WorldCat Identities

Science et ingénierie des matériaux et procédés (Grenoble)

Overview
Works: 175 works in 179 publications in 2 languages and 305 library holdings
Roles: Other
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Most widely held works by Science et ingénierie des matériaux et procédés (Grenoble)
Caractérisation photoélectrochimique d'oxydes thermiques développés sur métaux et alliages modèles by Anusara Srisrual( )

1 edition published in 2013 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

La Corrosion Haute Température (HTC), en environnements divers et sévères, d'alliages métalliques toujours plus élaborés en termes de composition et micro-structure, est un sujet industriel et scientifique très complexe. La PhotoElectroChimie (PEC) est une technique de choix pour caractériser les propriétés physico-chimiques et électroniques des couches d'oxydation très hétérogènes formées en HTC. Sur des exemples d'alliages modèles mais représentatifs de la réalité industrielle (aciers duplex, base-Nickel 690), ce travail présente le développement et la validation d'un dispositif expérimental permettant d'appliquer pour la première fois tout l'arsenal des techniques PEC à l'échelle mésoscopique (typiquement 30 µm), ainsi que la validation d'une modélisation originale développée au SIMaP des spectres de photocourants en énergie, qui permet de les décrire et ajuster finement et d'en extraire notamment avec précision les gaps des oxydes semiconducteurs présents dans la couche thermique
Characterization and optimization of lattice structures made by Electron Beam Melting by Mathieu Suard( )

1 edition published in 2015 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The recent development of Additive Manufacturing for the fabrication of metallic parts allows structures to be directly manufactured from 3D models. In particular, the "Electron Beam Melting" (EBM) technology is a suitable process which selectively melts a powder bed layer by layer. It can build very complex geometries but brings new limitations that have to be quantified.This work focuses on the structural and mechanical characterization of lattice structures produced by such technology. The structural characterization mainly rely on X-ray tomography whereas mechanical properties are assessed by uni-axial compression. The geometry and related properties of the fabricated structures are compared with the designed ones. For small strut size, the difference between the designed structure and the produced one is large enough to impact the desired mechanical properties. The concept of mechanical efficient volume is introduced. For the purpose of simulation, this concept is taken into account by replacing the struts by a cylinder with a textit{mechanical equivalent diameter}. After validation, it has been used into "realistic" simulation and optimization procedures, thus taking into account the process constraints.Post-treatments (Chemical Etching and Electro-Chemical Polishing) were applied on lattice structures to get rid of the inefficient matter by decreasing the surface roughness. The control of the size of the fabricated struts was improved by tuning the process strategies and parameters
Modélisation de l'érosion de cavitation par SPH by Shrey Joshi( )

1 edition published in 2018 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The thesis is focused on development of a Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) cavitation solver to understand the phenomenon of material deformation under cavitation load better. This summary presents a brief overview of the methodology used to solve a fluid-structure interaction simulation of a bubble collapse over a deformable solid medium. The fluid solver and the solid solver are validated against Rayleigh-Plesset spherical bubble collapse case and FEM solver respectively. The fluid solver is developed using an open source SPH code SPHYSICS_2D, the code is changed from 2D to 2D axisymmetric. The solid SPH solver is developed in-house in 2D axisymmetric, a novel scheme is derived to solve typical issues near symmetry axis in the solid axisymmetric SPH solver. The solid solver has the capability to solve for non-linear isotropic hardening with strain rate effects (commonly known as Johnson-Cook plasticity model).A case each for a detached and an attached cavity is simulated using the FSI solver, the results show that for the same magnitude of pressure wave initiating the collapse and the same size of the bubble, the micro-jet can produce twice the maximum plastic deformation compared to a shock wave, hence a micro-jet dominated impact would exhibit a smaller incubation time compared to the detached cavity. It is also observed that the volume of material that is plastically deformed in case of a micro-jet is miniscule compared to a shock wave impact (almost 800 times smaller). This would imply that even though the incubation time for material erosion might be lower for a micro jet collapse, the shock wave can plastify a much larger volume of material and so the erosion rate should be higher for a shock wave impact. Hence it could be inferred that the material erosion ability of a shock wave is much higher than a micro-jet.An important and novel finding in the present study is the response of the material for a detached cavity where plastic deformation does not occur at the center of collapse but at an offset from the center. The results show that even though the pressure experienced by the material is the highest at the center, it does not produce the maximum plastic deformation. This is for the first time that such a phenomenon is reported in cavitation studies, we find that the phenomenon is linked to inertial effects where the material does not respond to the load as the rate of loading and unloading is extremely high. The effect is linked to the high loading and unloading rate near the center of the collapse due to the flat geometry of the solid medium. The study clearly demonstrate that maximum pressure does not always correspond to the location of maximum plastic deformation or material erosion.Fluid-Structure Interaction simulations for different stand-off ratios, driving pressure and bubble radius have been computed. Results show that for varying stand-off ratio while keeping the bubble radius and driving pressure constant, the attached cavities (SR<=1) show a higher plastic strain magnitude and a higher absorbed energy density which would suggest a quicker incubation time. However, the volume of plastic defamation zone is much lower in attached cavities thus the total absorbed energy and the erosion rate would be higher for a detached cavity compared to an attached one.The strain rate effects suggest that the magnitude of plastic strain is over predicted while using plasticity models that do not use strain rate sensitivity. The over prediction of the magnitude of plastic strain of around 60% for detached cavities presented in the paper and around 200% for attached cavities presented in the paper is observed. This would lead to an under prediction of incubation time and over prediction of erosion rate while using strain rate insensitive plasticity models
Etude de réalisation de scellement des MEMS par l'alliage eutectique Al-Ge by Victor Lumineau( )

1 edition published in 2018 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Les microsystèmes électromécaniques (MEMS) sont une des révolutions issues de la microélectronique de ces dernières années qui ont permis l'apparition de nouveaux objets connectés à leur environnement tels que les smartphones. Pour répondre entre autres à la problématique de miniaturisation, ces capteurs doivent être assemblés avec les transistors qui les pilotent via des procédés d'intégration en trois dimensions. Les études de la littérature montrent que la brasure à base d'alliage eutectique Al-Ge permet de répondre de ce besoin. Dans le procédé de scellement eutectique Al-Ge, les constituants de l'alliage sont déposés sur au moins une des deux surfaces à coller. La fusion puis la solidification de la brasure va donner lieu à une structure eutectique et fermer mécaniquement l'interface pour former un assemblage. Cependant, des points cruciaux restent encore à approfondir, notamment la fuite de l'alliage liquide en dehors de la zone à coller ainsi que l'apparition de trous à l'interface de scellement.Le but de cette thèse est donc d'étudier dans un premier temps les phénomènes physiques (mouillage, solidification, diffusion) qui déterminent la qualité finale des assemblages. Dans un second temps, ces résultats sont mis à profit pour développer des procédés de scellement hermétiques et avec une bonne tenue mécanique pour l'encapsulation des MEMS. L'étude porte sur l'influence des paramètres tels que la température, l'épaisseur et l'état surfacique des couches, mais également sur les mécanismes de réactivité aux interfaces entre l'alliage liquide et les substrats
Effet de la température sur les hétérogénéités de déformation plastique dans les alliages de magnésium by Thibaut Dessolier( )

1 edition published in 2018 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The aim of this study is to quantify the intra and intergranular contribution of the deformation during a high temperature micromechanical test on a magnesium alloy (AZ31). In order to answer this scientific issue, we have developed an in situ tensile test at high temperature within a SEM. It has required a significant preparation work in order to push the current technical limits of this type of test on magnesium alloy. These technical limits can partly explain why there are currently few in situ studies at high temperature on magnesium alloys. A local marker in the form of a microgrid was placed on our sample as it does not provide any local contrast for digital image correlation (DIC). Before the deposition of the microgrid, EBSD mapping was made. Using the grain boundaries from the EBSD, we can superimpose the deformed grain boundaries on the strain map from the DIC.Using high temperature in-situ tensile tests, we were able to highlight the effect of the temperature on the different active deformation mechanisms. This whole development work enables us to locate the plastic deformation heterogeneities both according to the evolution of the deformation and for several temperatures. From the tests conducted, it has been shown that the higher the temperature, the more heterogeneous the plastic deformation heterogeneities are located in the vicinity of the grain boundaries. Based on a heart/coat hypothesis, we were able to quantify the intra and intergranular contribution, and show that it became more important with temperature
Influence de l'élasticité du substrat sur la genèse, propagation et coalescence des structures de cloquage de revêtements et films minces. by Romain Boijoux( )

1 edition published in 2017 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Thin films buckling is a scientific and industrial challenge of primary importance, since it correspond to the first stage of the buckling of the film at a large scale, leading to the loss of the mechanical property initially conferred to the coated material.The influence of the substrate elasticity on this phenomenon is not well understood today, whereas the proportion of industrial systems made of rigid films on soft substrates increase. This study focus principally on the influence of the substrate elasticity on the genesis, propagation and coalescence of the buckled structures. The experimental approach consist in the controlled generation of elementary buckling structures, such as straight-sided buckles, blisters or “telephone cords” buckles, to make them interact and even meet and merge each other. The morphological characterization of such buckling structures will be performed by the atomic force microscopy technique. These experimental results will be then compared to finite elements simulations performed together, allowing to take into account the coupling between the buckling of the film and the film/substrate interface delamination. The obtained results will allow a better understanding of the coating and thin film buckling phenomenon. Thus, this study answer in particular to three questions : how the substrate elasticity impact the propagation dynamic of the buckles ? How their crossing occur, leading sometimes to complex structures ? Is this elasticity helps the coalescence of the buckles, even if they does not match each other in a “ballistic” way ?Finally, the technological goal is part of an environmental approach that consist in identifying the parameters that can suppress, limit or control the buckling phenomenon for specific applications
Transitions de phases de l'approximant 1/1 des quasicristaux de type Tsai : structure atomique, diffusion diffuse et simulation à l'échelle atomique by Dan Liu( )

1 edition published in 2015 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We have studied the structural phase transitions occurring in a series of periodic 1/1 approximant to the CdYb type quasicrystals. 1/1 approximants share the same local environment as the parent quasicrystal, yet with a periodic long range order. The Cd6Tb 1/1 approximant is of particular interest owing to its long range magnetic order observed below 20K. A structural phase transition is observed at Tc= 192K. The atomic structures of the high temperature cubic phase and the low temperature monoclinic phase has been determined. The temperature dependence of the central tetrahedron ordering and its connection to the phase transition has been studied in details between 192 and 180K. The distortion of the Tb12 icosahedron resulting from the ordering of the tetrahedron at low temperature is supposed to play a crucial role in the formation of the long range magnetic order. Diffuse scattering, characteristic of a short range order has also been observed above Tc. For the Cd6Yb approximant we have confirmed that the phase transition does not correspond to an ordering along [11 ̅0]. The space group of the low temperature phase is proposed as P2/m. Furthermore, the effects of chemical order on the ordering mechanism of the tetrahedra are investigated on Cd6Pr and (Cd-Mg)6Pr with 10% at. Mg. The ordering scheme of both Cd6Pr and (Cd-Mg)6Pr is of the [110] type instead of the previously claimed [111] type. Molecular dynamic simulations are carried out on the Zn6Sc 1/1, Zn85.12Sc14.88 5/3, and Zn85.16Sc14.84 8/5 approximants using an effective oscillating pair potential. The Zn-Sc system is isostructural to the Cd-Yb one and the 5/3 and 8/5 approximant have a unit cell large enough to mimic a real quasicrystal. In the three systems we have simulated the diffraction pattern as the temperature goes from 500K to 100K. In the Zn6Sc 1/1 approximant, the temperature dependence of the simulated diffuse scattering evidenced a short range order forming in the low temperature phase. It most likely correspond to the pretransitional short range order as observed experimentally. The comparison of the simulated diffuse scattering between the 1/1 and 5/3 approximants demonstrates an excess of diffuse scattering in the latter phase which is likely the contribution from phasons modes. We have evidenced an atomic diffusion taking place between tetrahedra and dodecahedra in all three approximants. The long range atomic diffusion in the 1/1 approximant is only observed along space diagonal directions of the cubic cell, with an activation energy of 0.1 eV. Further investigation on the 5/3 and 8/5 approximants have shown that the orientational dynamics of the central tetrahedra as well as the atomic diffusion are dependent on the complexity of the structures. The configuration of the clusters and their local environment are considered to play a crucial role in the stabilization mechanism of the quasicrystals and their periodic approximants
Mécanique des milieux fibreux auto-enchevêtrés : application à un alliage à mémoire de forme de type Nickel-Titane by Benjamin Gadot( )

1 edition published in 2015 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The aim of this work is to process and characterize for biomedical applications,self-entangled structures made of a single NiTi shape memory fiber. We have optimizeda processing route consisting in entangling and shape-setting a spring bythermomechanical treatments. The samples were characterized in compression andtension, using optical and x-ray tomographic observations. The structures thus obtainedare homogeneous, isotropic, superelastic at room temperature up to strains ofat least 30%, and can become ferroelastic with a shape memory effect up to at least16% strain by an additional heat treatment. The mechanical behavior in compressionis first consolidating and then dilating, while in tension, the samples are slightlyauxetic. A comparison with similar media made of ductile and viscoelastic fibers,as well as with discrete element simulations on friction-free elastic fibers, show thatthe mechanical properties of these self-entangled structures are controlled by theirunique architecture, in-between continuous and discrete media
Comportement de revêtements nanostructurés deposés par PVD en condition environnementales sevères by Jingxian Wang( )

1 edition published in 2017 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Afin d'obtenir des matériaux aux caractéristiques mécaniques, tribologiques et thermiques améliorées, nous avons élaboré des revêtements nanocomposites à base de TiN en utilisant une technique de dépôt physique en phase vapeur. Ces matériaux aux caractéristiques spécifiques peuvent être exploités pour le surfaçage d'outils de coupe de très haute dureté. En ajustant les processus d'élaboration dont dépendent la microstructure et la microchimie des revêtements, il est possible de contrôler les propriétés de ces matériaux. Cette thèse présente les résultats obtenus sur les trois systèmes de revêtement que sont Ti-Al-N, Ti-Al-Y-N et Ti-Si-N, configurés soit en réseaux superposés multicouche soit en nanocomposites. L'accent est mis sur l'étude systématique de la dureté et de la résistance à l'usure et à l'oxydation en fonction des paramètres de dépôt. En combinant la diffraction des rayons X et la microscopie électronique à transmission avec des tests physico-mécaniques sur une large gamme de configurations de revêtement, on établit une matrice processus-performance prédictive permettant de guider la fabrication de surfaces durcies
Dégradation par électromigration dans les interconnexions en cuivre : étude des facteurs d'amélioration des durées de vie et analyse des défaillances précoces by Franck Lionel Bana( )

1 edition published in 2013 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Les circuits intégrés sont partie prenante de tous les secteurs industriels et de la vie couranteactuels. Leurs dimensions sont sans cesse réduites afin d'accroître leurs performances. Cetteminiaturisation s'accompagne notamment d'une densification et d'une complexification du réseaud'interconnexions. Les interconnexions, lignes métalliques chargées de transporter le signalélectrique dans les circuits apparaissent ainsi plus sensibles à la dégradation par électromigration.Ceci, compte tenu des fortes densités de courant qu'elles transportent. Il se trouve donc dans lesnoeuds technologiques avancés, de plus en plus difficile de garantir le niveau de fiabilité requis pourles interconnexions.La réduction de la durée de vie des interconnexions est liée à la fois à la difficulté croissanteà réaliser les étapes de procédés pour les géométries souhaitées et à l'augmentation de la dispersiondes temps à la défaillance. Dans un premier temps, nous avons poussé la compréhension desmécanismes en jeu lors de la dégradation par électromigration. Nous avons ainsi mis en évidence lerôle joué par la microstructure et la composition chimique des lignes de cuivre dans l'augmentationde leur durée de vie. Dans un second volet, l'accent a été porté sur l'amélioration de l'analysestatistique des durées de vie avec un focus sur les défaillances précoces et les distributionsbimodales qu'elles engendrent. De même, la structure multi liens que nous avons mise au pointpermet de répondre à la question fondamentale de l'augmentation de l'échantillonnage de test ;améliorant ainsi la précision aux faibles taux de défaillance pour des projections robustes des duréesde vie
Etude de la corrosion à haute température d'alliages réfractaires en présence de sels alcalins lors de la conversion thermochimique de la biomasse by Ludovic Couture( )

1 edition published in 2011 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Les carburants BtL (Biomass to Liquid) font partie des carburants alternatifs au pétrole dits de seconde génération car synthétisés à partir de biomasse solide (contenant de la lignocellulose). Le procédé de fabrication de tels carburants par voie thermochimique repose sur deux étapes successives : la gazéification de la biomasse suivie par un procédé de Fisher-Tropsch. Certains éléments contenus dans la biomasse comme les sels alcalins peuvent se retrouver après l'étape de gazéification et être à l'origine d'attaques sous forme de sels fondus et ainsi endommager les infrastructures. Le travail réalisé dans ce manuscrit consiste à simuler la corrosion de parois d'échangeur thermique en présence de sulfate et chlorure de sodium sous atmosphère de gazéification (CO/H2/CO2) très faiblement oxydante (~ 10-18 bar). Afin de comparer les résultats à ceux issus de la bibliographie, les essais ont également été conduits sous atmosphère fortement oxydante (Ar/O2). Les essais réalisés sur alliage chrominoformeur, HR-120 (38Ni-34Fe-25Cr) à une température de 900°C en présence de sulfate de sodium en milieu faiblement oxydant ont mise en évidence une corrosion de type catastrophique localisée et réversible de l'alliage. Le comportement de l'alliage aluminoformeur, 214 (76Ni-16Cr-4Al) apparaît plus protecteur dans des conditions similaires. En présence de chlorure de sodium, les deux alliages se comportent d'une manière totalement identique : corrosion catastrophique en milieu fortement oxydant et impact du sel négligeable sous atmosphère faiblement oxydante. Un chapitre remède prometteur a été développé en fin de manuscrit
In situ nanotomography investigation of cavity nucleation and growth in light alloys during high temperature deformation by Richi Kumar( )

1 edition published in 2019 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

La déformation à haute température induit la germination, la croissance et la coalescence de cavités, domaine très étudié en science des matériaux. Plusieurs modèles théoriques ont été proposés pour prédire la nucléation et la croissance de la cavité mais la comparaison avec l'expérience est limitée. La principale raison en est le manque d'outils de caractérisation appropriés permettant d'étudier in situ la nucléation et la croissance des cavités à haute résolution spatiale (inférieure à 1 µm).Dans le cadre de ce travail, la nanotomographie in situ aux RX a été mise au point pour l'étude des déformations à haute température. Deux dispositifs mécaniques pouvant s'adapter dans un four ont été développés : ceci permet de réaliser une analyse 4D in situ des dommages à haute température (inférieure à 1073 K). De plus, des routines d'acquisition de données à résolutions multiples ont été mises au point, ce qui a permis d'obtenir alternativement des images à haute résolution (100 nm) et à basse résolution (645 nm). Ces développements ont permis l'imagerie 4D de la germination et de la croissance de l'endommagement avec une taille de pixels de 100 nm et un temps de balayage de 7 secondes. Ces données expérimentales ont été comparées aux modèles théoriques par el suivi du volume de chaque cavité.Cette technique a été utilisée pour étudier la nucléation et la croissance des dommages lors de déformations à haute température (7,9 MPa, 698 K), dans un alliage d'Al -3,6% en poids de Cu. Cet alliage modèle permet la génération contrôlée de particules de seconde phase pour favoriser la germination des cavités. Les changements de forme des cavités avec la déformation ont été étudiés. De plus, le changement du taux de croissance volumétrique de la cavité par rapport au rayon équivalent des cavités individuelles a été comparé aux modèles existants de croissance de la cavité par diffusion et plasticité. On a constaté la présence de plusieurs porosités préexistantes dans l'alliage, alors que très peu de germination de cavité ont été observées. Les données expérimentales sur le taux de croissance correspondent bien aux modèles étudiés et il a été conclu que les cavités se développaient initialement par diffusion suivi par une croissance par plasticité.L'utilisation de la nanotomographie in situ a été étendue à l'étude de la nucléation et de la croissance pendant la déformation à haute température (3,2 MPa, 673 K) dans l'alliage commercial AZ31. L'évolution de petites cavités presque sphériques en cavités complexes a été étudiée, en analysant les changements de forme pendant la croissance. Le taux de croissance volumétrique de la cavité a également été calculé et comparé aux modèles de diffusion et de glissement aux joints de grain. Dans un cas particulier, le glissement aux joints de grain a été estimé en suivant les déplacements des intermétalliques qui servaient de marqueurs.Peu de germination de cavité ont été observées au cours de la déformation, par contre les cavités préexistantes, issues du laminage, ont évolué en taille avec la déformation. L'examen des formes des cavités a révélé que la diffusion et le glissement aux joints de grain sont les mécanismes principaux de la croissance. La diffusion dominant la croissance dans les premiers stades (déformation inférieure à 0,3) puis une combinaison des deux mécanismes gouverne la croissance. Le modèle de croissance par diffusion surestime les données expérimentales tandis que les modèles de diffusion restreinte s'ajustent mieux aux évolutions de volume des cavités. Une proportionnalité directe a été observée entre le du grain et la longueur de la cavité dans une cavité où la croissance est dominée par le glissement aux joints de grain. De plus, outre la croissance, une proportion importante de cavités a montré une diminution du volume pendant la déformation. Ceci a été attribué au frittage des cavités sous l'effet de la tension superficielle
Oxydation thermique du chrome pur en atmosphère contrôlée : propriétés semiconductrices et structurales de la chromine by Yohan Parsa( )

1 edition published in 2018 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The chemical durability of the metal alloy results in particular from the nature of point defects providing transport through the oxidation film formed on the surface. Models oxide layers, grown by thermal oxidation and Alomic Layer Deposition, will be studied by photoelectrochemistry. This will provide us information about the semiconductive properties of the oxide, determined by the point defect in the oxide layer, and should allow us a better understanding of the formation mechanism of these oxide
Etude du cloquage de films minces élastoplastiques sur substrat rigide by Nadia Ben Dahmane( )

1 edition published in 2018 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Thin film coatings submitted to high compressive stresses may experience a simultaneous buckling and delamination phenomenon called "blistering". The mechanism of formation and propagation of blisters in the form of straight wrinkles and circular blisters has been extensively studied in the literature considering a linear elastic behavior for the film. However, the effect of plasticity on the propagation and mechanical equilibrium of such blisters, although experimentally observed, had not been systematically studied to date.In this work, we are interested in the observation and characterization of buckling structures observed on gold films deposited on silicon substrates. The effects of plasticity on the morphology or critical buckling load of buckled structures are quantitatively demonstrated using small scale surface observation techniques such as AFM, as well as mechanical testing by nanoindentation tests and stress measurement methods.A mechanical model is developed in order to model the film as a geometric nonlinear plate with elastic-plastic behavior in unilateral contact with a rigid support representing the substrate. In addition, a cohesive zone model is introduced between the plate and the support in order to take into account the delamination of the film, with a separation work depending on the mode mix of the interface loading.This model allowed us to highlight the effect of plasticity on the equilibrium profiles resulting from elastic-plastic blistering, for both straight and circular blisters morphologies. The effect on the offset of the critical buckling load has also been studied. Finally, the influence of plastic deformation on the propagation mechanism of the interfacial fracture itself has been studied. In particular, a stabilizing effect of the circular blister form, which has been observed experimentally in various studies, has been demonstrated through calculation
Conception Métallurgique de Nouvelles Structures Nanoporeuses by Daria Barsuk( )

1 edition published in 2017 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

New nanoporous metallic materials based on non-Pt group metals have been synthesized via dealloying of rapidly solidified alloys and aimed to demonstrate competitive catalytic performance in the field of direct alkaline fuel cells and SERS-active substrates. Nanostructured copper surface and nanoporous copper matrix with very fine morphology and specific surface area were obtained by chemical dealloying of bulk Cu90(HfZr)10 and melt-spun amorphous CuxCa100-x (x ranging from 35 to 80 at.%) family of alloys accordingly. Nanoporous silver and cobalt substrates were produced by dealloying of M38.75Cu38.75Si22.5 crystalline ribbons (M = Co and Ag) as a result of the removal of Cu and Si-rich phases. In addition to conventional characterization methods, all nanoporous structures have been reconstructed by FIB-nanotomography, clearly exposing the morphological diversity of the three systems with transversal porosity when visualized and color-mapped in 3D by a special numerical tomography tool. It is for the first time that a practical significance of these materials has been explored in the scope of self-supported anodic catalysts, suggested throughout this study as an alternative to the unstable Pt-based carbon-supported commercial composites. Half-cell electrochemical tests demonstrated an excellent catalytic activity towards the oxidation of a borane fuel and superior stability of functioning in the alkaline environment compared to Pt/C catalyst. In similar conditions, nanoporous Co showed higher efficiency but lower stability, attributed to the complex chemical composition of its porous scaffold. Nanoporous Cu has not been exploited for the mentioned applications due to its high brittleness and is suggested to go through improvements on the step of precursor synthesis. Lastly, while exploring the mechanical behavior of the NPMs by instrumented nanoindentation of different nanoporous Ag substrates, a load-displacement dependence phenomenological model has been suggested for this class of metallic materials
Étude de l'oxydation catastrophique de l'acier 304L : mécanismes et effet d'une prédéformation by Audrey Col( )

1 edition published in 2016 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

To provide good resistance to oxidation at high temperature, the oxide layers formed on stainless steels must stay thin, rich in chromium and adhere to their metallic substrate. When the stainless steels operate at atmospheres or temperatures that are too severe, breakaway oxidation triggers the quick growth of Fe-rich oxide nodules, which are non-protective, instead of the Cr-rich layer. This study focuses on the different mechanisms that lead to the loss of the protective characteristic of the oxide layer, to the growth of the iron oxides, and in the formation of internal oxidation zones. The study of the morphology and composition of the oxides formed, along with Raman spectroscopy and TEM and EBSD mappings, allowed to propose a mechanism for the formation of the internal oxidation zone. This mechanism relies in part on the formation of a "boundary" oxide layer, that forms along the grain boundaries of the underlying metal during oxidation. This study also showed that a deformation prior to oxidation improves the durability of the steels by encouraging the formation of a protective layer during the first stages of the oxidation. When it starts, breakaway oxidation stays localized while with no deformation, a protective regime is never reached at 850 °C for austenitic stainless steel 304L
Solidification en présence de champs magnétiques intenses by Xi Li( Book )

2 editions published in 2007 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

On étudie les effets d'un champ magnétique statique sur les strructures de solididificaiton, morphologie des dendrites, former de interfaces pour des alliages métalliques d'aluminium et bismuth manganése, dans les cas hypo- et hyper eutectiques. Les résultats indiquent que le champ rend l'interface instable et regulièue transformation plane-cellulaire et cellulaire-dendritique. Le champ a une grande influence sur la morphologie cellulaire et sur les dendrites. En effet, le champ containe une importante deformation des cellules et des dendrites. Nous avons réalisé des études sur des croissances de l'alliage eutectique lamellaire eutectique (AI2Cu-AI et Pb-Sn) et de tige (Bi-MnBi) sous une exposition d'un champ magnétique. Nous avons monté qu'un champ magnétique intense pourrait dégenerer la structure lamellaire à basse vitesse de croissance et modifier l'orientaticlle préféreactiele. Cependant, le champ a augmenté la croissance de la fibre de MnBi le long de la direction de solidification ainsi que l'espacement de fibre
Influence de la transformation martensitique induite par la déformation sur le comportement mécanique d'aciers inoxydables duplex by Audrey Lechartier( )

1 edition published in 2015 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Les aciers inoxydables duplex présentent une combinaison intéressante entre des propriétés mécaniques élevées, une faible conductivité thermique et un coût relativement faible. Ils sont couramment employés dans le domaine du bâtiment comme rond à béton, application qui requière notamment une résistance élevée (Rm > 950 MPa) et une ductilité importante (A% > 15). Cette thèse a pour objectif d'améliorer le compromis résistance / allongement, en développant de nouvelles nuances duplex présentant une transformation martensitique induite par la plasticité (effet TRIP) aux caractéristiques contrôlées. L'optimisation de ce compromis a nécessité en particulier une compréhension détaillée des mécanismes de transformation et de déformation plastique associés à chaque phase : la ferrite (BCC), l'austénite (FCC) et la martensite (BCC).L'influence de la transformation martensitique sur le comportement mécanique est étudiée pour quatre alliages duplex de stabilité variable de la phase austénitique en fonction de leur composition chimique. L'influence d'une microstructure multiphasée sur la cinétique de transformation est déterminée grâce à l'élaboration de trois nuances modèles représentant respectivement une nuance duplex et es deux compositions représentatives de ses constituants austénite et ferrite. L'utilisation de plusieurs techniques de caractérisation à différentes échelles a permis de décrire à la fois les mécanismes de transformation de phase et leur cinétique en fonction de la déformation, donnant ainsi accès à leur influence sur le comportement mécanique. L'étude des champs cinématiques a mis en évidence l'impact de la phase martensitique sur la répartition des déformations dans la microstructure multi-phasée. Finalement l'utilisation d'un modèle mécanique prenant en compte explicitement la transformation martensitique a permis de reproduire le comportement mécanique d'un alliage duplex
Croissance de la céramique eutectique Al₂O₃-YAG-ZrO₂∶Y et étude de la microstructure Chinese Script by Maya Cherif( )

1 edition published in 2016 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

These last decades, directionally solidified eutectic oxides have drawn attention and are seen as an alternative to Ni based superalloys for the development of high temperature turbine blades. Indeed, their 3D entangled and complex microstructure, called Chinese Script and the high quality of the interphases provide a thermal stability and mechanical properties, creep and strength, constant up to 1973 K.Our study focuses on the directional solidification of an alumina-based ternary eutectic alloy. The work is based on two approaches, experimental and modeling, in order to understand two inherent aspects of this alloy morphology: -The Chinese Script microstructure composed of irregular entangled lamellas of the two major phases Al2O3 and YAG and the third phase ZrO2:Y. - Colonies formation due to the presence of an impurity causing an interface destabilization.Experiments have been performed by different growth techniques: EFG, Bridgman and Micro-Pulling down exploring a large range of growth conditions. The modeling of these processes on a commercial software COMSOL gave the precise knowledge of the growth rate and the temperature gradient, needed for the study of the growth mechanisms. In the meanwhile, samples' composition has been confronted to the phases equilibrium diagram calculated by the CALPHAD method.A characterization route of the microstructures obtained for different growth conditions has been set up in order to describe this irregular eutectic. Thus, the influence of speed and temperature gradient have been studied, showing identical growth behavior with eutectic metals. Moreover, it appears that this eutectic structure is composed of two single crystals: Al2O3 and YAG and a finely dispersed particles of ZrO2:Y.Finally, a physico-chemical model is presented, based on classical models in the case of metallic eutectics, in order to describe the formation of this microstructure and the appearance of colonies at the eutectic composition. The model is confirmed by the experimental observations. Peculiarities of the ceramic eutectic growth, with respect to metallic eutectics, are discussed.Besides, a way to control the microstructure through an electric field is presented. Indeed, by using the ionic property of the molten material, applying an electric field allows to modify ions transport and thus influences the diffusion phenomena at the origin of the microstructure
Etude et mise en oeuvre d'un procédé de préformage d'un alliage eutectique d'oxydes by Laurent Carroz( )

1 edition published in 2016 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This study is a part of an energy saving issues through an increase of gas turbine yields. The objective is to adapt a process for the growth of oxide ceramics with eutectic composition for the manufacture of turbine blades. Sustaining their mechanical properties up to 1700 ° C and with a lower density than superalloys which are currently used in the blades, these new materials are a potential solution to significantly increase the overall efficiency of jet engines. In this context, the EFG process used for the production of sapphire has been identified as the most promising process, and the eutectic composition Al2O3/YAG/ZrO2 as the ceramic with the best mechanical properties.First, a thorough study of the EFG process used by RSA le Ruby, the company where this work was conducted, was done. An analytic model to resolve the setting point of the process was realized. This model is based on the RSA le Rubis's knowledge in the sapphire crystallization.The wetting properties of the material were measured to fit the model. The liquid density and surface tension were measured using a method derived from the Wilhelmy method. In addition, a numerical simulation of the process, accompanied by temperature measurement by thermocouple, was done. It allows to know the temperature distribution close to the crystallization zone with a better accuracy.Thus, eutectic ceramic plates were solidified with the EFG process. Several tests were necessary in order to design a process ensuring the solidification of net shaped plates. Then lot of optimization pulls have been done to extend the plate's dimensions.Finally, some characterizations were achieved on the plates. Analysis of the microstructure defines the maximum rate of crystallization to produce crystals without colonies, which are the main defect in these kinds of microstructures. A campaign of mechanical testing was also performed, revealing new machining problems which are particularly important
 
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Alternative Names
Laboratoire de Science et ingénierie des matériaux et procédés (Grenoble)

Laboratoire des Sciences et ingénierie des matériaux et procédés (Grenoble)

Sciences et ingénierie des matériaux et procédés (Grenoble)

SIMaP

SIMaP-EPM

SIMaP-GPM2

SIMaP-PM

SIMaP-SIR

SIMaP-TOP

UMR 5266

UMR5266

Unité Mixte de Recherche 5266

Languages
French (12)

English (9)