WorldCat Identities

Laboratoire rhéologie et procédés (Grenoble)

Overview
Works: 41 works in 42 publications in 2 languages and 67 library holdings
Roles: Other
Publication Timeline
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Most widely held works by Laboratoire rhéologie et procédés (Grenoble)
Écoulements de fluides à seuil autour d'un cylindre en milieu confiné : études expérimentale et numérique by Hamdullah Ozogul( )

1 edition published in 2016 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Ce travail de thèse concerne les écoulements de fluides à seuil de contrainte autour d'un obstacle cylindrique en milieu confiné avec une configuration d'écoulement de Poiseuille.Expérimentalement, un banc d'essai permettant d'obtenir un écoulement en continu dans un circuit fermé a été mis en place. Les régimes d'écoulement rampant, recirculant et instationnaire périodique ont été étudiés. De nouveaux résultats ont été obtenus avec un fluide newtonien et des solutions de Carbopol, polymère permettant de réaliser des fluides à seuil modèles utilisés en recherche et développement et dans l'industrie. Une caméra rapide et un éclairage plan laser a servi pour l'établissement d'images qui ont ensuite été traitées par PIV. Les champs de vitesses cinématiques, les morphologies d'écoulement et les paramètres critiques de transitions de régimes ont été déterminés.Numériquement, un modèle viscoplastique basé sur la loi de Herschel-Bulkley régularisée a été utilisé. Des résultats comme les morphologies d'écoulement, la localisation des zones rigides, les champs de vitesses ont été obtenus. Ceci a permis de comparer les différences entre les effets liés à la nature des gels de Carbopol et la modélisation viscoplastiques. Une étude spécifique sur le glissement à l'interface fluide-structure a également été réalisée avec l'utilisation d'un modèle de lubrification élasto-hydrodynamique
Instabilité de Rayleigh-Bénard dans les fluides à seuil : critère de démarrage, expériences et modélisation by Chong Li( )

1 edition published in 2015 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In this thesis, three main mechanisms proposed in a recent paper (Darbouli et al., Physics of fluids, 25(2) 2013) have been discussed to explain the onset of Rayleigh Bénard Convection in a yield fluid (Carbopol gels): i) the elasto-visco-plasticity behavior of the material below the yield stress, ii) a viscosity at low values of shear rates by creep measurements below the yield stress, iii) a microscopic viewpoint considering the fluid as a porous two phases system. No-slip conditions have been achieved for all the experiments. The results with different Carbopol gels have proved the importance of Y, the yield number which presents the report of the yield stress and the buoyancy effect, as the governing parameter. The critical value of Y^(-1) with no-slip condition has been found between 60 and 90. A visualization measurement with the utilization of thermochromics liquid crystals presents a global view from above. Different structures have been observed in different states of thermal conditions, which describe the evolution of the convection. For several cases the color of the liquid crystals can indicate the temperature field in the whole experiment cell. Numerical simulations with a Herschel-Bulkley model have also been discussed in this thesis. The dimensionless parameters are defined approaching the values obtained in the experiments, so that we can compare the numerical results with some of experimental ones
Étude du comportement d'ADN en solution et aux interfaces et le rôle de la dynamique micellaire et la rhéologie dans la libération contrôlée de médicaments by Lourdes Mónica Bravo Anaya( )

1 edition published in 2015 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Étude du comportement d'ADN en solution et aux interfaces : actuellement, l'objectif de parvenir à une plus grande efficacité dans les processus de compaction de l'ADN, dans l'innovation des capteurs d'ADN et dans l'étude des changements dans les propriétés interfaciales générés entre les surfaces métalliques et les molécules d'ADN, est devenue un grand domaine d'intérêt en bioingénierie. Cette section de la thèse propose le couplage des techniques rhéométriques, électrochimiques et optiques afin d'effectuer une étude détaillée du comportement de molécules d'ADN en solution et aux interfaces, en fonction de la température, de la concentration en ADN et du potentiel électrique. Tout d'abord, le comportement rhéologique des solutions d'ADN, ainsi que la détection des concentrations critiques (C* et Ce), est discuté à partir d'expériences de rhéométrie en cisaillement permanent et harmonique. Après avoir étudié les propriétés des solutions d'ADN, des techniques électrochimiques et optiques ont été utilisés pour identifier les changements structurels aux interfaces Au/ADN et Pt/ADN, ainsi que pour décrire l'arrangement des chaînes d'ADN dans la double couche électrochimique pour les régimes dilué et semi-dilués. La réponse obtenue par Spectroscopie d'Impédance Électrochimique (EIS), Modulation Interfaciale de la Capacitance (MIC) et Résonance des Plasmons de Surface (SPR) reflète un processus d'adsorption des molécules d'ADN sur les surfaces métalliques. Finalement, en utilisant des concentrations d'ADN dans le régime dilué, on a étudié la formation de nanoparticules de chitosane-ADN avec stœchiométrie définie pour le transfert de gènes.Le rôle de la dynamique micellaire et la rhéologie dans la libération contrôlée de médicaments: le transfert ciblé d'ingrédients actifs (vectorisation) est un grand défi pour la recherche thérapeutique. Ce procédé est utilisé pour contrôler le transfert des protéines, des gènes et des médicaments vers une cellule cible en l'associant à un vecteur. Les molécules pour la chimiothérapie sont souvent hydrophobes et ont besoin d'un vecteur pour être transférées. Dans cette section de la thèse, on cherche à comprendre les dynamiques d'échange collectives (fusion et fission) entre micelles de copolymères triblocs amphiphiles à l'équilibre et hors équilibre. Ensuite, on étudie les dynamiques d'échange collectives entre ces micelles, choisies comme vecteurs, et des liposomes, choisis comme cellules modèles. On utilise une technique de fluorescence avec un dérivé de pyrène hydrophobe pour suivre les processus de fusion et de fission. Après avoir caractérisé la structure des copolymères amphiphile et avoir étudié leur dynamique à l'équilibre et hors l'équilibre, nous proposons une technique de fluorescence qui permet de quantifier les dynamiques collectives de vectorisation entre les micelles et les liposomes. Les effets de la variation de la concentration de liposomes et de l'adsorption du chitosane sur la membrane du liposome et sur les micelles ont été étudiés
Rhéologie des résidus agricoles pour un procédé multi-étapes de méthanisation en voie sèche by Victor Ruys( )

1 edition published in 2017 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Rhéologie des résidus agricoles pour un procédé de méthanisation par voie sèche multi-étapes.Le procédé Arkométha® utilise à profit l'injection de biogaz pour mélanger les résidus agricoles (fumier, lisier, ensilage, etc...) lors d'un procédé de méthanisation en voie sèche dans lequel la matière est épaisse. La connaissance des propriétés rhéologiques de ces matériaux, rarement étudiés dans la littérature, notamment à l'échelle industrielle, est un élément indispensable pour maitriser et contrôler le processus de mélange. Cette thèse a pour objectif de développer la compréhension des évolutions physiques et rhéologiques de ces matériaux lors de la méthanisation. La revue bibliographique détaillée dans le deuxième chapitre, a montré la nécessité de disposer d'un rhéomètre capable de mesurer les propriétés rhéologiques de ces produits à l'échelle industrielle. Pour cela, un cahier de charge a été établi à partir des contraintes scientifiques et techniques imposées par ces matériaux considérés comme des suspensions concentrées en fibres de dimensions importantes. Sur cette base, un rhéomètre de grandes dimensions pour les substrats, nommé RGDS, a été construit, validé et mis en service sur site industriel. La technique de scissométrie était utilisée pour mesurer le seuil d'écoulement et des pales type mélangeur, étalonnées en utilisant l'analogie de Couette, permettent de mesurer les propriétés sous écoulement. Dans le troisième chapitre nous avons montré la limite de l'utilisation du taux de matière sèche (MS%) traditionnellement utilisé comme un paramètre contrôlant la rhéologie, comme par exemple, le seuil d'écoulement de ces matériaux. Nous avons montré qu'il est plus pertinent de maitriser la répartition de l'eau dans la suspension pour contrôler les propriétés rhéologiques en prenant en compte le caractère spongieux de la matière lignocellulosique. Nous avons montré comment déterminer les concentrations critiques qui séparent les régimes semi-concentré, concentré, milieu triphasique non saturé en liquide jusqu'à un milieu granulaire humide et leurs relations avec le seuil d'écoulement. Dans le quatrième chapitre nous avons étudié l'effet de l'évolution des paramètres opératoires du procédé de méthanisation comme la taille des fibres, la température et le taux de matière sèche sur les propriétés rhéologiques des matériaux. Plusieurs modèles et lois ont été proposés pour quantifier l'intérêt d'effectuer des modifications des paramètres opératoires sur la rhéologie de ces matériaux
La fibrinographie : une méthode multi-longueurs d'ondes pour la détermination de la structure du caillot en plasma by Carhel Dassi( )

1 edition published in 2016 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The physiological role of the clot is to avoid excessive bleeding in the presence of a vascular breach. Once this function is filled, the clot must be able to be easily destroyed, so that it is not transported in the venous system and does not hamper blood circulation. The formation of a fibrin clot and its lysis are key processes of hemostasis, implying simultaneously the polymerization of the fibrinogen monomers in a fibrin fibers network, and the destruction of this constituted network.Although this network controls the physical and mechanical properties of the clot, its structure at scales smaller than the micron is poorly characterized. The main problem in the physical characterization of clot in clinical settings is the current absence of a quantitative, sensitive and reproducible measurement method.We demonstrated in this work, thanks to our method using several wavelengths, that the analysis of the visible spectra of light transmitted through a clot allows to determine simultaneously, quantitatively and in quasi-physiological conditions, several essential parameters of structure of the fibrin clot, namely the number of protofibrils per fibrin fibers, the radius and the density of fibers, and various times of clotting and lysis of the clot. This method was validated by the results with CV inferior to 6 % under all test conditions and various plasmatic profiles: normal, hypo / hyper coagulant and hypo / hyper fibrinolytic. This demonstrates the robustness and reliability of the measurement method when measuring both clotting and clot lysis.This spectrophotometric method was implemented on a modified automaton dedicated to diagnosis of patients presenting hemostatic disorders. The clinical information and the interests expected from this new test concern at the same time the quality of the fibrin network, its accelerated lysis or its resistance to fibrinolysis, and the resultant of the coagulo-lytic balance
Melt processing of cellulose nanocrystals : thermal, mechanical and rheological properties of polymer nanocomposites by Malladi Nagalakshmaiah( )

1 edition published in 2016 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The low thermal stability and irreversible agglomeration issues are limiting to process the polymer nanocomposites using CNC as the reinforcing phase. In this context, thermally stable and highly dispersed CNC were prepared by green process (Aqueous based methods) like physical adsorption and surface modification. These two different Extrudable CNC was reinforced in to hydrophobic polymers. Ensuing polymer nanocomposites had a positive impact on the storage modulus, tensile strength, Young's modulus. Importantly, no evidence of micro aggregates in the matrix was observed in the scanning electron microscopy images contrary to non-treated CNC. Both the surface modification and adsorption are the water based methods and is an industrially viable solution. Also, it can be applicable at industrial level
Etude des propriétés de transport de mousse dans des modèles de milieux poreux by Alexis Mauray( )

1 edition published in 2017 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In enhanced oil recovery (EOR), foams are injected in porous media to improve oil recovery efficiency. The objective is to limit viscous fingering thanks to the high effective viscosity of the foam at low capillary number Ca. Foam is produced by the co-injection of a gas and a solution of surfactants. This thesis focuses on foam formation and transport mechanisms in model porous media using a heterogeneous micromodel made in NOA. Foam formation is studied using two different approaches. The first one consists in studying a co-injection of two fluids thanks to a jet flowing in the center of the system. This experiment shows that the less wetting fluids is dispersed in the other one when the capillary number is higher than 10-5. A second set of experiments is conducted by injected a pre-formed train of big bubbles in model a porous media. The bubbles divide until they reach a diameter of the order of to the pore size, for high enough capillary numbers Ca. Besides, we studied the transport properties of foam in similar model porous media. Direct measurements show that the pressure drop induces by the flow can be at Ca=10-6 as high as 3000 times the pressure corresponding to water injected at the same injection flow rate. This ratio decreases with capillary number. An analysis of the preferential paths by direct observations shows that, for low relative gas flow rate, only a few paths are active. However, an increase of the capillary number or if relative gas flow rate leads to a homogenization of the flow in the medium. Thanks to different simple models of straight or wavy channels, we measure that the pressure drop induced by a single bubble is in good agreement with Bretherton's law, and scales as Ca2/3. However, in wavy channels the pressure drop due to a single bubble deviates from this prediction and exhibits a plateau at Ca lower than 10-4. In this regime, the motion of the bubble is usually intermittent. Finally, we focus on foam formation and transport properties in presence of oil. Our observations lead to the conclusion that for our setup and surfactant formulations, oil has a negligible influence
Etude expérimentale de la formation des biofilms sous conditions hydrodynamiques contrôlées by Ana Cecilia de Andrade Pinho Medeiros( )

1 edition published in 2016 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In the aquatic environment, 90% of microorganisms are present as a biofilm rather than free-swimming cells. Biofilms may develop on most of humid surfaces, in particular, in porous media for their high specific surface area. Biofilm formation in porous media is very interesting subject for many scientific researchers, because of its relevance to many industrial processes such as water treatment, soil bio- mediation, oil recovery and CO2 storage. However, the development of the biofilm is not just a passive aggregation of bacteria cells. It involves biological, physical and chemical interactions with the bacteria's micro-environment. Several studies in macroscopic scale have shown that hydrodynamic conditions in porous media play an essential role on the dynamics of biofilm growth, which in turn affects hydrodynamic properties of porous media such as porosity, permeability and pressure drop. In this thesis we have developed an experimental device and an appropriate methodology for the characterization of biofilm's structure. An experimental study on the influence of fluid flow on the formation and structure of biofilms was performed using a bacterial strain Pseudomonas putida. Biofilms were grown in micro Hele-Shaw flow cell (in PDMS or PMMA) under laminar flows (Re=0.04~2) and fed continuously with a nutrient medium. Characterization of initial colonization was also carried out in order to examine the statistical variability and reproducibility of experiments. Biofilm formation on a solid support under a sheared flow (Re=0.04 (0.0021 Pa) and Re = 2 (0.094 Pa)) was evaluated after 24, 48 and 72h of development. Observations were made under a confocal laser scanning microscopes using fluorescent tag. 2D images were taken at different positions in the flow cell and used to perform a 3D reconstruction of biofilm's structure and an evaluation of its spatial distribution for an observation area of 12 *12mm². The results show that biofilms formation is not sensitive to initial colonization. A stratification of biofilm was also observed. The inner layer has a thin thickness (5~10 µm), but with a dense structure, while the outer layer show rather a filamentous structure. The ratio of volume fractions between these two layers varies from 3 to 12, depending on the formation time. This difference is more important in the case of low shear stress than that of high shear stress, which means that the upper part of the biofilm seems to be controlled by the hydrodynamic conditions. By analyzing the spatial distribution of the biomass, we found that after 48h, the biofilm present a significant heterogeneity and the volume fraction of biomass decreases after 72h for both two hydrodynamic conditions, which suggests probable detachments or erosions of biofilm. Concerning the growth kinetics, different apparent growth rates were observed for each observation time. These values are significantly below the growth rates observed in free culture medium. This result also indicates a possible effect of hydrodynamics on the growth of biofilm. This experimental study of biofilm formation in micro-scale allowed us to obtain the information on the biofilm structural and its apparent growth rate, as well as the hydrodynamic effect on its properties across several pores of the porous media. This scaling up makes it's possible to develop eventually mathematical models to simulate the evolution biofilm's morphology and its spatial distribution in the porous medium
RhéoSpeckle : un nouvel outil d'étude du comportement multi-échelle des matériaux hétérogènes by Nabil Ali( )

1 edition published in 2016 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This work tries to better characterize the behavior of homogeneous and heterogeneous materials under shear with a multi-scale approach (macro-meso-micro-scopic). To do that, we have developed an innovative setup by coupling a rheometer to a speckle imaging geometry witch is spatially and temporally resolved (RheoSpeckle). We validate our experience using two perfect materials: a solid and a pure viscous fluid. On a solid sample, we calculate the displacement field on the speckle images with a resolution better than 1 µm. we demonstrate than, the microscopic elasticity of this material. On a pure viscous fluid, we measured the nanoparticle's size with excellent accuracy. When a constant shear rate is applied, the velocity profile is measured with a time less than 1 s with a spatial resolution of 100 µm over 5 mm. The microscopic dynamic of a Brownian solution under shear is probed and the shear induced on the decorrelation of the intensity correlation function is studied. We show the capabilities of our experience using a concentrated solution of wormlike micelles. The linear rheology is studied using rheometric measurements and our speckle imaging system. Nonlinear rheology is studied using rheometric measurements (macro), but also by calculating the velocity filed and the intensity of speckle images (meso). With mesocopics measurements, the formation of shear banding is proved and characterized. Finally, the spatio-temporal relaxation (micro) of shear bands of this material is studied. We show for the first time the existence of two relaxations times after shear and that the relaxation of bands is relatively slow
Nanofibres de cellulose pour la production de bionanocomposites by Oleksandr Nechyporchuk( )

1 edition published in 2015 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Un des principaux challenges dans le contexte du développement des matériaux biocomposites est de remplacer les matières plastiques à base de pétrole par des matériaux biosourcés. En raison de leurs origines naturelles, d'une résistance relativement élevée et de leur capacité à former des produits transparents, les nanofibres de cellulose possèdent un grand potentiel d'applications dans les matériaux composites. Dans ce travail des résultats ont été apportés premièrement sur l'optimisation des procédés de productions de nanofibres de cellulose par des traitements biochimiques et mécaniques, deuxièmement sur leurs propriétés rhéologiques et structurelles en milieu aqueux et troisièmement sur la production de composites à matrice de latex. Les questions de dispersions homogènes de nanofibres de cellulose dans la matrice et des interactions entre ces composants à des fins de renforcement des bio-composites ont été étudiés en détails
Étude des propriétés thermodynamiques et dynamiques des polymères confinés en géométrie nanoparticules by Chourouk Mathlouthi( )

1 edition published in 2016 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Influence de la nature du fibrinogène sur la structure et la mécanique du caillot de fibrine by Xabel Garcia gonzalez( )

1 edition published in 2016 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

La formation du caillot de fibrine, processus clé de la coagulation sanguine, implique la polymérisation des monomères de fibrine en un réseau de fibres. Ce réseau contrôle les propriétés mécaniques du caillot et constitue le squelette sur lequel se base la cicatrisation. Si l'influence des conditions de réaction (pH, concentration, ...) est bien connue, le rôle de la composition du fibrinogène sur la structure de la fibrine est inexploré. Cet aspect pourrait être important pour les pathologies cardiovasculaires qui présentent toutes une structure de fibrine anormale.Nous avons étudié la relation entre la composition de plusieurs fibrinogènes et les propriétés structurelles nano- et micro-métriques ainsi que la mécanique des caillots de fibrine. La composition en protéines co-purifiées de ces fibrinogènes a peu d'influence, alors que le profil de polydispersité contrôle la structure multi-échelle de la fibrine. Des mesures de diffusion des rayons x, de spectrophotométrie multi-longueur d'ondes et de microscopie confocale ont mis en évidence que les fibres provenant des fibrinogènes monodisperses sont quasi-cristallines, droites et rigides. Les fibres provenant de fibrinogènes polydisperses sont, elles, beaucoup moins organisées, courbées, avec un module de rigidité faible. Enfin, les propriétés mécaniques de la fibrine ont montré que la réponse des caillots aux déformations, aussi que les scenarios de rupture, sont directement liés à sa structure et donc significativement dépendants du profil de polydispersité des fibrinogènes. Ces résultats ouvrent de nouvelles perspectives dans plusieurs domaines, que ce soit pour l'utilisation optimale des fibrinogènes pour les dysfibrinogénémies et hémorragies, mais également pour la reconstruction tissulaire, ainsi que la compréhension du lien entre la structure anormale des caillots et les maladies cardiovasculaires
Elaboration et caractérisation de membranes nanofibreuses electrospinnées : influence de la rhéologie des polymères, de la structuration du réseau de fibres et de ses propriétés mécaniques by Khula Ganhi jahsim Aljaber( )

1 edition published in 2017 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Electrospinning, an original polymer process under high electric fields to produce a network of thin fiber having a micrometer diameter, is widely used for the synthesis of nanofibrous non-woven membranes. The fabricated electrospun membranes have a high porosity and a high surface to volume ratio. Indeed, they reveal much interest and have been much developed in the last decades, which paves the way for numerous applications such as sensing, tissue engineering or drug delivery. Current research aims to have fibrous membranes with a controlled architecture using various types of collectors.This thesis is part of a global and emerging project that focuses on the production of structured scaffolds nanofibers based on biopolymers and dedicated to the therapeutic strategy for the regeneration of soft tissues.In the present work, the first focus was to develop new biocompatible and bioresorbable materials composed of nanoscale fibers obtained by electrospinning. In addition, this study examined the influence of viscosity, concentration, and surface tension of PEO solutions on the obtained fibers. Further, the flow rate, applied voltage and environmental parameters (temperature and humidity) were also optimized in the course of nanofibers production.Biocompatible fibers have been obtained by using PEO. It is a linear polymer that consists of ethylene and ether segments [-CH2CH2O-]n. The ether oxygen allows this polymer to interact with other hydrophilic species, while the ethylene part participates in hydrophobic interactions. Due to its water solubility, non-toxicity and electrospinn ability, PEO has been used as an additive in biopolymer solutions to enable the formation of electrospun fibers. The mechanical strength of the PEO depended on the molecular weight, the conformation of the polymer chains and the fiber scale, the structure of the network.The second major effort of this thesis focused on the control of the mesh fibers. Such research activity is justified by the expected influence of the morphology of the fiber network on the mechanical properties of scaffolds and their biomimetic character that could favor the colonization and growth of the cells of the host tissue. The control of this structure has been achieved through the development of collectors.The objective of this project is making non-woven fibrous structures in uncontrolled architecture as well as non-woven with controlled architecture by using the electrospinning process. These fibrous structures are obtained from Poly(ethylene oxide), PEO, solutions with different concentration and molecular weight. The deposit of fibers is made on two types of collectors: a) Aluminum foil, b) micro-structured collector (dimension 3×3 cm). The morphological analyses of the membranes were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and their mechanical properties were characterized by tensile test using the ARESG2 rheometer. The morphology of the electrospun polymer gradually changes from beads to uniform fibers with increasing polymer concentration and molecular weight. A comparative study of the morphological and mechanical (tensile test) properties, of both fibrous structures is performed. This study showed that it is possible to have a distribution of fiber forming a very uniform primitive cell in a network of dimension 3×3 cm. This structured network has a strain at the break more important than that for the network fibers, which are collected on Aluminum foil
Etude des ferrofluides et de leurs applications à l'intensification des transferts de chaleur par convection forcée by Wahid Cherief( )

1 edition published in 2015 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This thesis aims to study the thermal and rheological performances of ferrofluids under magnetic field for an application in cooling systems. The approach consists on macroscopic analysis based on experimental studies. Our approach is focused on three aspects: i) rheology ii) internal forced convection iii) thermal conductivity. We developed different characterization benches. For rheological studies, a magnetic circuit is developed and integrated into rheometer to create magnetic fields reaching 0,8 T. This approach demonstrates the influence of magnetic flux density on the shear forces. Concerning heat transfers, we carried out experimental tests based on the use of a closed loop flow system to study forced convection of ferrofluids with imposed wall flux under magnetic field. This test bench allows us to understand the impact of several parameters related to the configuration of the applied magnetic field on the enhancement of convective heat transfers. To analyze why convective heat transfers are better under magnetic field, we carried out a system for measuring the thermal conductivity. This bench tests allows us to show the effect of temperature and magnetic flux density on this physical property. All these tests are paving the way for new research activities and to the ferrofluids applications in cooling systems
Conditions hydrodynamiques et organisation structurale dans le dépôt formé lors de l'ultrafiltration tangentielle : application à la bioraffinerie by Candice Rey( )

1 edition published in 2017 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Les procédés de séparation membranaire, utilisés couramment dans de nombreux domaines industriels, comme l'agro-alimentaire, le traitement des eaux ou les biotechnologies, sont de plus en plus mis en œuvre dans le domaine des bioraffineries. L'ultrafiltration tangentielle, par exemple, montre un fort potentiel dans l'étape de séparation des matières premières comme les nanocristaux de cellulose pour les transformer en biomasse. Cependant, l'augmentation de la concentration en particules à la surface de la membrane limite ce procédé, entrainant la formation des phénomènes de polarisation de concentration et de colmatage, réduisant les performances de filtration. Ces travaux de thèse ont pour objectif d'améliorer la compréhension des mécanismes de formation de ces phénomènes. Deux méthodes de caractérisation couvrant les échelles nanométriques à micrométiques ont été mises au point, grâce au développement de cellules de filtration couplant l'ultrafiltration à la diffusion de rayons X aux petits angles d'une part, et à la micro vélocimétrie par images de particules d'autre part. Ces mesures effectuées in-situ lors de la filtration tangentielle de suspensions de nanocristaux de cellulose et d'argile de Laponite, ont permis de caractériser l'organisation structurale et le champ hydrodynamique au sein des couches de polarisation. La corrélation de ces résultats avec les lois de comportement rhéologique des suspensions ont permis d'accéder pour la première fois aux champs de contraintes dans les couches de polarisation de concentration et de colmatage lors du procédé
Rhéologie et mécanique des fluides du conditionnement de produits semi-solides by Fanny Rasschaert( )

1 edition published in 2017 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Packaging is a key step of cheese products industrial manufacturing process. It consists in filling containers of various shapes with non-Newtonian products while ensuring optimized rates. The aim of the present work is to describe the influence of cheese rheological properties as well as process parameters onto packaging, thereby contributing towards its optimization.Necessary for the study, the rheological behavior of cheese products on the process stress range at 80°C has been identified as shear-thinning with a yield stress, with elasticity both below and above the yield stress.Jets and filling hydrodynamics during packaging have been studied with three types of products by the means of the laboratory-scale process pilot, which is able to reproduce the industrial process conditions. After checking for consistency between experimental and litterature results for Newtonian products, the study focused on viscoplastic model fluids, Carbopol® hydrogels, and on cheeses.Five flow patterns have been observed and characterized through jet diameter, spread velocity during filling and final mound height after filling, which is a key factor of the packaging quality. Flow patterns dimensionless distributions have been determined from the forces involved in the system. Thus, the flow pattern can be predicted thanks to theses distributions from product rheological properties and geometrical and process parameters
Ecoulements de fluides à seuil autour d'obstacles by Fiacre Ahonguio( )

1 edition published in 2015 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Many industrial processes include numerous complex fluids often presenting a yield stress. Those fluids can also slip when interfacial conditions are favorable. All these properties affect their flows around obstacles. This thesis aims to understand such flows in a domain where the flow velocities are so low that inertia effects can be neglected compared to viscous effects which are substantially low compared to plastic effects. It analyzes the influence of the velocity and the slip on the drag force and the kinematic fields of the creeping flow of a yield stress fluid around obstacles either with adhesive or slippery wall. The flow is analyzed in steady regime. The considered geometries are the disc, the sphere, the cone and the flat plate. The fluid used has an elasto-viscoplastic behavior which is modelled by the Herschel-Bulkley and Hooke models. This behavior has been characterized by rheometrical tests performed with adherence and slip conditions. The main non-dimensional number is the Oldroyd number, i.e. the ratio between plastic and viscous effects, which ranges from 10 to 200. The drag forces measurements have shown that regardless of the obstacle and the interfacial conditions, the drag coefficient decreases with the Oldroyd number before tending towards to an asymptotical value. This asymptotical value highlights that for high Oldroyd numbers the drag coefficient is no longer governed by the velocity but depends only on the yield stress and the characteristic section of the obstacle. A stability criterion for which the obstacle is held in suspension has been calculated from it. The kinematic fields determined by PIV have enabled to characterize the shape and the extent of the sheared and static regions. The drag forces and the kinematic fields measurements have enabled to quantify the contribution of the normal and tangential stresses in the total drag force. The wall slip significantly reduces the drag coefficient and also reduces the extent of the sheared zones. A numerical simulation has been performed with an elasto-viscoplastic model by means of a code using finite elements method with Lagrangian integration points in the case of an adhesive flat plane
Rhéologie de suspensions hétérogènes concentrées : applications aux bols alimentaires et aux jus gastriques d'aliments solides. by Jeremy Patarin( )

1 edition published in 2014 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The challenge of this work is to carry out the rheological characterization of concentrated suspensions of viscoplastic objects suspended in a viscoelastic matrix. Three structural constraints are faced: the heterogeneity of the particles, the size of particle in relation to the size of the whole system studied, and the proximity between the consistency of the suspending phase and that the consistency of the particles. In the food context, some biological constraints are added: small lifetimes of bolus, in vivo sampling and test conditions of temperature and humidity. All these constraints lead to a compromise in rheometry, at the edge of continuum mechanics, aiming to measure useful rheological properties. To carry out the rheological characterizations quickly and efficiently, two original devices has been designed trough this work. Applied to food bolus from cheese, rheology comes to govern flows in the mouth and induce the creation of exchange area in the mouth, during the chewing process. Through these interfaces, the savors and flavors are released and transported to the sensory receptors. The results show the relationship between the yield stress of the bolus and flavors release of different hydrophobic aromas, depending on the firmness and fat content of the cheeses. Specifically, fluid suspending matrix appears to play a major role in the creation and persistence of exchange area.Applied to gastric juice from bread, the issue is whether changes in carbohydrate content could impact the rheology of gastric juice, modify the kinetics of stomach flow rate, and decrease the glycemic excursion. The results show the effect of amylose addition on increasing the viscosity for long digestion time, when the rheology is no longer governed by the jamming effect of the particles made of water-swollen bread. However, amylose does not seem to have any impact on the kinetics of emptying, which reinforces that the stomach flow rate is regulated by the caloric charge contained in the meal
Viscoélasticité du sang et du caillot by Etienne Ghiringhelli( )

1 edition published in 2014 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Le sang est un fluide complexe mis en écoulement par la pompe très peu puissante qu'est le cœur (environ 1 W), dans un réseau branché de plusieurs milliers de kilomètres de vaisseaux. Pour que cela soit réalisable, il se peut que les propriétés mécaniques du sang contribuent à l'entretien de l'écoulement. Malgré le nombre important d'études sur la rhéologie du sang, sa viscoélasticité n'a jamais été caractérisée en cisaillement simple. Le rôle physiologique du caillot est, lui, d'éviter un épanchement excessif de sang en présence d'une brèche vasculaire. Une de ses fonctions principales est donc de résister aux contraintes générées par l'écoulement sanguin, c'est-à-dire d'avoir une résistance mécanique appropriée. Que ce soit pour la caractérisation mécanique du sang ou du caillot, le principal verrou est l'absence de méthode de mesure adaptée à un matériau peu consistant, et dont les propriétés mécaniques sont en évolution rapide. Il est donc nécessaire de produire une méthode de mesure adéquate, couplée à un système de mesure assez sensible. Dans ce travail, nous présentons la méthode de rhéométrie que nous avons développée dans ce but, baptisée Optimal Fourier Rheometry (OFR). Cette technique a été validée avec succès sur différents matériaux modèles de plus en plus complexes : une huile newtonienne, une gomme viscoélastique (PDMS), une suspension de micelles vermiformes (CpCl Nasal) et enfin un alginate dentaire tout au long de sa gélification. Nous montrons ainsi que l'OFR est une technique de mesure fonctionnelle, fiable et optimale temporellement. Elle permet le suivi de grandeurs mécaniques dont le temps caractéristique de mutation est très inférieur à la minute. En raison de la sédimentation des globules rouges, le sang est un fluide évoluant dans le temps. Par conséquent l'OFR est bien adaptée pour la mesure de ses propriétés viscoélastiques. Pour nous affranchir de la variabilité très importante du sang de témoins, nous avons balayé de façon systématique la concentration en les composants sanguins les plus abondants sur des suspensions de globules rouges lavés. De façon a priori surprenante, nous montrons qu'en présence de fibrinogène, le sang présente une élasticité importante, du même ordre de grandeur, voire plus grande que sa viscosité. Cette élasticité augmente avec la concentration en fibrinogène et l'hématocrite et provient du réseau percolé de globules rouges agrégés de dimension fractale 2.08 qui existe dans la suspension lorsqu'elle est peu cisaillée. L'OFR a également été appliquée au suivi de la coagulation activée par voie intrinsèque et extrinsèque. Cela a permis de montrer que le procédé d'activation n'avait d'effet que sur la cinétique de la réaction, mais que cela ne changeait pas les étapes mécaniques observées. L'OFR permet grâce à sa résolution fréquentielle élevée et son temps de mesure minimal, d'affirmer que le processus de coagulation du sang n'est pas une transition sol-gel
Contrôle de la formation de motifs conducteurs par jet d'encre : Maîtrise multi-échelle des transferts de matière dans des suspensions nanométriques by Vincent Faure( )

1 edition published in 2017 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This thesis focuses on the understanding of the mechanisms involved in the inkjet printing of silver nanoparticles-based inks in order to optimize the manufacturing of thin (width <100 µm) conductive tracks with high and homogeneous performances. Inkjet printing can be divided into several phases: the ejection of picovolumetric droplets, the impact on the substrate, the spreading and the drying. The drying phase is a complex phase prone to particle migration phenomena such as coffee ring effect. This phenomenon, due to the capillary flow which implies a movement from the center to the edges of the drop, drives most of the suspended particles towards the edges of the printed patterns. The aim of this work is to describe precisely and understand the mechanisms which operate and lead to the transfer effects in order to limit or even eliminate them and guarantee the production of performing and homogenous fine conductive lines. To achieve this objective, three paths of investigation were developed: (i) a first axis deals with the study of the different phases of the droplet generation process. Parameters impacting the dried droplet morphology are identified and optimized with a focus on substrate temperature. Four geometrical indexes are designed to characterize quantitatively the dried droplet profile homogeneity. (ii) A second axis specifically studies the drying phase of picovolumetric droplet in order to understand the phenomena occurring during this phase. A modelling of droplet drying is set up in order to understand the forces influencing the matter transport. (iii) Finally, a last axis studies the print of thin conductive lines composed of several printed droplets partially superimposed. Correlations between line morphology, droplet morphology and electrical conductivity are established in order to produce optimized systems
 
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Alternative Names
Laboratoire de rhéologie (Grenoble)

LRP

Rhéologie et procédés (Grenoble)

UMR 5520

UMR5520

Unité Mixte de Recherche 5520

Languages
French (15)

English (5)