WorldCat Identities

Thörnberg, Jimmy

Works: 8 works in 9 publications in 1 language and 9 library holdings
Roles: Author
Publication Timeline
Most widely held works by Jimmy Thörnberg
Synthesis and Characterization of Transition Metal Diborides by Jimmy Thörnberg( Book )

2 editions published in 2021 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This thesis is devoted towards physical vapor deposition (PVD) of thin films of transition-metal (TM) diborides, focused on the material system TiB x, Ti 1-x Al x B 2-y and CrB x . The metal diborides are a large family of compounds with both metallic and ceramic properties, due to its bonding nature being a mix of covalent and ionic bonds. Their characteristics include, e.g., good mechanical, electrical and thermal properties, while an improved oxidation and corrosion resistance are currently sought after. Furthermore, while the ideal composition of these diborides is TMB 2 , i.e. with a B to metal ratio of 2, the stoichiometry in the PVD deposited films typically diverges from this ratio. TiB x is often reported to be overstoichiometric, with x well above 2. One of the most known and commonly used member of the TM diboride family is TiB x , primarily used in hard-coating applications such as tools for machining Al. However, the material displays a fracture toughness and oxidation resistance that ideally needs to be improved. The films presented in this thesis were deposited by high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) and direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS). Using both methods facilitates an improved control of both microstructure and composition, and hence the materials properties. With HiPIMS, understoichiometric TiB x films were grown and it was shown that these films can match and even exceed the overstoichiometric counterpart, deposited with DCMS, in terms of mechanical properties. The hardness and fracture toughness for TiB 1.43 films were measured at 43.9±0.9 GPa and 4.2±0.1 MPa√m, compared to TiB 2.70 films at 37.7±0.8 GPa and 3.1±0.1 MPa√m. Furthermore, the understoichiometric films significantly improve the oxidation resistance. Air annealing of TiB 1.43 , TiB 2.20 , and TiB 2.70 films at 400 °C showed an average oxidation rate of 2.9±1.5, 7.1±1.0, and 20.0±5.0 nm/h, respectively, explained by the microstructural difference between over- and understoichiometric material. In TiB x films where x > 2, there is a B-rich tissue phase in the grain boundaries which is suggested to enhance oxidation. The hydroscopic nature of B 2 O 3 causes more rapid oxidation and evaporation thus providing an easy oxidation pathway in B-rich regions. However, understoichiometric films where x < 2 do not show any significant boundary phases. Instead, the B deficiency is presented as planar defects with Ti-rich stacking faults. Hence the absence of the B-rich tissue phase has strongly contributed to increasing the oxidation resistance. Oxidation resistance and mechanical properties were also investigated for understoichiometric Ti 1-x Al x B 2-y coatings with varying Ti:Al and B:M ratios, obtained from both HiPIMS and DCMS depositions. Al alloying of the TM diboride TiB x significantly enhances the oxidation resistance. However, incorporating too much Al is at the expense of the excellent hardness seen in the pure TiB x , going from 46.2±1.1 GPa to 22.6±1.1 GPa for Ti 0.9 Al 0.1 B 1.3 and Ti 0.3 Al 0.7 B 1.3 , respectively. Hence, a reduction in the Al content is needed to retain the mechanical properties. The boundary phase in this material consists of a Ti 1-x Al x B 2-y tissue phase, rich in either Al or B depending on the x and y values. An improved oxidation resistance in Ti 1-x Al x B 2-y was seen with reduced Al and B content, proposed to be due to absence of tissue phase in the grain boundaries, in line with the observations for TiB x . The oxide scale thickness of Ti 0.9 Al 0.1 B 1.3 and Ti 0.9 Al 0.1 B 1.9 after air annealing at 600 °C for 10 h was measured to be 205 nm and 320 nm, respectively. Moreover, the trends indicate a reduced oxidation rate as the oxide scale grows thicker. A systematical study of DCMS deposited CrB x coatings, 1.90 ≤ x 2.08, was also performed, motivated by CrB x being a material of interest for providing potential corrosion resistance. All films, irrespectable of the deposition conditions, exhibited (001) texture, with epitaxial growth observed when increasing temperature from 500 °C to 900 °C. Higher density (5.2 g/cm 3 ) and smoother surfaces was seen in films grown at lower pressure, 5 mTorr (0.67 Pa), compared to higher pressure, 20 mTorr (2.67 Pa), and was explained by less gas scattering leading to more energetic particles impinging on the surface. CrB x film composition show no apparent dependence on substrate temperature, and has a slight dependence on deposition pressure for the samples deposited at 900 °C, with reduced B content for increasing pressure. Overstoichiometric CrB 2.08 films showed the presence of large B-rich inclusions, and B deficiency in CrB 1.90 films presented as planar defects with Cr-rich stacking faults, similar to understoichiometric TiB x . The thorough investigations of all the systems in this thesis are aimed towards improving the understanding of the correlation between the thin film synthesis process and the resulting composition and microstructure, which in turn dictates the properties of thin films. A particular emphasis is put on control of composition
Improved oxidation properties from a reduced B content in sputter-deposited TiBx thin films by Jimmy Thörnberg( )

1 edition published in 2021 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Transition-metal diboride thin films, which have high melting points, excellent hardness, and good chemical and thermal conductivity, severely suffer from rapid oxidation in air. Here, we explore the influence of varying B content and resulting nanostructure change on the oxidation properties of TiBx thin films, with x = 1.43, 2.20, and 2.70. Results show that all as-deposited layers have columnar structure. The column boundaries of asdeposited TiB2.20 and TiB2.20 films grown by direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS) are B-rich, while the as-deposited TiB1.43 films grown by high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) show no apparent grain boundary phases and contain Ti-rich planar defects. The oxidation rate of TiBL43 air-annealed at 400 degrees C up to 48 h is significantly lower than that of TiB2.20 and TiB2.20 films. The oxidation rate of TiB1.43, TiB2.20, and TiB2.20 films was measured at 2.9 +/- 1.5, 7.1 +/- 1.0, and 20.0 +/- 5.0 nm/h, respectively, with no spallation of even as thick oxide scales as 0.5 mu m in any of the films. The improved oxidation resistance can be explained by the absence of B-rich tissue phase at the column boundaries of understoichiometric TiBx films, a phase that interlaces the nanocolumnar TiB2 structures in the corresponding overstoichiometric films. An easy oxidation pathway is thus eliminated
Microstructure and materials properties of understoichiometric TiBx thin films grown by HiPIMS by Jimmy Thörnberg( )

1 edition published in 2020 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

TiBx thin films with a B content of 1.43 ≤ x ≤ 2.70 were synthesized using high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) and direct-current magnetron sputtering (DCMS). HiPIMS allows compositions ranging from understoichiometric to overstoichiometric dense TiBx thin films with a B/Ti ratio between 1.43 and 2.06, while DCMS yields overstoichiometric TiBx films with a B/Ti ratio ranging from 2.20 to 2.70. Excess B in overstoichiometric TiBx thin films from DCMS results in a hardness up to 37.7 ± 0.8 GPa, attributed to the formation of an amorphous B-rich tissue phase interlacing stoichiometric TiB2 columnar structures. We furthermore show that understoichiometric TiB1.43 thin films synthesized by HiPIMS, where the deficiency of B is found to be accommodated by Ti-rich planar defects, exhibit a superior hardness of 43.9 ± 0.9 GPa. The apparent fracture toughness and thermal conductivity of understoichiometric TiB1.43 HiPIMS films are 4.2 ± 0.1 MPa√m and 2.46 ± 0.22 W/(m·K), respectively, as compared to corresponding values for overstoichiometric TiB2.70 DCMS film samples of 3.1 ± 0.1 MPa√m and 4.52 ± 0.45 W/(m·K). This work increases the fundamental understanding of understoichiometric TiBx thin films and their materials properties, and shows that understoichiometric films have properties matching or going beyond those with excess B
High-power impulse magnetron sputter deposition of TiBx thin films: Effects of pressure and growth temperature by Niklas Hellgren( )

1 edition published in 2019 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Titanium boride, TiBx thin films are grown in pure Ar discharges by high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) from a compound TiB2 target Film compositions are determined by time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry as a function of deposition temperature (T-s = 25-900 degrees C) and Ar pressure (p(Ar) = 0.67-2.67 Pa, 5-20 mTorr). For reference, films are also grown by direct current magnetron sputtering (dcMS) under similar conditions. The HiPIMS waveform, average target power P-T, and resulting film compositions are strongly dependent not only on P-Ar, but also on T-s. At high pressures the effect of varying T-s on P-T is minimal, while at lower P-Ar the effect of T-s is more pronounced, due to substrate-temperature-induced gas rarefaction. Films grown by HiPIMS at 0.67 Pa are understoichiometric, with B/Ti = 1.4-1.5, while at 2.67 Pa, B/Ti decreases from 2.4 to 1.4 as T-s increases from 25 to 900 degrees C. dcMS-deposited films are overstoichiometric (B/Ti similar or equal to 3) when grown at low pressures, and near-stoichiometric (B/Ti similar or equal to r 1.9-2.2) for higher P-Ar. All experimental results are explained by differences in the ionization potentials of sputtered Ti and B atoms, together with P-Ar- and T-s-dependent gas-phase scattering
Where is the unpaired transition metal in substoichiometric diboride line compounds? by Justinas Palisaitis( )

1 edition published in 2021 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The atomic structure and local composition of high quality epitaxial substoichiometric titanium diboride (TiB1.9) thin film, deposited by unbalanced magnetron sputtering, were studied using analytical high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy, density functional theory, and image simulations. The unpaired Ti is pinpointed to inclusion of Ti-based stacking faults within a few atomic layers, which terminates the {1 (1) over bar 00} prismatic planes of the crystal structure and attributed to the absence of B between Ti planes that locally relaxes the structure. This mechanism allows the line compound to accommodate off-stoichiometry and remain a line compound between defects. The planar defects are embedded in otherwise stoichiometric TiB2 and are delineated by insertion of dislocations. An accompanied decrease in Ti-Ti bond lengths along and across the faults is observed. (c) 2020ActaMaterialiaInc. PublishedbyElsevierLtd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (
Synthesis and characterization of CrB 2 thin films grown by DC magnetron sputtering by Megan Dorri( )

1 edition published in 2021 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

CrB x thin films with 1.90 < x < 2.08 have been deposited by direct-current magnetron sputtering (DCMS) from a stoichiometric CrB 2 target at 5 and 20 mTorr (0.67 and 2.67 Pa) Ar pressure onto sapphire (0 0 01) substrates. All films, irrespective of deposition conditions, exhibit a (0 0 01) texture. Attesting to the achievement of close-to-stoichiometric composition, epitaxial film growth is observed at 900 ?C, while film growth at 500 ?C yields (0001) fiber texture. Film composition does not depend on substrate temperature but exhibits slightly reduced B content with increasing pressure for samples deposited at 900 ?C. Excess B in the overstoichiometric epitaxial CrB 2.08 films segregates to form B-rich inclusions. Understoichiometry in CrB 1.90 films is accommodated by Cr-rich stacking faults on { 1 1? 00 } prismatic planes. ? 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of Acta Materialia Inc. This is an open access article under the CC BY license ( )
Theoretical Analysis, Synthesis, and Characterization of 2D W1.33C (MXene) with Ordered Vacancies by Rahele Meshkian( )

1 edition published in 2019 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Synthesis of delaminated 2D W1.33C (MXene) has been performed by selectively etching Al as well as Sc/Y from the recently discovered nanolaminated i-MAX phases (W2/3Sc1/3)(2)AlC and (W2/3Y1/3)(2)AlC. Both quaternary phases produce MXenes with similar flake morphology and with a skeletal structure due to formation of ordered vacancies. The measured O, OH, and F terminations, however, differ in amount as well as in relative ratios, depending on parent material, evident from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. These findings are correlated to theoretical simulations based on first-principles, investigating the W1.33C, and the effect of termination configurations on structure, formation energy, stability, and electronic structure. The theoretical results indicate a favored F-rich surface composition, though with a system going from insulating/semiconducting to metallic for different termination configurations, suggesting a high tuning potential of these materials. Additionally, free-standing W1.33C films of 2-4 mu m thickness and with up to 10 wt % polymer (PEDOT:PSS) were tested as electrodes in supercapacitors, showing capacitances up to 600 F cm(-3) in 1 M H2SO4 and high capacitance retention for at least 10000 cycles at 10 A g(-1). This is highly promising results compared to other W-based materials to date
Out-Of-Plane Ordered Laminate Borides and Their 2D Ti-Based Derivative from Chemical Exfoliation by Martin Dahlqvist( )

1 edition published in 2021 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Exploratory theoretical predictions in uncharted structural and compositional space are integral to materials discoveries. Inspired by M5SiB2 (T2) phases, the finding of a family of laminated quaternary metal borides, M M-4 SiB2, with out-of-plane chemical order is reported here. 11 chemically ordered phases as well as 40 solid solutions, introducing four elements previously not observed in these borides are predicted. The predictions are experimentally verified for Ti4MoSiB2, establishing Ti as part of the T2 boride compositional space. Chemical exfoliation of Ti4MoSiB2 and select removal of Si and MoB2 sub-layers is validated by derivation of a 2D material, TiOxCly, of high yield and in the form of delaminated sheets. These sheets have an experimentally determined direct band gap of approximate to 4.1 eV, and display characteristics suitable for supercapacitor applications. The results take the concept of chemical exfoliation beyond currently available 2D materials, and expands the envelope of 3D and 2D candidates, and their applications
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