sphere. All the results provide a reliable basis for further studies devoted to the design of frequency conversion devices
Caractérisation à l'échelle micro/nanométrique par Force Feedback Microscope by
Simon Carpentier(
)
1 edition published in 2016 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Quantitative measurement of mechanical properties of soft material at the nanoscale is a real challenge for many areas, particularly in biology. This thesis proposes a microscopy technique called Force Feedback Microscopy (FFM) for simultaneously measuring the static force, the stiffness G'(N / m) and the dissipation G"(N / m) at an arbitrary frequency at the nanoscale.This technique uses an AFM cantilever with a tip or sphere. A feedback force, that maintains in real time the position of the tip constant, ensures the mechani cally stability and measure the static force. In this configuration, the linear regime of interaction and harmonic oscillator is obtained through small oscillation ampli tudes. In formalism of the linear response, the stiffness G' and the dissipation G" are obtained by a linear transformation of the amplitude and phase. Through case study (electrostatic coupling and hydrodynamic confinement), experimental performance is demonstrated.Thanks to the FFM, we present the measured viscoelastic properties of nanomenis cus for different measurement frequencies. We highlight a thermodynamic system out of equilibrium, where the nanomeniscus oscillates at constant volume with a locked contact line.A method for noncontact measurement in liquid medium of mechanical prop erties of thin and soft sample at the nanoscale is presented. This method, based on the work of E.Charlaix with SFA (the Surface Force Apparatus was the first instrument to measure the forces of Van der Waals), overcomes the forces of sur faces that dominate at low indentation during direct contact measurement. The work done during my PhD positions the FFM as a nanoSFA.To put this method available to the greatest number, technology transfer to commercial AFM is performed
1 edition published in 2016 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Quantitative measurement of mechanical properties of soft material at the nanoscale is a real challenge for many areas, particularly in biology. This thesis proposes a microscopy technique called Force Feedback Microscopy (FFM) for simultaneously measuring the static force, the stiffness G'(N / m) and the dissipation G"(N / m) at an arbitrary frequency at the nanoscale.This technique uses an AFM cantilever with a tip or sphere. A feedback force, that maintains in real time the position of the tip constant, ensures the mechani cally stability and measure the static force. In this configuration, the linear regime of interaction and harmonic oscillator is obtained through small oscillation ampli tudes. In formalism of the linear response, the stiffness G' and the dissipation G" are obtained by a linear transformation of the amplitude and phase. Through case study (electrostatic coupling and hydrodynamic confinement), experimental performance is demonstrated.Thanks to the FFM, we present the measured viscoelastic properties of nanomenis cus for different measurement frequencies. We highlight a thermodynamic system out of equilibrium, where the nanomeniscus oscillates at constant volume with a locked contact line.A method for noncontact measurement in liquid medium of mechanical prop erties of thin and soft sample at the nanoscale is presented. This method, based on the work of E.Charlaix with SFA (the Surface Force Apparatus was the first instrument to measure the forces of Van der Waals), overcomes the forces of sur faces that dominate at low indentation during direct contact measurement. The work done during my PhD positions the FFM as a nanoSFA.To put this method available to the greatest number, technology transfer to commercial AFM is performed
Recherche sur les propriétés supraconductrices des supraconducteurs à base de Fer 122 par mesure de transport et microscopie
à squid by
ZhaoSheng Wang(
)
1 edition published in 2012 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
1 edition published in 2012 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Effets de basse dimensionnalité et de la frustration magnétique dans les composés du type AB₂O₆ by
Marlon Luiz Hneda(
)
1 edition published in 2016 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This thesis comprises a study of the compounds of AB₂O₆ type that have attracted wide interest in recent years due to their lowdimensional magnetism properties. To better understand their magnetic properties and the parameters that influence it, we have relied on a good knowledge of the crystal structure. All samples were studied by Xray diffraction (ambient pressure or under high pressure) and neutron diffraction (low and/or high temperature). We also performed other characterisations, such as magnetic susceptibility, specific heat and Mössbauer spectroscopy measurements. We have produced the MnNb2xVx O6 serie in order to vary the distances between magnetic interchains and thus the nature of the exchange interactions. These compounds are interesting due to the presence of low anisotropy and a coupling of magnetic moments in zigzag chains along the caxis, which gives them a onedimensional character, and an antiferromagnetic coupling between chains. We made a comparison with the theoretical model of the classical Heisenberg chain and obtained the exchange constants intra and interchain, J and J', and its dependency on the content x. Then we made a study of MnxA1xNb2O6 compounds with A = Fe, Co and Ni. Our aim was to check how the nature and the difference in atomic radii can influence the structural and magnetic properties of these compounds. For compounds which showed no magnetic ordering at 1.5 K we made a study of correlations at short distances using Bertaut's model. Thanks to the use of HP and HT synthesis we manage to stabilized MnV2O6 in orthorhombic symetry and determine its physical properties. We then perfomed a comparison with the monoclinic MnV2O6 and with the orthorhombic MnNb2O6 compound as well. Macroscopic magnetic behaviour of isostructural compounds are very similar but in the case of MnNb2O6, the magnetic moments form +  +  type chains while the MnV2O6 presents chains of + +   type, a structure never observed before in this family of compounds
1 edition published in 2016 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This thesis comprises a study of the compounds of AB₂O₆ type that have attracted wide interest in recent years due to their lowdimensional magnetism properties. To better understand their magnetic properties and the parameters that influence it, we have relied on a good knowledge of the crystal structure. All samples were studied by Xray diffraction (ambient pressure or under high pressure) and neutron diffraction (low and/or high temperature). We also performed other characterisations, such as magnetic susceptibility, specific heat and Mössbauer spectroscopy measurements. We have produced the MnNb2xVx O6 serie in order to vary the distances between magnetic interchains and thus the nature of the exchange interactions. These compounds are interesting due to the presence of low anisotropy and a coupling of magnetic moments in zigzag chains along the caxis, which gives them a onedimensional character, and an antiferromagnetic coupling between chains. We made a comparison with the theoretical model of the classical Heisenberg chain and obtained the exchange constants intra and interchain, J and J', and its dependency on the content x. Then we made a study of MnxA1xNb2O6 compounds with A = Fe, Co and Ni. Our aim was to check how the nature and the difference in atomic radii can influence the structural and magnetic properties of these compounds. For compounds which showed no magnetic ordering at 1.5 K we made a study of correlations at short distances using Bertaut's model. Thanks to the use of HP and HT synthesis we manage to stabilized MnV2O6 in orthorhombic symetry and determine its physical properties. We then perfomed a comparison with the monoclinic MnV2O6 and with the orthorhombic MnNb2O6 compound as well. Macroscopic magnetic behaviour of isostructural compounds are very similar but in the case of MnNb2O6, the magnetic moments form +  +  type chains while the MnV2O6 presents chains of + +   type, a structure never observed before in this family of compounds
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 École doctorale physique (Grenoble) Other
 Communauté d'universités et d'établissements Université Grenoble Alpes Degree grantor
 Université de Grenoble (20092014) Degree grantor
 École doctorale électronique, électrotechnique, automatique, traitement du signal (Grenoble) Other
 Université Grenoble Alpes (2020....). Degree grantor
 Poizat, JeanPhilippe Other Opponent Thesis advisor
 Courtois, Hervé Other Opponent Thesis advisor
 Boulanger, Benoît Other Opponent Thesis advisor
 Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang Opponent Thesis advisor
 École doctorale Ingénierie  matériaux mécanique énergétique environnement procédés production (Grenoble) Other
Alternative Names
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Institut Néel
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Unité Propre 2940
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique UPR 2940
IN
Institut Néel
Institut NéelCNRS
Institut Néel research institute on magnetism in Grenoble, France
Institut Polytechnique de Grenoble Institut Néel
NEEL
Néel Institut
Unité propre de recherche CNRS 2940
Université Joseph Fourier Institut Néel
UPR 2940
UPR2940
Институт Нееля исследовательский институт по физике конденсированного состояния в Гренобле, Франция
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