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Spintronique et technologie des composants (Grenoble)

Works: 59 works in 59 publications in 2 languages and 102 library holdings
Roles: Other
Publication Timeline
Most widely held works by Spintronique et technologie des composants (Grenoble)
Particules magnétiques pour le traitement du cancer par effet magnéto-mécanique, application au glioblastome by Cécile Naud( )

1 edition published in 2019 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Le glioblastome est un cancer du cerveau très agressif dont les thérapies actuelles n'augmentent que très peu la durée de vie. Dans cette thèse, nous étudions un nouveau traitement par effet magnéto-mécanique de particules (TEMMP). Un champ magnétique rotatif à faible fréquence (20 Hz) est appliqué pour faire vibrer des particules magnétiques en contact avec les cellules cancéreuses. Les particules développées sont produites par une approche top-down en salle blanche. Les disques de permalloy utilisés présentent une configuration en vortex avec une faible rémanence et une bonne dispersion en suspension. Des particules multicouches de Co/Pt avec une anisotropie perpendiculaire et des vortex de permalloy en forme d'ellipses sont aussi étudiés. L'efficacité du TEMMP est évaluée in-vitro sur des cellules de glioblastome et les différents paramètres sont optimisés. Une forte diminution du nombre de cellules après traitement est alors observée et le comportement des cellules restantes est affecté. Le TEMMP est ensuite adapté pour une étude in-vivo dans un modèle orthotopique de glioblastome chez la souris nude. L'injection des particules en intra-tumoral est mise au point. Les tissus sont peu affectés par le TEMMP comparé à une injection de particules, et une faible augmentation de la survie est observée. Pour mimer les propriétés mécaniques du cerveau de manière plus pertinente, un modèle in-vitro 3D est alors développé et validé. Conçu avec des sphéroïdes de cellules pris dans un gel d'agarose, ce modèle apporte des pistes d'optimisation
Transport électronique dans les jonctions tunnel magnétiques à double barrière by Pierre-Yves Clément( )

1 edition published in 2014 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Since a few years, magnetic memories have been extensively studied in order to compete with already existing Random Access Memories such as DRAM. In this context, double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions may have significant assets in terms of reading speed and electrical consumption. In fact, we demonstrated that spin transfer torque is enhanced when polarizers magnetizations are antiparallel, thus yielding a decrease of the writing current. On the contrary, when polarizers are parallel, spin transfer torque is drastically shrinked, thus allowing fast reading of the storage layer state at a voltage as large as the writing voltage. Moreover, we proposed an analysis method to characterize both tunnel barriers by full-sheet electrical measurements, leading to considerable gain of time in material developpement
Microscopie des domaines et parois de domaines dans les nanotubes ferromagnétiques by Michal Staňo( )

1 edition published in 2017 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This thesis explores magnetic configurations, namely magnetic domains and domain walls (DWs) in single ferromagnetic metallic nanotubes (diameters 50-400nm) by means of magnetic microscopies and numerical modelling. The work benefited from international collaboration with TU Darmstadt (synthesis), synchrotrons Elettra and Soleil as well as CNRS CEMES (magnetic imaging). Using electrochemical methods and nanoporous templates, we could fabricate Ni, NiCo, CoNiB, and NiFeB nanotubes as well as Ni wire-tube elements. For the imaging, we relied mainly on X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism coupled with PhotoEmission Electron Microscopy (XMCD-PEEM). We show the first experimental microscopy images of magnetic domains in metallic nanotubes. In long (30µm) CoNiB tubes, we observed many azimuthal (flux-closure) magnetic domains separated by very narrow DWs. This is in contrast with literature and recent experiments where only axial domains appeared for similar geometry. By annealing, changing the chemical composition or just decreasing the nanotube diameter we could obtain also the axial domains. Therefore, tubes are versatile as magnetic domains can be prepared almost à la carte. We demonstrated switching of both axial and azimuthal domains with a magnetic field. We imaged also multilayered tubes - an equivalent of multilayered flat films that form a basic brick of current spintronics. We obtained two magnetic layers (exchange-) decoupled by an oxide spacer. Such a first-of-its-kind structure and its imaging paves the way towards 3D spintronics and magnetism based on vertical arrays of tubes
Study of domain wall dynamics in the presence of large spin orbit coupling : chiral damping and magnetic origami by Safeer Chenattukuzhiyil( )

1 edition published in 2015 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Magnetic domain wall (DW) dynamics is currently attracting tremendous interest both from a fundamental point of view as well as in relation with emerging magnetic memory and logic devices. New DW-based devices were recently proposed, for example to replace hard drive disks with higher density and faster date transfer. Moreover, in Magnetic Random Access Memory (MRAM), identified as one of the most promising candidate for DRAM and SRAM replacement, switching occurs through DW propagation. Control of current induced DW dynamics has long been a challenge mainly due to material imperfections. Only some years ago, fast and controllable motions were reported in multilayers presenting structural inversion asymmetry (SIA). More recently, a mechanism was proposed based on the presence of spin orbit torques and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI), both phenomena originating from the spin orbit interaction and needing (SIA).My initial objective was to test this model in two systems presenting different SIA. In Pt/Co/Pt multilayers with weak SIA, I studied both current and field induced DW motion and evidenced a chiral damping. This new phenomena, counterpart of the DMI for the dissipative aspects, influences both current and field induced dynamics and has to be taken into account for a complete picture of the mechanism. In Pt/Co/AlOx multilayers with strong SIA, I studied new geometries where the DW motion the and current flow are not collinear. I evidenced asymmetric DW motion as a function of this non-collinearity that cannot be explained with a simple SOT+DMI model. Based on these experimental results I introduce a new device concept named “magnetic origami”: the shape of the device governs the switching mechanism. This concept provides large flexibility to construct fast, low power non-volatile magnetic memory: different functionalities can be achieved on a wafer by simply mastering the shape of the different elements. I show the proof of concept of two such devices
Propriétés de transport et d'anisotropie de jonctions tunnel magnétiques perpendiculaires avec simple ou double barrière by Léa Cuchet( )

1 edition published in 2015 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Due to their advantageous properties in terms of data retention, storage density and critical current density for Spin Transfer Torque (STT) switching, the magnetic tunnel junctions with perpendicular anisotropy have become predominant in the developments for MRAM applications. The aim of this thesis is to improve the anisotropy and transport properties of such structures and to realize even more complex stacks such as perpendicular double junctions. Studies on the magnetic properties and Tunnel MagnetoResistance (TMR) measurements showed that to optimize the performances of the junctions, all the thicknesses of the different layers constituting the stack have to be adapted. To guaranty both a large TMR as well a strong perpendicular anisotropy, compromises are most of the time needed. Studies as a function of magnetic thickness enabled to extract the saturation magnetization, the critical thickness and the magnetic dead layer thickness both in the bottom reference and the top storage layer in structures capped with Ta. This type of junction could be tested electrically after patterning the sample into nanopillars. Knowing that perpendicular anisotropy mostly arises at the metal/oxide interface, the Ta capping layer was replaced by a MgO one, leading to a huge increase in the anisotropy of the free layer. A second top reference was then added on such a stack to create functional perpendicular double junctions. CoFeB/insertion/CoFeB synthetic antiferromagnetic storage layers could be developed and were proved to be stable enough to replace the standard Co/Pt-based reference layers
Dynamique du déplacement de parois magnétiques dans les couches ultra-minces à forte interaction spin-orbite by Emilie Jué( )

1 edition published in 2013 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The study of current-induced magnetic domain wall motion through spin transfer torque has attracted a lot of attention in recent years, especially since new magnetic memories devices based on this effect have been proposed. Recently, a new mechanism allowing for highly efficient current-induced domain wall motion has been discovered in ultrathin asymmetric materials with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and high spin-orbit coupling. However this mechanism, named spin-orbit torque, and its effect on domain wall motion are not yet well understood.The objective of this work was to study the influence of this spin-orbit torque on domain wall motion. For that, I have studied field- and current-induced domain wall motion in Pt/Co/AlOx trilayer, in the presence of an in-plane magnetic field. This work allowed highlighting the existence of an asymmetric effect in the domain-wall dynamics of this system.In order to explain this result, we have proposed a new kind of domain wall structure, resulting from Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction in materials with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and high spin-orbit coupling. Using analytic calculations and micro-magnetic simulations, this domain wall dynamics has been studied and compared to the experimental results. Finally, a second approach based on the presence of an anisotropic damping mechanism has also been proposed to explain the asymmetric effect observed experimentally
Modélisation par éléments finis des dispositifs pour la spintronique : couplage auto-cohérent des équations du micromagnétisme et du transport dépendant du spin by Magali Sturma( )

1 edition published in 2015 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In the context of spintronics this thesis studies the mutual interaction between a spin polarised current and the magnetization of magnetic structures. During this work, the diffusive spin transport equations were coupled in a self-consistent manner with the magnetization dynamics equations in the micromagnetic approach in our homemade finite element code. This numerical tool applied to the study of domain walls dynamics in different geometries under the action of spin polarized current highlighted several new phenomena related to the mutual interaction between the magnetization and the spins of electrons. For rectangular cross section stripes, the impact of this interaction, usually neglected in simplified models, is quantified by the computation of the domain wall velocity and the Walker critical current. These quantities were studied as a function of the domain wall width, the applied current, and the spin polarised transport characteristic lengths. Increasing the non-adiabatic parameter of the system related to the increase in the magnetization gradient and a strong non-locality of the coupled model was demonstrated. For circular cross section wires with a modulated diameter, an additional contribution to the non-adiabaticity of the system related to the confined geometry is highlighted. Then the different dynamic regimes and domain wall unpinning conditions are characterised according to the constriction size
Modulation de la fréquence d'un oscillateur spintronique (STNO) pour des applications de communication sans fil by Anike Purbawati( )

1 edition published in 2017 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Spin Transfer Nano-Oscillators (STNOs) are a novel type of Radio Frequency (RF) oscillators that make use of the Spin Transfer Torque (STT) effect in a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) device to produce high-frequency auto-oscillations. STNOs are attractive for applications in wireless communications due to their nanometric size and their frequency tuning capabilities via either a dc current or an applied field. This frequency tuning permits to encode the information via frequency shift keying (FSK) by digital modulation of the current or applied field between two discrete values without the need of an external RF mixer, leading to potentially less complex RF components. In this thesis, the feasibility of the digital frequency modulation (frequency shift keying (FSK)) using in-plane magnetized MTJ STNOs has been studied. For this, the maximum modulation rate, up to which a signal can be modulated or the frequency can be shifted between two discrete values, is an important aspect that need to be characterized.The characterization of the maximum modulation rate for in-plane magnetized MTJ STNOs has been studied via numerical macrospin simulation for different modulation configurations, i.e. modulation by a sinusoidal RF current and a sinusoidal RF field. It revealed that the maximum modulation rate under RF current modulation is given by the amplitude relaxation frequency fp of the STNO. Under RF field modulation, i.e. an RF field applied parallel to the easy axis, an enhanced modulation rate above fp can be achieved since the frequency is modulated directly via the field and not via the amplitude. This suggests an important strategy for the design of STNO-based wireless communications and to achieve high data rates. Besides numerical simulation, experimental studies of frequency shift keying (FSK) by current modulation in STNOs have been also demonstrated. The first demonstration is the FSK in standalone STNOs. The analysis confirmed that the FSK was successfully observed with a frequency shift around 200MHz (the frequency shift between ≈8.9 GHz and ≈9.1 GHz) at the modulation rate of 10Mbps. This modulation rate is however less than the upper limit, which is given by the relaxation frequency fp of the STNO as predicted in the numerical simulation, because of the relatively high phase noise of the device measured. In order to test the feasibility of the STNO within microwave systems, the FSK modulation of STNOs was performed on a printed circuit board (PCB) emitter. FSK with a frequency shift around 300MHz (the frequency shift between ≈9 GHz and ≈9.3 GHz) was observed with a modulation rate of 20 Mbps. The data rate here was limited by characteristics of the PCB emitter and not intrinsic to the STNO. The simulation and experiment studies of frequency modulation of STNOs demonstrate that the data rate of is adequate for wireless communication used in WSN. However, further improvements in materials and nanofabrication of STNOs are required to enhance the output power and improve the spectral characteristics of the oscillations to push the data rates to higher values with large frequency shift
Ingénierie et contrôle dynamique des propriétés interfaciales dans les films ultra-minces pour ajuster les textures de spin magnétique by Titiksha Srivastava( )

1 edition published in 2019 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Le contrôle du magnétisme aux interfaces s'est avéré essentiel pour la spintronique et ses applications, en particulier celles basées sur des structures chirales de spin appelées skyrmions magnétiques. Ces skyrmions, décrits comme des solitons magnétiques, sont de potentiels vecteurs d'information. Dans des empilements ultraminces du type métal lourd / ferromagnétique / isolant, les skyrmions sont stabilisés par une interaction d'échange antisymétrique d'interface appelée interaction de Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DMI); celle-ci entre en compétition avec d'autres interactions telles que l'interaction d'échange symétrique ou l'anisotropie magnétique. Afin de contrôler ces skyrmions, les propriétés magnétiques aux interfaces doivent être ajustées finement et modulées par une excitation extérieure. Le champ électrique s'est avéré être un outil efficace pour manipuler ces propriétés d'interface. Il a notamment été montré dans un certain nombre d'études depuis 2009 qu'une différence de potentiel permet de modifier localement et de manière dynamique des propriétés telles que l'anisotropie magnéto-cristalline ou l'aimantation à saturation. Cependant, cet effet sur DMI, qu'il est crucial d'intégrer pour les systèmes avec skyrmions, n'avait pas été observé pour les films ultraminces.Cette thèse présente tout d'abord une optimisation des systèmes tricouches de type métal lourd/ferromagnétique/oxide dans lesquels peuvent exister des skyrmions. J'ai plus particulièrement étudié le système Ta/FeCoB/TaOx qui permet de énucléer des skyrmions en présence d'un faible champ magnétique appliqué perpendiculairement au plan des couches. Une étude approfondie en fonction de l'épaisseur de FeCoB et de l'état d'oxydation du TaOx a notamment été menée, permettant ainsi d'identifier les différentes zones présentant des skyrmions. D'autre part, le résultat majeur de cette thèse est la démonstration de la modulation de DMI par un champ électrique dans une tricouche Ta/FeCoB/TaOx. Des mesures de spectroscopie Brillouin sous champ électrique ont montré une très grande variation allant jusqu'à 130%. Puis, des observations complémentaires en microscopie à effet Kerr magnéto-optique ont permis de mesurer simultanément une variation monotone de DMI et de la taille des skyrmions en fonction du champ électrique avec une efficacité sans précédent. Puisque le champ électrique agit principalement sur l'interface entre le matériau ferromagnétique et l'oxyde (FeCoB/TaOx), cette étude indique l'existence d'une DMI de type Rashba, expliquant la forte sensibilité au champ électrique. Ces observations montrent également qu'un renversement du signe de l'IDM est possible, qui conduirait à une inversion de la chiralité des skyrmions. Cette manipulation dynamique de DMI permettrait de conférer un degré de contrôle supplémentaire pour le développement de mémoires ou de dispositifs logiques ou neuromorphiques à base de skyrmions
Etude de la dynamique des oscillateurs à vortex par synchronisation et modulation de fréquence by Sylvain Yoann Martin( )

1 edition published in 2013 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Since 2004, research on radiofrequency (RF) spintronic devices has been very active, both from a fundamental point of view as well as for their potential applications as RF oscillators or spin-diodes. These devices are based on spin transfer torque (STT). In this context, I studied vortex oscillators based on ultra-low resistance magnetic tunnel junctions in which vortex dynamics is driven into a periodic motion by STT. The vortex oscillations are observed when the junction is subjected to a large dc bias current and a low in-plane field. The dc current produces both a large Oersted field which contributes to the vortex nucleation and a STT that starts the vortex oscillation. This oscillation leads to a large output power up to 20nW with a fundamental frequency around 450MHz and many harmonics.Synchronization with an external signal was then tested by adding a RF current to the dc bias current. With a large enough input power, the oscillator locks on the external source: the noise is then drastically reduced and the spectral purity of the signal significantly increases. These observations are explained by describing the system as a parametric oscillator. This model predicts, as experimentally observed, that, for a small amplitude of the RF excitation, a dynamical instability can be more easily reached when its frequency is twice the natural frequency of the oscillator than for any other frequencies.Then, I performed frequency modulation measurements by exciting the dc-biased sample with a low frequency ac-current. The power spectral density was measured as I swept the modulation frequency for various modulation powers. It appears that the description previously used to describe modulation experiments does not apply when the modulation frequency is a significant fraction of the natural frequency. The vortex response time appears to play a significant role, so that the concept of deviation sensitivity has to be introduced to explain the observations: it corresponds to the dynamical dependence of the oscillator frequency with an applied current that varies with time
Miniaturisation extrême de mémoires STT-MRAM : couche de stockage à anisotropie de forme perpendiculaire by Nicolas Perrissin fabert( )

1 edition published in 2018 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Most of the actual STT-MRAM development effort is nowadays focused on out-of-plane magnetized MTJ taking advantage of the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) arising at magnetic metal/oxide interface. This interfacial anisotropy allows conciliating large anisotropy required to insure a sufficient retention of the memory together with low switching current density thanks to weak spin-orbit coupling. However this PMA is too weak to insure 10 year retention up to 100°C in sub-20 nm devices. For deeply sub-20 nm nodes, new materials with large bulk PMA and low damping still have to be found. Furthermore, because this PMA is an interfacial effect, it is very sensitive to the structural and chemical properties of the magnetic metal/MgO interfaces contributing to dot to dot variability. To solve these problems in very small feature size STT-MRAM, we propose a totally novel approach: use MTJ stacks in which the storage layer anisotropy is uniquely controlled by its out-of-plane shape anisotropy i.e. by giving the storage layer a cylindrical shape with large enough aspect ratio (thickness / diameter typically > 1). In such structure, for purely magnetostatic reasons, the storage layer magnetization lies out-of-plane. With this approach, the geometry of conventional 2D thin layers is thus replaced by a 3D geometry. This innovative approach had several advantages: (i) it creates a strong and robust source of perpendicular anisotropy, much less sensitive to interfacial defects and thermal fluctuations; (ii) allows the use of well-known materials with mastered growth and low magnetic damping, such as Permalloy in combination with FeCoB at the interface of the MgO tunnel barrier and (iii) yields to an extreme scalability of the memory point, down to the sub-10 nm node, as the same materials can be used at very low nodes
Modélisation de la dynamique de l'aimantation par éléments finis by Evaggelos Kritsikis( )

1 edition published in 2011 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

On présente ici un ensemble de méthodes numériques performantes pour lasimulation micromagnétique 3D reposant sur l'équation de Landau-Lifchitz-Gilbert, constituantun code nommé feeLLGood. On a choisi l'approche éléments finis pour sa flexibilitégéométrique. La formulation adoptée respecte la contrainte d'orthogonalité entre l'aimantationet sa dérivée temporelle, contrairement à la formulation classique sur-dissipative.On met au point un schéma de point milieu pour l'équation Landau-Lifchitz-Gilbert quiest stable et d'ordre deux en temps. Cela permet de prendre, à précision égale, des pas detemps beaucoup plus grands (typiquement un ordre de grandeur) que les schémas classiques.Un véritable enjeu numérique est le calcul du champ démagnétisant, non local. Oncompare plusieurs techniques de calcul rapide pour retenir celles, inédites dans le domaine,des multipôles rapides (FMM) et des transformées de Fourier hors-réseau (NFFT). Aprèsavoir validé le code sur des cas-tests et établi son efficacité, on présente les applications àla simulation des nanostructures : sélection de chiralité et résonance ferromagnétique d'unplot monovortex de cobalt, hystérésis des chapeaux de Néel dans un plot allongé de fer.Enfin, l'étude d'un oscillateur spintronique prouve l'évolutivité du code
Injection, transmission et détection de spin dans les matériaux antiferromagnétiques by Lamprini Frangou( )

1 edition published in 2017 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

La spintronique antiferromagnétique est un domaine de recherche émergent dans le secteur des technologies de l'information. Ce domaine exploite la combinaison unique de propriétés dans les matériaux antiferromagnétiques. Leur grande fréquence d'excitation, leur robustesse face à des champs extérieurs, une aimantation totale nulle et la possibilité de générer de forts effets de magnéto-transport les rendent particulièrement intéressants. Le transfert de spin, le couplage spin-orbite et les effets caloritroniques constituent les phénomènes qui ont façonné une grande partie de la recherche et des développements récents en spintronique. Dans cette thèse, nous avons étudié les effets de transfert et de pompage de spin dans des antiferromagnétiques métalliques et isolants au moyen de la technique de résonance ferromagnétique, dans des tricouches du type injecteur de spin ferromagnétique - NiFe, CoFeB / (conducteur de spin - Cu / absorbeur de spin antiferromagnétique - IrMn, NiFeOx, NiO. Les mesures de la dépendance en température de la relaxation ferromagnétique ont révélé un nouvel effet de pompage de spin associé aux fluctuations linéaires lors de la transition de phase magnétique de l'antiferromagnétique, quel que soit l'état électronique et la nature du transport de spin. Cela ouvre de nouvelles voies pour un pompage de spin plus efficace, tout en fournissant une méthode polyvalente pour mesurer la température critique des films ultra-minces à aimantation totale nulle. Dans le but de mesurer à la fois les fluctuations de spin linéaires et non linéaires dans l'antiferromagnétique, nous avons effectué des mesures électriques dans une configuration de mesure du type 'spin Hall'. Une dépendance en température non-monotone inédite de la tension dc transverse a parfois été observée. Elle est principalement associée aux propriétés d'un ferromagnétique spécifique: le Permalloy, sans rapport avec les effets de rectification de spin. Ces résultats s'ajoutent à une littérature croissante sur l'absorption d'un courant de spin, soulignant la capacité des ferromagnétiques à agir comme détecteurs de courant de spin émis à la suite de phénomènes impliquant une dynamique d'aimantation. Finalement, nous avons utilisé le couplage d'échange pour étudier et ensuite façonner les propriétés magnétiques et électriques de plusieurs antiferromagnétiques destinés à diverses applications spintroniques, y compris la lecture par magnétorésistance tunnel anisotrope
Ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic exchange bias nanostructures for ultimate spintronic devices by Kamil Akmaldinov( )

1 edition published in 2015 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Spintronics applications such as magnetic random access memories (MRAM), sensors (e.g.. hard diskdrive read head) and logic devices use ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic (F/AF) exchange bias (EB) interactionsto set the reference direction required for the spin of conduction electrons. Thermally-assisted (TA-) MRAMapplications even use two F/AF exchange biased bilayers: one for reference and one for storage. Suchtechnological applications involve patterning full sheet wafers into matrix of individual bit-cells. Industrialproducts qualification imposes stringent requirements on the distributions of the magnetic properties from cell tocell, including those related to EB. It was supposed few years ago that randomly spread spin-glass like phases atthe F/AF interface or within the bulk of the AF layer significantly contribute to the distributions of EB propertiesin devices after processing. This thesis aimed at factually studying the link between spin-glasses spread overF/AF thin films and bit-cell dispersions of EB in corresponding TA-MRAM. Prior to that the origin of the spinglasslike regions and more specifically the role of Mn-diffusion was consolidated. Mn-diffusion was directlyobserved, understood and the use of complex barriers to reduce such diffusion and consequently to minimize theamount of spin-glass was successfully studied. Mixing AFs as another way to tune the amount of spin-glass likephases was also evidenced in the framework of this thesis. All at once, this last solution also tuned the AF grainsthermal stability and this solved another issue related to TA-MRAM, i.e. finding AF-materials with intermediateretention and write properties compared to the AFs presently used. Finally, those mixed antiferromagnets werethe mean chosen to tune the amount of spin-glass like phases in real TA-MRAM devices and to factually provetheir link with bit-cell distributions of EB properties
Réduction du champ d'écriture de mémoires magnétiques à écriture assistée thermiquement à l'aide du couple de transfert de spin by Antoine Chavent( )

1 edition published in 2016 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

La spintronique propose de nouvelles solutions en microélectronique en termes d'architecture, pour résoudre les problèmes de miniaturisation et de consommation. Son produit phare, les mémoires magnétiques à accès aléatoire (MRAM), est composé de jonctions tunnel magnétiques (JTM). Une alternative intéressante d'architecture MRAM, développée par Crocus Technology propose d'assister thermiquement le retournement du moment magnétique stockant l'information. L'aimantation de la couche de stockage est couplée à une couche antiferromagnétique afin de la stabiliser (couche piégée). Un chauffage par effet Joule à l'aide d'un courant traversant la barrière tunnel permet de libérer la couche de stockage pour écrire l'information à l'aide d'un champ magnétique. Générer un champ magnétique est encore coûteux en puissance. Pour résoudre ce problème, l'idée explorée dans cette thèse est d'exploiter avantageusement le couple de transfert de spin généré par le courant de chauffage pour réduire le champ d'écriture en changeant la polarité du courant de chauffage suivant l'état que l'on cherche à écrire. Pour ce faire, des dispositifs 1 kbit ont été testés, dans lesquels on montre que l'influence du couple de transfert permet de réduire le champ d'écriture. Une nouvelle structure à couche de stockage synthétique ferrimagnétique (SyF) piégée a été développée pour tirer parti du couple de transfert de spin au mieux sans dégrader relations d'épitaxie garantes des propriétés de stabilité et de signal. Pour étudier l'influence du couple de transfert de spin en détail, des diagrammes de phases en champ et tension ont été réalisés sur divers structures, en séparant les différentes composantes de l'empilement complet. En plus du couple de transfert de spin attendu, un effet pair du courant a été observé, favorisant toujours l'état antiparallèle quel que soit la polarité du courant. Cet effet se retrouve tant sur les couches piégées que les couches libres, et peut s'expliquer par un couple de transfert de spin perpendiculaire comme suggéré par la forme des diagrammes obtenus avec des couches libres. Par ailleurs, les diagrammes d'écriture de couche de stockage SyF révèlent une forme complexe qui serait liée à l'excitation d'une seule des deux couches du SyF par le couple de transfert de spin. En variant le produit résistance-surface (RA) de la JTM, on a montré que le couple de transfert de spin semble bien conserver sa proportionnalité avec la densité de courant sur des structures à couche de stockage piégée. Un autre pan du travail concerne la phase de refroidissement à la fin de l'écriture assistée thermiquement. L'influence de la vitesse de refroidissement sur l'efficacité du couple de transfert de spin a été mise en évidence, et il est montré qu'une diminution progressive de la tension permet d'atteindre un régime de refroidissement quasi-statique dans lequel le taux d'erreur est réduit d'un ordre de grandeur sur certaines structures. Les différents résultats sont mis en lien avec la dépendance en température du couplage RKKY au sein du SyF. Celui-ci permet de d'estimer l'évolution de la température en tension et en temps réel. Enfin, l'existence d'un effet thermoélectrique dû à l'asymétrie de chauffage est étudiée
Mouvement de parois de domaines magnétiques dans des nanofils cylindriques modulés by Alexis Wartelle( )

1 edition published in 2018 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The thesis is concerned with the observation of ferromagnetic domain walls in cylindrical nanowires, as well as their dynamics under applied magnetic fields. These nanostructures were electrodeposited by colleagues of mine into nanoporous alumina templates with a tailored pore geometry. The materials are soft FeNi or CoNi alloys; the diameters range from 150 nm to 250-300 nm, with a typical length of 30 µm.My work first comprised experimental developments of sample holders and high-frequency electronics towards field-induced domain wall motion. The latter I investigated with X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism coupled to transmission PhotoEmission Electron Microscopy (XMCD-PEEM). This synchrotron-based technique allows to monitor the internal domain wall configuration before and after displacement; due to the stringent requirements of time-resolved XMCD-PEEM experiments in terms of reproducibility, the real-time dynamics is out of reach as of yet.The response of ferromagnetic domain walls to applied magnetic fields is notably characterized by their mobility, i.e. the ratio of attained velocity to field strength. In cylindrical nanowires, a novel ingredient emerges in the case of one domain wall type that is absent in flat strips: the Bloch point domain wall. Not only does this domain wall host a micromagnetic singularity, that is to say a point where magnetization vanishes (the Bloch point), but it also possesses a discrete degree of freedom representing the sense of magnetization winding around the nanowire axis. It has been predicted that Bloch point wall motion under sufficiently high fields leads to this degree of freedom selecting one of its only two possible values. In other words, one winding becomes unstable. I report in this thesis experimental evidence of such a selection in a majority of Bloch point wall motion events.Although mobility measurements could not be carried out, my experiments have furthermore evidenced transformations between domain wall types that had not been predicted in simulations. Since the Bloch point wall contains a topological defect (the Bloch point itself), this unexpected behaviour questions the sometimes argued protection attributed to topologically non-trivial textures. While reminiscent of the well-known conversion between transverse and vortex walls in strips, these transformations in cylindrical nanowires involve topologically non-equivalent micromagnetic configurations, in contrast with the aforementioned transverse and vortex walls. Moreover, the observed only relative stability of domain wall types suggests caution in the interpretation of future mobility measurements in such systems, if the internal wall configuration cannot be resolved.Aside from such electrodeposited samples, I have also studied an upright core-shell nanowire grown by colleagues with Focused-Electron-Beam-Induced Deposition. This nanostructure featured a nanocrystalline cobalt core and a platinum shell. Its magnetic configuration was investigated with transmission XMCD-PEEM as well. Contrary to the aforementioned horizontally-lying wires, the core-shell sample was vertical with no diameter modulations. On the other hand, the geometry featured bends engineered to favour domain wall pinning. In this novel imaging configuration, the challenge was to recover as much of the nanowire's magnetic state as possible. I was able to demonstrate the presence of at least one domain wall
Etude de l'origine des couples magnétiques induits par le couplage spin orbite dans des structures asymétriques à base de Co/Pt by Marc Drouard( )

1 edition published in 2014 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In order to reduce power consumption in next generations' electronic devices, one potentialsolution is to implement non-volatility in memory cells. In this goal, the magnetizationswitching of a ferromagnetic material has been used in a memory concept: the MRAM. Thelatest development of this technology, called SOT-RAM, is based on new phenomena calledSOTs (Spin-Orbit Torques) in order to control magnetization direction. Contrary to precedentgenerations (STT-MRAM), it should achieve a higher operating speed and an enduranceadapted for cache and main memories applications. SOTs is a generic term referring to all theeffects, linked to the spin-orbit interaction, and that enable magnetization reversal. They areyet not perfectly understood.The main objective of this Ph.D. was then to study these SOTs through a quasi-staticexperimental measurement setup based on anomalous and planar Hall effects. Itsimplementation and the associated analysis method, as well as the required theoreticalconsiderations for data interpretation are detailed in this manuscript. It has been highlightedthat magnetization switching in perpendicularly magnetization cobalt-platinum systemscannot be explained by the simple models considered thus far in the literature. As a matter offact it has been evidenced that at least two effects have to be considered in order to explainobserved phenomena. In addition, they present different susceptibility both to a modificationof the crystal structure and to a temperature change
Propriétés magnétiques du système Pt/Co/AlOx et ses variations sous champ électrique by Marine Schott( )

1 edition published in 2017 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Un des challenges actuels dans le domaine de la spintronique est son extension vers des systèmes dits de nanospintronique, où les dimensions sont réduites à l'échelle du nanomètre, avec comme système modèle un nano-aimant unique. La découverte de nouveaux moyens pour contrôler l'aimantation dans ces nano-aimants, pourrait avoir des applications pour les technologies de l'information. Dans le cadre de cette thèse nous nous sommes intéressés plus particulièrement aux nouveaux effets liés à l'accumulation de charges électriques au sein de films magnétiques ultraminces, aussi appelés effets de champ électrique. Nous avons étudié l'effet de l'application d'un champ électrique sur les différents paramètres magnétiques propres à nos films, via des mesures de magnéto-transport et magnéto-optique. Ces mesures ont été conduites sur une tri-couche de Pt/Co/AlOx présentant un gradient d'oxydation pour l'alumine. L'oxydation de cette interface étant contrôlée à l'échelle nanométrique, une large gamme de paramètres magnétiques est donc accessible au sein d'un seul et même échantillon. Ceci représente un très bon outil d'étude pour les différents phénomènes intervenant dans ces tri-couches. La caractérisation fine de ces échantillons a permis de mettre en évidence une zone pour laquelle des propriétés très intéressantes ont été observées (domaines spontanément désaimantés, bulles skyrmioniques). La proximité de la température de Curie (Tc) de cette zone avec la température de mesure (ambiante) en est la cause principale. Ces bulles skyrmioniques font actuellement l'objet de beaucoup de recherche au niveau national et international, étant considérées comme potentiellement très attractives pour des applications de type mémoire et logique magnétique. L'originalité de ce travail de thèse a été de montrer que ces bulles skyrmioniques sont fortement influencées par le champ électrique, dû au fort contrôle des propriétés magnétiques de cette zone (anisotropie, champ coercitif, aimantation à saturation, facteur DMI). Nous proposons le design d'un interrupteur nanométrique permettant de créer ou effacer ces bulles skyrmioniques grâce à un champ électrique, levant ainsi un verrou important pour la mémoire/logique magnétique basée sur ces bulles skyrmioniques. La potentialité de ces nouveaux effets pour réaliser un renversement 'aimantation/une création de bulles skyrmioniques, assistés par champ électrique, a été étudiée à des plages de températures et d'anisotropies adaptées pour ces applications (température ambiante)
Micro et nanoparticules pour des applications biotechnologiques : fabrication de nanoparticules par copolymère dibloc pour l'imagerie médicale ; destruction de cellules cancéreuses par vibrations magnéto-mécaniques de microparticules magnétiques by Mélissa Morcrette( )

1 edition published in 2015 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Magnetic nanoparticles are now used in a wide range of applications such as diagnostic, therapeutics or more recently theranostics. The numerous and diverse fabrication processes allow the fabrication of a wide range of nanoparticles in terms of size, shape, material and magnetic properties. An ideal fabrication process would allow the simple and cheap fabrication of a great quantity of monodisperse nanoparticles. In this objective, the first part of this work will be focused on a new and original fabrication process based on the combination of a “top-down” and “bottom-up” approach. The idea relies on the special auto organization properties of a diblock copolymer: one of the two phases has the ability to self organize into vertical cylinders in the matrix of the other polymer, provided that the annealing conditions are favourable. The selective etching of the cylinders leads to a mask of holes in a polymer matrix. Then, the deposit of a magnetic material and the etching of the polymer matrix leads to the formation of a hexagonal network of nanoparticles attached to the substrate. If the substrate is composed of a sacrificial layer, the nanoparticles can be released in a solution. The structural and magnetic properties of theses nanoparticles fabricated via a PS-PMMA template will be studied. Their characterization will show that the process is still to be optimized but allows already to obtain monodisperse superparamagnetic nanoparticles.A second part focuses on another biomedical applications of magnetic particles: the cancer treatment. A new technique, which is an alternative to the existing methods such as hyperthermia or drug delivery, was first proposed by the Argonne National Laboratory (2010) and taken over at Spintec (2011). The idea is to reactivate the apoptosis (programmed cell death) of cancer cells via the magneto mechanical vibrations of magnetic microparticles attached to their membranes. It was proved that weak external magnetic fields (30mT at 20Hz) applied on permalloy disks in a vortex configuration lead to a significant increase of the apoptotic rate of cancer cells. In the objective of making this method possible for clinical applications, biocompatible magnetite microparticles were fabricated via the same fabrication process than the permalloy disks (optic lithography). Their structural and magnetic properties are compared, as well as their behavior in a suspension and their lethal effect on cancer cells via the application of an external magnetic field. For now, the permalloy microdisks provide better results than the magnetite particles. Some parameters of the experimental set up have to be optimized for the magnetite particles, such as the amplitude of the applied magnetic field. However, the first effects observed with the magnetite particles are quite promising
Effets d'accumulation de spin et de magnétorésistance dans des nanostructures latérales by Gilles Zahnd( )

1 edition published in 2017 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Spintronics is mainly based on the phenomenon of spin accumulation, which is inherent to the circulation of an electric current at the interfaces between ferromagnetic and non-magnetic materials. These accumulations are conventionally obtained in multilayers for which the thicknesses of the layers are smaller than the characteristic lengths of the spin-dependent transport. It is thus possible to generate in these multilayers magnetoresistances or spin transfer effects.The development of nanofabrication processes makes it nowadays possible to create nanodevices whose lateral dimensions are less than the characteristic lengths of the spin-dependent transport, and thus to bring into play these same phenomena. During my thesis I studied different F / N lateral nanostructures, showing that it is possible to take advantage of the three-dimensional geometry of the structures, and of the different possible orientations of the injected spins. In particular, transport studies have been carried out in collinear and non-collinear regimes, in order to study the consequences of the non-collinearity on the spin accumulations and magnetoresistances.After an introductory chapter on spin-dependent electron transport, the second chapter demonstrates the interest of the CoFe alloy in lateral structures. The third chapter explores the new opportunities offered by lateral structures in the case of collinear transport. The non-collinear case of spin transport through a ferromagnetic material is then examined using spin absorption measurements and Hanle measurements. Finally, the exploitation of pure spin currents in order to realize functional devices is studied in Chapters V and VI. In particular, new nanostructures whose geometry takes advantage of the three directions of space (based on both vertical and lateral spin transport) are presented in Chapter VI
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Laboratoire Spintronique et technologie des composants (Grenoble)

Spin in electronics


Spintronique et Technologie des Composants facility in Grenoble, France

UMR 8191


Unité Mixte de Recherche 8191

French (12)

English (8)