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Institut de planétologie et d'astrophysique de Grenoble

Works: 62 works in 62 publications in 2 languages and 107 library holdings
Roles: Other
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Most widely held works by Institut de planétologie et d'astrophysique de Grenoble
Analyse de temps et caractérisation d'horloges pour un radar bistatique pour la tomographie d'astéroïdes by Ricardo Granados alfaro( )

1 edition published in 2019 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Small bodies, like comets and asteroids, are of interest for the study of the origin of the Solar System since they have experienced little changes throughout time. Therefore, by understanding their evolution we can learn about the evolution of the Solar System itself. This information can be useful for future space exploration or for planetary defense. Nowadays, there are several space missions studying or about to study small bodies, but only a few instruments are destined to study the interior of small body cores.Radio waves interact with the medium they are propagating through and will undergo different modifications depending on the properties of the material. Therefore, radar is the ideal method to study the internal structure of an asteroid. The wave's properties, such as its velocity, will be affected by its travel through the nucleus dependent on the dielectric properties of the asteroid. We propose a new bi-static low-frequency radar (LFR) based on the instrument CONSERT which was onboard the Rosetta mission. This LFR primary objective is to measure the propagation delay between two electronics, one posed on the asteroid's surface and the other orbiting around it. The signal will be transmitted through the body's nucleus and will be affected by its composition and heterogeneity. By measuring different signal characteristics, such as the propagation delay, we can deduce the composition properties of the object.The main objective of this thesis is to study and understand how the clock drift between radar electronics will affect the measurement of the propagation delay in order to propose compensation methods to improve science return. The initial step of the thesis is to provide an understanding of the clock signal generation and how the stability of the signal will be affected over time by different processes like temperature, the voltage supply, or aging. To understand how these instabilities will impact the propagation delay measurement, we analyze the long scale drift of radar instruments. For this, we developed a time model of the radar based on time events. The model was used to build a simulator using a simple model of the clock signal generation. With this simulator, we show that the time errors have a different effect on the bi-static radar at different time scales, but that these different time scales are correlated. We propose a method to estimate clock drift from radar data to compensate for time errors.To validate the model, a test bench is designed and developed measuring time differences between two clocks. Using the test bench data as input for the simulator allows to estimate the impact on instrument performances and to estimate performances of the compensation methods. The data from the test bench is used for the validation of the selected clocks for the mission and will be used for their characterization. This clock characterization will help to improve the simulator for different tests, as we can include the real models for frequency instabilities.To conclude, we present the limitations of the compensation methods, as well as the improvements in the electronic design and operation of the instrument as a result of the time analysis
Transport d'un champ magnétique vertical dans les disques d'accrétion by Rémi de Guiran( )

1 edition published in 2013 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The vertical magnetic field plays a fundamental role in the dynamics of accretion discs. The jet launching, so as the turbulence that is supposed to exist in these discs are strongly constrained by the intensity of this field. This field evolves following the mechanisms of advection by the mater and diffusion by turbulence. The question of the evolution of such a field has been studied since more than 20 years, but a global modelisation, involving all these méchanisms wasn't done yet. I propose a model, taking into account the transport of a vertical magnetic field by the disc, and also the feedback of this field on the dynamics of the disc. Analytical solutions for standard configurations a calculated. It confirms previous studies in the sense that considering the state of the art, a turbulent disc can not advect a vertical field in order to allow a jet launching. However, a new configuration is rised, in wich the ejection conditions are realised in the outer radius of the disc. The stability of the standard configurations is calculated, and new instabilities are rised. The effectivity of such instabilities depends on the functionnal dependancies used to quantify the disc dynamics. A determination of such dependancies, via local simulations, would clarify if such instabilities could be effective in accretion discs. At last, the numerical tools developped allows to study the configurations. Standard one are found, and a dynamical study of the new configuration is done to determine the advection conditions for the limit ejecting disc/ standard disc
Recherche et caractérisation de planètes géantes autour d'étoiles massives et/ou jeunes de la Séquence Principale : modélisation de l'activité d'étoiles de type solaire et impact sur la détection de planètes de masse terrestre by Simon Borgniet( )

1 edition published in 2015 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The search for exoplanets has reached a decisive moment. On the one hand, our knowledge of giant gaseous planets has significantly developed, and the aim of the research is now to characterize their physical properties and to better understand the formation and evolution processes. On the other hand, the instrumental precision and stability have reached a level that makes it technically possible to detect telluric planets in the habitable zone of their host star. However, the signal alterations induced by the star itself definitely challenge this breakthrough. My PhD stands at the crossroads of these problems. It consisted first in the analysis of two radial velocity surveys dedicated to stars somewhat exotic to exoplanet searches: the massive AF dwarf stars. This work has led to the first characterization of the giant planet population found around these stars and has showed that the planetary migration mechanisms were at least partially inhibited around these stars compared to FGKM stars. I then made the observations and the first analysis of two radial velocity surveys dedicated to the search for giant planets around young, nearby stars. Young stars are the only sources for which a full exploration of the giant planets at all separations can be reached, through the combination of radial velocities techniques and direct imaging. Such a combination will allow to test uniquely the planetary formation and evolution processes. The first results of these surveys show an absence of giant planets at very short separations (Hot Jupiters) around our targets. Another interesting result is the detection of an eccentric spectroscopic binary at the center of a planetary system imaged at a wide separation. To complete this observational approach and better estimate the detectability of Earth-like planets, I calibrated and characterized a fully parameterized model of the activity pattern of a Sun-like star and its impact on the radial velocities. I first calibrated it by comparing it to the results obtained with observations of the solar active structures, and then characterized the impact of stellar inclination on the activity-induced signal. Such a fully parameterized model is potentially adaptable to different types of stars and of activity and would thus allow to characterize the expected radial velocity jitter for each tested case, and then allow both to determine which types of stars and of activity patterns are the most favorable for detecting Earth-like planets in the habitable zone. While investigating these three seemingly different but complementary topics, I found that they shared a basic feature, namely the importance of the stars themselves and of stellar physics in exoplanet searches
Etude dynamique des exoplanètes et des disques de débris révélés par SPHERE by Laetitia Rodet( )

1 edition published in 2019 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Several decades after the discovery of the first debris disks and exoplanets, lots of questions remain regarding the mechanisms of formation and evolution of planetary systems. The recent progress of high-resolution high-contrast direct imaging, illustrated by the instruments VLT/SPHERE and Gemini/GPI, enables to unveil the outer architecture (> 5 au) of young (< 200 Myr) extrasolar systems when the dynamical interactions are frequent. This work sheds light on the origin and dynamical evolution mechanisms of planetary systems through the detailed study of key systems resolved with SPHERE and through the developing of dedicated tools.The first part of this manuscript tackles the subject of N-body simulations. Numerous algorithms have been proposed and implemented, with different compromises on their speed, accuracy, and versatility. Among these algorithms, SWIFT HJS allows us to model for secular times architectures that are very different from our Solar System. It is thus an essential tool to the study of planetary to stellar companions with non-negligible mass ratio, which are often encountered with direct imaging. Within my Ph.D., the functionalities of the algorithm were extended to handle hierarchy changes and close encounters, which can play an important part in the dynamical history of planetary systems. The code was used to study in detail the mysterious system HD 106906, in particular, the interactions between its main components (binary star, planet, debris disk).In the second part of the manuscript, I introduce the subject of orbital fitting. The observation of a system at different epochs allows theoretically to retrieve the characteristics of the orbits. However, the problem is often complex and degenerate, in particular when the observations span a small fraction of the orbital period. The widely used MCMC statistical approach enables to get robust estimates in most of the cases. These estimates are then used to study the history and stability of the system, and the interactions between the orbits and their environment, notably the disks. This role of orbital fitting is here illustrated by the study of several benchmark systems imaged with SPHERE
Etude de concept d'instruments cophaseur pour l'imagerie interférométrique infrarouge. Observation de binaires en interaction à très haute résolution angulaire by Nicolas Blind( )

1 edition published in 2011 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Malgré sa capacité unique à discerner des détails qu'aucun instrument “classique” ne peut voir, l'interférométrie optique est fortement handicapée par l'atmosphère. Celle-ci limite drastiquement les temps de pose des interféromètres au sol et les empèche d'accumuler suffisamment de photons pour observer des sources toujours plus faibles, limitant de facto l'échantillon des astres observables. Les suiveurs de franges sont des instruments développés spécifiquement dans le but de compenser ces perturbations atmosphériques, et ainsi de repousser les limites de l'univers visible par les interféromètres optiques. Le but premier de cette thèse est d'étudier et d'améliorer ces instruments, dans le contexte des technologies actuelles et des nouvelles générations d'interféromètres combinant 4 télescopes et plus. La seconde grande partie de cette thèse s'attachera quant à elle à montrer l'intérêt de l'interférométrie optique dans l'étude des binaires en interaction, astres en mesure d'apporter des réponses à un vaste panel de champs d'étude du fait de la diversité des processus physiques en jeu en leur sein
Imagerie de l'environnement protoplanétaire des étoiles jeunes par interférométrie optique by Jacques Kluska( )

1 edition published in 2014 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Une manière efficace de contraindre la formation des planètes est l'étude des disques protoplanétaires. Les premières images de ces disques ont été obtenues dans les années 80 en infrarouge et en millimétrique. Ces images dévoilaient pour la première fois la morphologie de l'excès infrarouge vu dans les distributions spectrales d'énergies des étoiles jeunes. Depuis, de nets progrès ont été faits et, outre la détection directe de planètes, nous sommes capables de distinguer les perturbations que celles-ci pourraient engendrer dans ces disques. La région interne de ces disques, où la majorité des planètes sont détectées, est complexe car étant le théâtre de nombreux phénomènes encore mal contraints (sublimation de la poussière, vents, accrétion). Pour les étoiles jeunes les plus proches, observer ces régions revient à atteindre une résolution angulaire de l'ordre de la milliseconde d'arc, inatteignable avec un télescope monolithique. L'interférométrie optique permet de satisfaire cette contrainte. Cette technique consiste à combiner la lumière de deux télescopes ou plus afin de la faire interférer. Ces interférences permettent de contraindre la morphologie de l'objet observé à l'aide de modèles. Mais afin de comprendre les phénomènes en jeu il est nécessaire d'avoir une image indépendante de ces modèles. La reconstruction d'images est possible avec l'avènement récent d'interféromètres à 4 télescopes ou plus. Les premières images ont ainsi pu être reconstruites. Cependant, l'étoile centrale ne permet pas d'accéder facilement à l'image de l'environnement. Ma thèse a donc consisté à outrepasser cette difficulté en développant une méthode de reconstruction d'image adaptée à l'environnement protoplanétaire des étoiles jeunes. Elle consiste à séparer l'étoile centrale de l'image afin de reconstruire son environnement tout en prenant en compte la différence de température entre ces deux éléments. Grâce à cette méthode et aux instruments interférométriques du VLTI, j'ai pu reconstruire les images des premières unités astronomiques d'une douzaine d'étoiles de Herbig et de révéler leurs morphologies. J'ai ainsi pu appliquer une analyse géométrique originale afin de les caractériser. Enfin, j'ai analysé plus en détail un étoile particulière, MWC158, dont j'ai imagé la variabilité qui pourrait être interprétée comme une éjection de matière. Ma thèse démontre l'importance de la prise en compte des aspects chromatiques dans la reconstruction d'image ainsi que de l'adaptation de cette méthode à la spécificité des étoiles jeunes
Calibrages et études applicatives de la technologie SWIFTS by Fabrice Thomas( )

1 edition published in 2015 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

SWIFTS (Stationary Wave Integrated Fourier Transform Spectrometer) est une nouvelle technologie innovante de spectrométrie qui permet une réduction radicale de la taille des spectromètres à Transformée de Fourier, tout en conservant, et même en améliorant leurs performances. Grâce aux avancées de l'optique intégrée et des nanotechnologies, SWIFTS repose sur une méthode de détection optique originale, sans aucune partie mobile, où des nanoplots métalliques échantillonnent directement le champ évanescent d'une onde stationnaire dans un guide d'onde.Dans cette thèse, nous proposons de présenter le cheminement complet qui a mené, en partant du concept original, au développement puis à la mise en pratique de la technologie SWIFTS. Le document illustre notamment les caractérisations optiques, les choix technologiques et les optimisations entrepris pour la réalisation de spectromètres fonctionnels dans le domaine visible et proche-infrarouge. Des procédures de calibrages novatrices et complémentaires, basées sur du multiplexage fréquentiel et sur de l'interférométrie à faible cohérence temporelle, ont été développées pour déterminer avec précision les différentes irrégularités de fabrication et de comportement de l'appareil complètement intégré. Les spectromètres calibrés permettent à présent d'aborder des applications diverses en industrie et en recherche, de la caractérisation hautes performances de lasers, à l'interrogation de capteurs fibrés à réseaux de Bragg, aux techniques de spectrométries Raman et LIBS, et de tomographie optique OCT, jusqu'aux sciences de l'Univers (géophysique, astrophysique).SWIFTS est une innovation de rupture qui, de part sa miniaturisation obtenue sans compromis avec de hautes performances d'analyse spectrale, a la capacité de faire passer la spectrométrie du stade de la mesure complexe en laboratoire à celle d'un simple composant intégré pour des applications exigeantes
Etude d'une série de micrométéorites antarctiques : caractérisation multi-analytique et comparaison à des chondrites carbonées by Manon Battandier( )

1 edition published in 2018 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The study of the Solar System's small bodies (asteroids and comets), formed 4.567 billions years ago, gives us an insight on the materials initially present in the solar nebula and on the mechanisms operating in the primitive Solar System. This study can be performed via the analysis of the so-called primitive cosmomaterials, as meteorites (mainly chondrites), interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) or even micrometeorites.This PhD thesis consists of a multi-analysis of a series of 58 Antarctic micrometeorites (AMMs) from the CONCORDIA 2006 and 2016 collections. This set of AMMs provides a large range of textural types reflecting different intensities of heating experienced during the entry in the atmosphere : 40 unmelted fine-grained particles (Fgs), 12 particles intermediate partially melted (Fg-Scs), 1 partially melted scoriaceous particle (Sc) and 5 completely melted cosmic spherules (CSs). To study these samples, I used different analytical methods : i) Raman spectroscopy, to study the structure of the polyaromatic organic matter; ii) infrared (IR) spectroscopy, to analyze the aliphatic organic matter as well as the hydration state and the mineralogy of these samples; and iii) nanoscale secondary ion mass spectroscopy (NanoSIMS) to measure the isotopic composition of carbon and nitrogen of the organic matter contained in the AMMs. In order to constrain the diversity of parent bodies sampled by cosmomaterials, I also studied type 1 and 2 CM, CR and CI carbonaceous chondrites.The combination of Raman and IR techniques reveals differences among AMMs in terms of abundance, structure and chemical composition of the organic matter, mineralogy and hydration state. In particular, 7 Fgs distinguishing themselves from others AMMs as they show : i) a hydrated mineralogy with phyllosilicates, ii) an abundance in polyaromatic and aliphatic organic matter and iii) structural differences in the polyaromatic organic matter. Heating laboratory experiments, on CM, CR and CI carbonaceous chondrite matrices show that the atmospheric entry can induce : a dehydration of the samples, a drop in the abundance of organic material and a structural modification of polyaromatic organic matter. The identification of 17 non-hydrated Fgs reveals that, in spite of their fined-grained texture, some Fgsmay have experienced significant heating during their entry in the atmosphere. The 7 identified Fgs then appears as the ones that were the least affected by the atmospheric entry and thus the most primitive of our series. Moreover, this study shows that the hydration state, the mineralogy and the organic matter are more sensitive tracers to heating experienced during the atmospheric entry than the texture of micrometeorites.Intrinsic differences, which cannot be explained by the atmospheric entry, are also revealed between the 7 hydrated Fgs and CM, CR and CI chondrites. These differences are : i) a specific spectral signature of silicates in IR, ii) an abundance in organic and aliphatic material and iii) different characteristics of the aliphatic organic matter. Moreover, the analysis of the isotopic composition of carbon and nitrogen shows large variabilities among AMMs, in opposition with observations among carbonaceous chondrites. These intrinsic differences are explained here as AMMs and carbonaceous chondrites sampling distinct parent bodies
Modélisation de l'évolution du moment cinétique des étoiles de faible masse by Florian Gallet( )

1 edition published in 2014 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In 1972, Skumanich discovers a unique empirical relationship between the rotation period of the surface of G star and their age on the main sequence. This discovery then opened a new path for stellar dating: the gyrochronology. Therefore, many authors in the late 80's and the begenning 90's, were interested in the evolution of the surface angular velocity of low-mass stars (M_* = 0.4 M⊙- 1.1 M⊙). The first phenomenological models on the subject were born.The angular velocity evolution of these stars begins to be reasonably well reproduced by the class of parametrical model that I present in this thesis. Because of the lack of adequate theoretical descriptions, only the overall effects of the physical mechanisms involved are described here. The main issue is to study the framework and how the stellar angular momentum is affected by these processes and to constrain their main characteristics.Over the course of my thesis, I modelled the rotational tracks of external and median envelopes and median of rotation period distributions of 18 stellar clusters between 1 Myr and 1 Gyr. This allowed me to analyse the time dependence of the physical mechanisms involved in the angular momentum evolution of solar-type stars. The results I obtained show that the evolution of the internal differential rotation significantly impact the rotational convergence (empirical Skumanich's relationship), the evolution of the surface lithium abundance, and the intensity of the magnetic field generated by dynamo effect. In addition to the reproduction of these external envelopes, the model I developed provides constraints on the mechanisms of internal redistribution of angular momentum and the lifetimes of circumstellar disks, that are held responsible for the rotational regulation observed during the first few million years of pre-main sequence. The extension of the model to less massive stars (0.5 et 0.8 M⊙) that I performed also provided the mass dependence of these physical processes. Most specifically, this step added strong constraints on the characteristic time associated to the transport of angular momentum between the core and the envelope, on the efficiency of magnetic braking likely related to a change of topology from solar-type stars to those of 0.5 M⊙, and on the internal and external rotational history of stars from 1 Myr to 1 Gyr
Ionisation des nuages moléculaires par les rayons cosmiques by Solenn Vaupré( )

1 edition published in 2015 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Les rayons cosmiques (RC) ont un rôle fondamental sur la dynamique et l'évolution chimique des nuages moléculaires interstellaires, qui sont le lieu de formation stellaire et planétaire. Les RC sont probablement accélérés dans les enveloppes en expansion des rémanents de supernova (SNR), ainsi les nuages moléculaires situés à proximité peuvent être soumis à d'intenses flux de RC. Les protons relativistes ont principalement deux effets sur les nuages moléculaires : 1) en rencontrant le milieu dense, les protons de haute énergie (>280 MeV) induisent via la désintégration des pions l'émission de photons gamma. à cause de ce processus, les associations SNR-nuages moléculaires sont des sources intenses d'émission GeV et/ou TeV présentant des spectres similaires à celui des protons incidents. 2) à plus basse énergie, les RC pénètrent le nuage et ionisent le gaz, induisant la formation d'espèces moléculaires caractéristiques appelées traceurs de l'ionisation. L'étude de ces traceurs permet de déduire des informations sur les RC de basse énergie inaccessibles aux autres méthodes d'observation. J'ai étudié l'ionisation des nuages moléculaires par les RC près de trois SNR : W28, W51C et W44. Il existe des preuves observationnelles d'interaction avec le nuage voisin pour chaque SNR (présence de gaz choqué, masers OH, émission gamma). Mon travail repose sur la comparaison d'observations millimétriques des traceurs de l'ionisation à des modèles de chimie appliqués à ces nuages denses. Dans chaque région, nous avons déterminé un taux d'ionisation supérieur à la valeur standard, confortant l'hypothèse d'une origine des RC dans l'enveloppe du SNR voisin. L'existence d'un gradient d'ionisation en s'éloignant de l'onde de choc du SNR apporte des contraintes précieuses sur les propriétés de propagation des RC de basse énergie. La méthode utilisée repose sur l'observation des ions moléculaires HCO+ et DCO+, qui montre des limitations importantes à haute ionisation. C'est pourquoi j'ai également cherché à identifier des traceurs alternatifs de l'ionisation, par un effort croisé de modélisation et d'observation. En particulier, dans la région W44, les observations de N2H+ ont permis de mieux contraindre les conditions physiques, les abondances volatiles dans le nuage et l'état d'ionisation du gaz. Ce projet de recherche a amené une meilleure compréhension de la chimie induite par les RC dans les nuages moléculaires. Il a également ouvert de nouvelles perspectives de recherche interdisciplinaire vers la compréhension des RC, des observations millimétriques aux observations gamma
The protosolar nebula heritage : the nitrogen isotopic ratio from interstellar clouds to planetary systems by Victor de Souza Magalhaes( )

1 edition published in 2017 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The existence of interstellar molecules raises the question, are thesemolecules the same molecules we see on the Solar system today? Thisis still an open question with far reaching consequences. Some lightmay be shed on this issue if we are able to trace the heritage of agroup of chemically linked molecules, a so-called reservoir. The besttool to trace the heritage of reservoirs are isotopic ratios. The elementthat shows the largest isotopic ratio variations in the Solar system isnitrogen. For this is an indication that the isotopic ratio of nitrogen issensitive to the physical conditions during star formation.The main objective of this thesis is to identify the reservoirs of ni-trogen at different stages of star and planet formation. The first stepin this endeavour was to identify the isotopic ratio of the bulk of ni-trogen in the local ISM today. This was determined to be 323 ± 30from the CN/C 15 N ratio in the protoplanetary disk around TW Hya.Along with it we also measured the HCN/HC 15 N= 128 ± 36 in theprotoplanetary disk around MWC 480. This very distinct nitrogen iso-topic ratios on protoplanetary disks are a clear indication that thereare at least two reservoirs of nitrogen in protoplanetary disks. Howthese reservoirs get separated is however unknown. This could pos-sibly happen due to chemical fractionation reactions taking place inprestellar cores. We therefore aimed to obtain an accurate direct mea-surement of the nitrogen isotopic ratio of HCN in the prestellar coreL1498.To obtain this measurement the most important hurdle to overcomewere the hyperfine anomalies of HCN. These hyperfine anomaliesarise due to the overlap of hyperfine components. They are especiallysensitive to the column density of HCN, but also to the velocity fieldand line widths. Thus hyperfine anomalies are a tool to measure theabundance of HCN and to probe the kinematics of prestellar cores.To accurately reproduce the hyperfine anomalies, and thus mea-sure accurate column densities for HCN, we needed to explore adegenerate parameter space of 15 dimensions. To minimise the de-generacies we have derived a density profile based on continuummaps of L1498. This reduced the parameter space to 12 dimensions.The exploration of this parameter space was done through the useof a MCMC minimisation method. Through this exploration we ob-tained HCN/HC 15 N = 338 ± 28 and HCN/H 13 CN = 45 ± 3. Theuncertainties on these values are calibration limited and determinednon-arbitrarily by the MCMC method. Implications of these resultsare discussed in the concluding chapter, where we also present somefuture perspectives
Les poussières et petits corps des systèmes planétaires extrasolaires by Elie Sezestre( )

1 edition published in 2019 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Mon travail de thèse a porté sur la simulation numérique du comportement dynamique de poussières et de petits corps autour d'étoiles, appliqué à deux grands domaines de localisation : les disques de débris et les exozodis.Concernant les disques de débris, je me suis plus particulièrement intéressé aux arches mouvantes observées sur une période de 15 ans au sein du disque d'AU Mic. En supposant qu'elles proviennent toutes d'un corps parent unique et que les grains composant les arches ont la même dynamique que les arches elles-mêmes, j'ai montré que le corps parent doit être plus interne que la ceinture de planétésimaux (<25 UA) et qu'il peut être sur une orbite circulaire ou fixe par rapport à l'observateur. Afin d'expliquer la vitesse apparente des arches, il est nécessaire que les grains les composant soient submicrométriques pour être suffisamment sensibles à la pression du vent stellaire. Le champ magnétique à grande échelle de cette étoile est suffisant pour expliquer l'élévation verticale des arches, mais l'interaction des grains avec ce champ nécessite des études plus approfondies.D'autre part, j'ai développé un code numérique permettant de tester l'origine dynamique des poussières constituant les exozodis, en comparant les résultats de mes simulations aux observations. J'ai montré que le scénario classique de migration par PR-drag de grains provenant d'une ceinture externe froide produit trop de flux dans le moyen infrarouge en regard du proche infrarouge, et cet effet n'est pas suffisamment contrebalancé par l'accumulation proche de la distance de sublimation. En revanche, le scénario cométaire, avec un apport de matière au plus près de l'étoile, permet de modérer le flux en moyen infrarouge. Les observations peuvent être reproduites avec une dizaine de comètes kilométriques autour de chaque étoile. Le code que j'ai conçu est capable d'appréhender de nombreux effets physiques, et il est possible de tester l'influence du DDE, de la pression du vent stellaire ou encore du champ magnétique.Par mon travail, j'ai montré que la prise en compte de la dynamique des grains de poussière permet de contraindre les propriétés physiques des grains, et j'ai développé des outils numériques adaptables à de nombreux cas de figures afin de pouvoir caractériser la diversité et la complexité de la poussière observée autour des étoiles
Étude sur les paramétres stellaires des naines M et leur lien à la formation planétaire by Vasco Neves( )

1 edition published in 2013 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

No momento em que escrevo esta Tese, o número de planetas anunciados já ultrapassou os 900 e os cerca de 2700 candidatos detectados pelo telescópio espacial Kepler esperam por confirmação. Os espectros e as curvas de luz obtidos nos programas de procura de planetas permitem, também, o estudo em profundidade dos parâmetros das estrelas com planetas e abrem a possibilidade de investigar a relação estrela-planeta. Neste contexto, a determinação com precisão dos parâmetros estelares é crítica na determinação precisa dos parâmetros planetários, nomeadamente, a massa, o raio e a densidade.No caso das anãs FGK, os métodos de determinação dos parâmetros estelares estão bem estabelecidos e podem ser usados com confiança no estudo da relação estrela-planeta, assim como na obtenção de parâmetros planetários precisos. No entanto, não é esse o caso para as anãs M, as estrelas mais comuns da nossa Galáxia. Ao contrário das suas primas, as estrelas M são mais pequenas, frias e ténues e, assim sendo, mais difíceis de estudar. O grande entrave no estudo das estrelas M está relacionado com a presença de biliões de linhas moleculares que deprimem o contínuo espectral, fazendo com que uma análise espectral clássica se torne quase impossível. A procura de métodos inovadores que possibilitem ultrapassar este obstáculo, tendo em vista a obtenção de parâmetros precisos, é o objectivo desta Tese.Tendo em conta esse objetivo, foquei os meus esforços em duas linhas principais de pesquisa, baseadas em métodos fotométricos e métodos espectroscópicos. O meu trabalho inicial tinha como objetivo o estabelecimento de uma calibração fotométrica para a metalicidade, mas não me foi possível atingir esse objetivo, pois não tinha sistemas binários FGK+M suficientes com bons dados fotométricos. No entanto, foi possível, com os dados disponíveis, comparar as calibrações fotométricas existentes e refinar ligeiramente a melhor delas, como descrito no Capítulo 3.Após este trabalho passei a concentrar-me em técnicas espectroscópicas de obtenção de parâmetros estelares em estrelas M. Tendo em mente esse objetivo, usei espectros HARPS de alta resolução para desenvolver um novo método de medição de linhas espectrais independente do contínuo espectral. Seguidamente, usei este método no desenvolvimento de uma nova calibração de metalicidade e temperatura efectiva em estrelas M na região do visível, através da qual consegui atingir uma precisão de 0.08 dex para a [Fe/H] e de 80 K para a temperatura. Este trabalho está descrito no Capítulo 4.Ao mesmo tempo colaborei na determinação com precisão dos parâmetros da estrela GJ3470 e do seu planeta, onde a minha proficiência na determinação de parâmetros estelares em anãs M teve um papel importante. Os detalhes relacionados com este trabalho de investigação estão descritos no Capítulo 5
Étude de l'altération hydrothermale des chondrites carbonées et implications pour les observations des petits corps by Alexandre Garenne( )

1 edition published in 2014 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Asteroids are relics from the early Solar System. Some of them are extremely primitive and can help in understanding the mechanic of Solar System formation, and ultimately the scenario that led to the formation of a habited planetary system. Reflectance spectroscopy is now a classical and useful method to analyze asteroid composition from the Earth or during space mission. In this PhD thesis, we tried to improve our understanding of the spectral properties of asteroids by looking at naturally delivered fragments, meteorites. We have used different analytical methods on carbonaceous chondrites (pieces of primitive asteroids) to characterized their chemical and mineralogical composition. We studied the nature of hydrated phases, water budget, phyllosilicate structures and the speciation of iron on these meteorites. All these analyses permit an improved understanding of the transformation of the mineralogy by parent body (asteroidal) alteration. Furthermore, these analyses provide quantitative and qualitative constraints to understand the factors controlling the reflectance measurement performed on the same meteorite. We compared different analytical parameters to quantify the water abundance and suggest a method to quantify hydrated phases on dark asteroids
Détection et caractérisation d'exoplanètes dans des images à grand contraste par la résolution de problème inverse by Faustine Cantalloube( )

1 edition published in 2016 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

L'imagerie d'exoplanètes permet d'obtenir de nombreuses informations sur la lumière qu'elles émettent, l'interaction avec leur environnement et sur leur nature. Afin d'extraire l'information des images, il est indispensable d'appliquer des méthodes de traitement d'images adaptées aux instruments. En particulier, il faut séparer les signaux planétaires des tavelures présentes dans les images qui sont dues aux aberrations instrumentales quasi-statiques. Dans mon travail de thèse je me suis intéressée à deux méthodes innovantes de traitement d'images qui sont fondés sur la résolution de problèmes inverses.La première méthode, ANDROMEDA, est un algorithme dédié à la détection et à la caractérisation de point sources dans des images haut contraste via une approche maximum de vraisemblance. ANDROMEDA exploite la diversité temporelle apportée par la rotation de champ de l'image (où se trouvent les objets astrophysiques) alors que la pupille (où les aberrations prennent naissance) est gardée fixe. A partir de l'application sur données réelles de l'algorithme dans sa version originale, j'ai proposé et qualifié des améliorations afin de prendre en compte les résidus non modélisés par la méthode tels que les structures bas ordres variant lentement et le niveau résiduel de bruit correlé dans les données. Une fois l'algorithme ANDROMEDA opérationnel, j'ai analysé ses performances et sa sensibilité aux paramètres utilisateurs, montrant la robustesse de la méthode. Une comparaison détaillée avec les algorithmes les plus utilisés dans la communauté a prouvé que cet algorithme est compétitif avec des performances très intéressantes dans le contexte actuel. En particulier, il s'agit de la seule méthode qui permet une détection entièrement non-supervisée. De plus, l'application à de nombreuses données ciel venant d'instruments différents a prouvé la fiabilité de la méthode et l'efficacité à extraire rapidement et systématiquement (avec un seul paramètre utilisateur à ajuster) les informations contenues dans les images. Ces applications ont aussi permis d'ouvrir des perspectives pour adapter cet outil aux grands enjeux actuels de l'imagerie d'exoplanètes.La seconde méthode, MEDUSAE, consiste à estimer conjointement les aberrations et les objets d'intérêt scientifique, en s'appuyant sur un modèle de formation d'images coronographiques. MEDUSAE exploite la redondance d'informations apportée par des images multi-spectrales. Afin de raffiner la stratégie d'inversion de la méthode et d'identifier les paramètres les plus critiques, j'ai appliqué l'algorithme sur des données générées avec le modèle utilisé dans l'inversion. J'ai ensuite appliqué cette méthode à des données simulées plus réalistes afin d'étudier l'impact de la différence entre le modèle utilisé dans l'inversion et les données réelles. Enfin, j'ai appliqué la méthode à des données réelles et les résultats préliminaires que j'ai obtenus ont permis d'identifier les informations importantes dont la méthode a besoin et ainsi de proposer plusieurs pistes de travail qui permettraient de rendre cet algorithme opérationnel sur données réelles
Recherche de planètes habitables autour de naines M by Nicola Astudillo-Defru( )

1 edition published in 2015 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Since the first detection of an extrasolar planet orbiting a Sun-like star by Mayor and Queloz (1995), more than 1500 have been discovered. Enormous interest is currently focused on finding and characterising Earth-like planets, in particular those located in the habitable zone of their host star (defined as the distance from the host star where the planet temperature allows liquid water to flow on its surface). Both the detection of Earth-like planets, and the search for biomarkers in their atmospheres are among the main objectives of the twenty-first century's astronomy. The method known as radial velocities (RV), that consists in the measure of the star's reflex motion induced by orbiting planets, is a promising technique to achieve that quest.The main difficulties with the RV technique are the needs of an extremely stable spectrograph, a correct understanding of stellar activity (which can mimic the effect of a planet), a careful treatment of our Earth's atmosphere (which inevitable imprints spectra taken from the ground), and the need to dispose of a powerful algorithm to extract as much Doppler information as possible from the recorded spectra. Search for planets orbiting very low-mass stars (M dwarfs) can more easily reach the goal of detecting low-mass planets in the habitable zone of their parent star, compared to solar-type stars. Indeed, everything else being equal, a lower mass of the host star implies a larger reflex motion, and thus a larger RV amplitude. Moreover, the lower luminosity of M dwarfs compared to Sun-like stars, implies shorter orbital periods from planets in the habitable zone (~50 days against ~360 days, for M dwarfs compared to solar-type stars, respectively), resulting again in a larger RV amplitude. A RV precision of ~1 m/s allows a planet detection in the habitable zone of an M dwarf, whereas ~0.1 m/s is required in the case of a solar-type stars.This thesis aims to optimise the RV extraction from HARPS high-resolution spectra (and to open similar analysis on other instruments like SOPHIE, HARPS-N and the upcoming infrared spectrograph SPIRou -- to be commissioned to the 3.6-m CFH-Telescope). The effects of stellar activity will also be analysed, and contextualised in the RV technique. Stellar activity tracers are used to reject false detections or to study the relationships between the stellar magnetic activity and rotation. In this thesis (Chap.ref{chap:mag_activity}) I calibrate for the first time the ratio between the Ca textrm{small II} Htextrm{small &}K chromospheric lines and the bolometric luminosity for M dwarfs. I determine a relationship between the R^prime_{HK}-index and the rotation period of M dwarfs. In chapter~ref{chap:template_matching} I describe my algorithm to extract RVs through a chi^2-minimisation between a stellar template and the observed spectra. I demonstrate the improved accuracy of this method. Telluric spectral lines also affect the measurements of RV and are taken into account in the analysis procedures. I tested these methods on systems with planetary candidates, and for some systems, I took in charge the Keplerian analysis
Unbiased Spectral Survey towards the intermediate-mass Class 0 protostar Cep E-mm by Susana Pacheco-Vazquez( )

1 edition published in 2012 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Les protoétoiles de masse intermédiaire (IM) (2 ≤ M* ≤ 8 Msun) sont le lien entre les étoiles de faible et haute masse car elles couvrent également un intervalle intermédiaire de luminosités, de densités et de températures [Fuente et al., 2012]. Même si les « IM-YSOs » jouent un rôle important dans l'étude de la formation des étoiles, on a très peu de connaissances sur la formation et l'évolution des premières étapes des protoétoiles de masse intermédiaire. Les études systématiques spectrales sont un outil puissant pour caractériser la composition chimique d'un objet astrophysique, et la seule façon d'obtenir un recensement complet des espèces chimiques. Une étude spectrale fournit également des lignes multiples de la même molécule, donnant la possibilité d'une analyse multifréquences ainsi que d'une modélisation. En outre, grâce aux profils des raies, nous pouvons obtenir des informations sur la cinématique, et identifier les structures au long de la ligne de vue, en tant que sources multiples, des jets ou des cavités, par exemple, [Caux et al., 2011]. Les phénomènes d'éjection (jets, des vents et des « outflows » bipolaires moléculaires), sont une phase inhérente au processus de formation d'étoiles observées dans les YSOs de toutes masses dans des longueurs d'onde millimétriques. Cependant, il n'y a pas d'études systématiques dans l'intervalle de masse intermédiaire comme dans le cas des protoétoiles de faible et haute masse. Compte tenu de l'absence d'une étude systématique de la partie mm/submillimétrique dans le spectre des protoétoiles de masse intermédiaire, au cours de ma thèse, j'ai mené une étude systématique spectrale vers la protoétoile de masse intermédiaire de classe 0 Cep E et de son « outflow » moléculaire
Dynamique à grande échelle des disques protoplanétaires by William Bethune( )

1 edition published in 2017 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Cette thèse est dédiée aux processus de transport de moment cinétique et de flux magnétique dans les disques faiblement magnétisés et faiblement ionisés ; l'influence des effets microphysiques sur la dynamique du disque à grande échelle y est centrale. Dans un premier temps, j'exclue les effets de stratification et j'examine l'impact des effets MHD non-idéaux sur la turbulence dans le plan du disque. Je montre que l'écoulement peut spontanément s'organiser si la fraction d'ionisation est assez faible ; dans ce cas, l'accrétion est stoppée, et le disque exhibe des anneaux axisymétriques susceptibles d'affecter la formation planétaire. Dans un second temps, je caractérise l'interaction du disque avec un vent magnétisé via un modèle global de disque stratifié. Ce modèle est le premier à décrire globalement les effets MHD non-idéaux d'après un réseau chimique simplifié. Il révèle que le disque est essentiellement non-turbulent, et que le champ magnétique peut adopter différentes configurations globales, affectant drastiquement les processus de transport. Un nouveau processus d'auto-organisation est identifié, produisant aussi des structures axisymétriques, tandis que le précédent est invalidé par l'action du vent. Les propriétés des vents magnéto-thermiques sont examinées pour différentes magnétisations, permettant de discriminer les vents magnétisés des vents photo-évaporés par leur efficacité d'éjection
Formation d'étoiles massives en amas : conditions initiales, origine des masses stellaires et éjections protostellaires by Thomas Nony( )

1 edition published in 2019 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The research I have performed during my PhD addresses three major challenges of the star formation field: constraining, observationally, the earliest phases of high-mass star formation - the so-called prestellar stage, studying the origin of the stellar masses, and characterizing the process of protostellar accretion-ejection.Going beyond the current paradigms of star formation requires studying star-forming regions which are more representative of the general mode of star formation in the Milky Way. To this purpose I have used ALMA observations of W43-MM1, a young located at 5.5 kpc distance from the Sun, which presents a high star formation rate. The first step of my work has been to identify and characterize cores in the continuum image. I discovered 131 cores about 2400 AU in size which have mass between 1 and 100 Msun. I measured their mass distribution (CMF) and found a slope of -0.96 +/- 0.13 on 1.6 - 100 Msun that is markedly flatter than the reference Salpeter slope of the IMF on that range, -1.35. This means an overabundance of high-mass cores - and thus high-mass stars -compared to the number expected by the current models of star formation. Possible explanations imply either that star-formation is atypical in W43-MM1 (variably in the Milky Way) or that high-mass stars form at different time than low-mass stars in a cluster (star formation would not be a continuous process).I have characterized these cores using CO(2-1) and SiO(5-4) lines and revealed a rich cluster of 45 outflow lobes from 27 cores covering the whole mass range and including 11 high-mass cores (M>16 Msun). I have also used the detection of Complex Organic Molecules (COMs), typically detected in warm environments like hot cores, as indicator of the protostellar activity. 12 out of the 13 high-mass cores in W43-MM1 have eventually been characterized as protostellar, leaving one good high-mass prestellar core candidate. These statistics raises question about the universality of a prestellar phase for high-mass stars and suggests that the core-fed models for high-mass star formation cannot generally apply. The protostellar outflows also bring valuable information on the accretion/ejection history. I have studied the kinematics of high-velocity molecular jets that divide into knots using Position-Velocity diagrams. I have shown that the complex velocity structures of these knots hide a strong variability, and evaluated the associated timescale between two ejections to be about 500 yr. This is reminiscent of the values obtained between accretion burst in FU Orionis stars
Nika2 : mesure de la polarisation avec des KIDs et perspectives pour la mesure du fond diffus cosmologique by Aina Andrianasolo( )

1 edition published in 2019 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The polarization is an important probe of many astrophysical and cosmological processes. The study of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) is one of the major goals in Cosmology because it represents an important source of information on the cosmological model of the Universe. The measure of CMB polarization, and in particular the detection of its B modes, would sign the presence of primordial gravitationnal waves and be a powerful probe of inflation. In Astrophysics, the magnetic field can be traced via the observation of dust polarization, and its observation by Planck reveals a well organized magnetic field at large angular scales. Observations have shown that stellar formation takes place in dense filamentary structures and suggest that magnetic field plays an important role in it. High resolution observations of polarization in the filaments will allow us to further probe the role of magnetic field in star formation, and this is one of the main goals of the polarized channel of the NIKA2 camera. Polarization with NIKA2 is reconstructed thanks to the continuous rotation of a Half Wave Plate (HWP) and detectors of a new technology : KIDs (Kinetic Inductance Detectors). It is the only experiment that uses this combination, it thus gives an important feedback in the perspective of deploying it on future CMB polarization instruments.A part of this thesis focuses on the characterization of the polarization module of NIKA2. It presents the data analysis that allows the reconstruction of polarization and the methods that were developed to subtract systematic effects such as the parasitic signal from the HWP and instrumental polarisation.In the context of the search for B modes and in the perspective of doing more precise estimations of polarization, the last part presents two studies : one on the construction of new estimators of polarization that take into account the noise on intensity, and the other one on non-linearity produced by the reconstruction of a KID signal and how it impacts the detection of CMB B modes
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Alternative Names
Institut de planétologie et d'astrophysique (Grenoble)


Planetology and Astrophysics Institute of Grenoble

UMR 5274


Unité mixte de recherche 5274


French (12)

English (8)