WorldCat Identities

METIS (Paris)

Overview
Works: 29 works in 29 publications in 2 languages and 89 library holdings
Genres: Conference papers and proceedings 
Roles: Other
Publication Timeline
.
Most widely held works by METIS (Paris)
Approches évolutionnistes de la firme et de l'industrie : théories et analyses empiriques( Book )

1 edition published in 1999 in French and held by 60 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Le système alimentation/excrétion des territoires urbains : régimes et transitions socio-écologiques by Fabien Esculier( )

1 edition published in 2018 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Nutrition and excretion are fundamental physiological needs for all human beings. Analysis of their materiality, from the cellular scale up to the great planetary-scale biogeochemical cycles, shows that nutrition and excretion form a system. The focus of our study is the sustainability of the nutrition/excretion systems of urban areas, which we have sought to assess by analysing substance flows. The most relevant of these substances seems to be nitrogen, so by assessing urban nitrogen flows we can characterise the different possible socioecological regimes and their sustainability. We identify a wide diversity of nutrition/excretion systems depending on the places and eras considered. We propose to distinguish them in terms of their circularity, in other words by the rate at which nitrogen from excreta returns to agricultural land. Using the Paris urban area as our case study, we show that its nutrition/excretion system became increasingly circular in the 19th century, reaching maximum circularity right at the start of the 20th century, before becoming steadily more linear in the course of the 20th century. In these early years of the 21st century, the nutrition/excretion system of the Paris urban area is essentially linear, and still generates significant pollution at both local and global scales. Its environmental footprint is exacerbated by a diet that is very protein rich, mostly animal in origin, and by the non-consumption of a significant proportion of the food produced. All these factors make it unsustainable. These characteristics are found throughout the Western world and raise questions about the possibility of a socioecological transition to sustainable systems of nutrition and excretion. Since the 1990s, initially in Sweden, followed by Nordic and German-speaking Europe, awareness has been growing of the role of urine. Urine is responsible for three-quarters of urban nitrogenous excretions and is a safe substance: following a period of storage, it can be used as agricultural fertiliser. This new awareness has been followed by extensive experimentation and research on urine source separation. We show that this is currently the only method in the Western world to have accomplished a return to circular systems of nutrition/excretion. Urine source separation can be done in multiple ways, depending on circumstances, and conditions in France are favourable to its development, despite the sociotechnical lock-in to mixed sewage management systems. In a forward-looking scenario, we therefore explore the possibility that the Paris urban area could return to, and within a few decades even surpass, the heights of circularity that it attained during the Belle Époque. In that case, alongside a socioecological transition in the other systems - water, energy, transport - the people of this territory could establish a sustainable regime for their system of nutrition/excretion. This thesis is part of the OCAPI research and action programme (www.leesu.fr/OCAPI)
Harmonisation de l'information géo-scientifique de bases de données industrielles par mesures automatiques de ressemblance by Alba Fuga( )

1 edition published in 2017 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Pour automatiser l'harmonisation des bases de données industrielles de navigation sismique, une méthodologie et un logiciel ont été mis en place. La méthodologie d'Automatisation des Mesures de Ressemblance (AMR), permet de modéliser et hiérarchiser les critères de comparaison servant de repères pour l'automatisation. Accompagné d'un ensemble de seuils de tolérance, le modèle hiérarchisé a été utilisé comme filtre à tamis dans le processus de classification automatique permettant de trouver rapidement les données fortement similaires. La similarité est mesurée par un ensemble de métriques élémentaires, aboutissant à des scores numériques, puis elle est mesurée de manière plus globale et contextuelle, notamment suivant plusieurs échelles : entre les attributs, entre les données, et entre les groupes. Ces évaluations de la similarité permettent à la fois au système expert de présenter des analyses précises automatisées et à l'expert géophysicien de réaliser des interprétations multicritères en faisant en environ deux jours le travail qu'il faisait en trois semaines. Les stratégies de classification automatique sont quant à elles adaptables à différentes problématiques, à l'harmonisation des données, mais aussi à la réconciliation des données ou au géo-référencement de documents techniques. Le Logiciel Automatique de Comparaisons (LAC) est une implantation de l'AMR réalisée pour les services de Data Management et de Documentation Technique de TOTAL. L'outil industrialisé est utilisé depuis trois ans, mais n'est plus en maintenance informatique aujourd'hui malgré son usage. Les nouvelles fonctionnalités d'imagerie de base de données qui ont été développées dans cette thèse n'y sont pas encore intégrées, mais devraient permettre une meilleure visualisation des phénomènes. Cette dernière manière de représenter les données, fondée sur la mesure de similarité, permet d'avoir une image assez claire de données lourdes car complexes tout en permettant de lire des informations nécessaires à l'harmonisation et à l'évaluation de la qualité des bases. Ne pourrait-on pas chercher à caractériser, comparer, analyser, gérer les flux entrants et sortants des bases de données, suivre leurs évolutions et tirer des modes d'apprentissage automatique à partir du développement de cette imagerie ?
Évaluation de l'impact des propriétés du sol sur l'hydrologie simulée dans le modèle ORCHIDEE by Salma Tafasca( )

1 edition published in 2020 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Soil plays a major role in the hydrological processes at the land surface. Water movement in the soil, evaporation, and transpiration processes are all strongly controlled by soil hydraulic properties. These properties are therefore important in estimating soil water fluxes. Soil hydraulic properties are defined by both the texture, which is the mineral composition of the soil, and the structure, which is the way soil particles and spaces are assembled. Many hydrological and Land Surface Models (LSMs) use soil texture maps to infer these properties. Here, we investigate the impact of soil texture on soil water fluxes and storage at different scales using the ORCHIDEE (ORganizing Carbon and Hydrology in Dynamic EcosystEms) LSM, forced by several soil texture maps. At the point scale, the model shows a realistic sensitivity of runoff processes and soil moisture to soil texture. However, at the global scale, the different tested soil texture maps result in similar water budgets. Due to its important role in determining soil properties, the introduction of the soil structure impact on hydrological processes is explored. Soils of the same texture can have different structures, leading to different hydrological behaviors. This is particularly true for clay soils, which can show a large variability in structure: swelling clays and non-swelling clays, and which are often put together in the same soil class despite their contrasted hydrological behavior. Here, we distinguish these two clay types in two different subclasses. We analyze other global scale approaches for considering the impact of soil structure, through its main control, which is soil organic matter. Introducing the effect of soil structure in ORCHIDEE allows a more realistic representation of soils as well as an improvement of the evapotranspiration biases in the ORCHIDEE model
Development of a global wetland map and application to describe hillslope hydrology in the ORCHIDEE land surface model by Ardalan Tootchifatidehi( )

1 edition published in 2019 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Wetlands have significant functions in the Earth's climate system both at local scales through their buffering effect on floods and water purification (denitrification) and also at a larger scale with their feedbacks to the atmosphere and its role in methane emission. To include wetlands in climate models globally, both their geographic distribution and hydrology should be known. There is a massive inconsistency among wetland mapping methods and wetland extent estimates (from 3 to 21% of the land surface area), rooted in imagery disturbances, underestimation of the groundwater driven wetlands in inventories or imprecise representation of flooded zones in GW modellings. In the framework of this PhD project, first by developing a global wetland map through a multi-source data fusion method we provide a simple applied classification for wetlands hydrological roles. Wetlands' global extent is estimated to be almost 24.3 106 km2 (including lakes). The core distinction between classes is the flooding conditions and the water source, either coming from surface streams or groundwater convergence. In the next step, we modelled the wetlands' role on surface processes in ORCHIDEE land surface model which was the testing platform for this new hydrologic scheme at large scale. The basic assumption in the new version (ORCHIDEE-GW) in this sub-grid procedures is that the deep drainage from the uplands converges over lowland wet fraction in parallel to infiltration from precipitation. Simulations over the contemporary era under climate forcing shows that the water table goes deeper with increased potential wetland fraction. The water table is shallow enough to be considered actual wetland when the potential wetland fraction is less than 0.2 over the Seine River Basin. The evapotranspiration rate increases by almost 3% with ORCHIDEE-GW because of the increased soil moisture in the wetland soil column. Increased soil moisture in the wet fraction affects the soil surface temperature as well. The future applications of this PhD work can be to explicitly introduce the biogeochemical procedures in wetlands in a dynamic manner to study the feedback effects of wetlands on climate and the Carbon cycle
Mapping sustainable irrigation development potential with renewable groundwater in Africa for reducing African food insecurity by Yvan Altchenko( )

1 edition published in 2018 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

In Africa, groundwater irrigation is considered a reliable and affordable means to increase food security. Areas equipped for groundwater irrigation in Africa have however, developed slowly since 1950 and remain very limited. To date, no studies have identified the sustainable development potential of irrigation with renewable groundwater across Africa. This study is based on two approaches to locate and quantify this potential. The quantitative hydrological approach is based on the estimation of the current crop irrigation need and available renewable groundwater for irrigation after all other water needs, including environmental, have been satisfied. This approach shows that the potential is 44.6 x 106 ha or 20.5% of the cropland over the continent. The environmental approach redefines the quantitative potential by considering a set of biophysical and socio-economic factors conducive to sustainable development of groundwater irrigation. The potential is then 19.3 x 106 ha and it is reduced mainly from the equatorial regions where the need for irrigation is limited. In fact, without considering the countries of the Maghreb and South Africa where current irrigation by groundwater exceeds the estimated potential, groundwater irrigated areas could be multiplied by 75. The largest areas which are worthwhile to develop are mainly located along a west-east line from Angola to the north of Mozambique and a line south of the Sahel. The dry regions of the Sahel, East Africa and Southern Africa have limited development potential which is more suitable to small-scale agriculture and could greatly improve food security in Africa
Caractérisation et modélisation hydrogéologique d'un aquifère en milieu de socle fracturé : cas du site expérimental de Sanon (région du plateau central au Burkina Faso) by Donissongou Dimitri Soro( )

1 edition published in 2017 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Le territoire burkinabè est constitué à plus de 80% de formations de socle. Ces formations renferment des ressources en eau souterraine qui constitue la seule source en eau potable de certaines populations. Cependant, le quart des forages réalisés en vue d'exploiter ces eaux sont négatifs. Une bonne compréhension du fonctionnement hydrogéologique et hydrodynamique des aquifères de socle qui sont très hétérogènes peut aider à résoudre ce problème. L'objectif de la thèse est de proposer un modèle conceptuel hydrogéologique en milieu de socle fracturé soudano-sahélien en combinant différentes méthodes hydrogéophysiques et hydrogéologiques classiques. Le site expérimental de Sanon (environ 14 km2) a été choisi comme site d'étude en raison de sa géologie qui est représentative de certaines formations de socle de l'Afrique de l'Ouest. Les résultats indiquent que le profil d'altération de Sanon est cohérent avec d'autres modèles proposés ces dernières années, suggérant que la conductivité hydraulique des aquifères de socle est une conséquence des processus d'altération plutôt que de la fracturation tectonique. Concernant les propriétés hydrodynamiques, une corrélation linéaire positive d'environ 80% a été obtenue entre les transmissivités et les paramètres RMP. La présence d'un dôme piézométrique dans la vallée centrale a été observée en toute saison. La recharge se fait directement au niveau de ce dôme piézométrique (11 et 13% de la pluie annuelle) et l'alimentation des zones périphériques se ferait plutôt par des transferts latéraux. L'ensemble des informations géologiques et hydrogéologiques a permis de faire une simulation numérique qui reproduit l'écoulement observé
Biogeochemical functioning and trajectories of French territorial agricultural systems : carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus fluxes (1852-2014) by Julia Le Noë( )

1 edition published in 2018 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

This work investigates agricultural systems from the angle of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and carbon (C) fluxes in French regions from 1852 to 2014, following a socio-metabolic approach stressing out the underlying logic behind these material fluxes. Results brought out by this research highlight the systemic relation between production pattern and N and P balances, and changes in soil organic C stocks in agricultural soil. Intensive specialized agricultural systems generate high environmental losses and resource consumption per unit agricultural surface and present largely open nutrient cycles due to substantial trade flows. Conversely, integrated crop and livestock farming have more limited N and P consumption and lead to lower air and water contamination. Long-term analysis shows that only after the Second World War, under the pressure of strong interventionist policies, some French regions specialized into crop or livestock farming. Particularly, the period from the 1950's to the 1980's was marked by a concomitant acceleration in crops yields, livestock production and use of mineral fertilizers. This resulted in increased N and P balances over cropland and grassland and growing C inputs to cropland, causing important losses of N to the hydrosphere and atmosphere, together with the accumulation of P and C stocks in soils. However, C accumulation resulting from increased crop production was permitted by the increased recourse to mineral fertilizers and agricultural machinery which consumes fossil-fuel energy. Therefore, C storage in cropland was a side-effect of the shift from an energy metabolism based on solar energy to one based on fossil-fuel combustion
Carbon cycling across the human-impacted Seine River basin : from the modeling of carbon dioxide outgassing to the assessment of greenhouse gas emissions by Audrey Marescaux( )

1 edition published in 2018 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Several recent studies have highlighted significant fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2) from inland waters in the global carbon cycling. The first main objective of this thesis was to quantify and understand carbon dynamics in the Seine River basin, which is deeply impacted by human activities. For this purpose a new inorganic carbon (IC) module was implemented in the biogeochemical Riverstrahler model, to simulate spatial and temporal variations in carbon forms in the drainage work. A second major objective was to size both aquatic and terrestrial emissions as a part of a joint assessment of three main GHGs (CO2, methane -CH4, and nitrous oxide -N2O). Field campaigns in rivers draining various land uses in different hydrological seasons, showed a supersaturation in CO2 of the Seine hydrosystem leading to CO2.emissions to the atmosphere. The main factor controlling the CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) was the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) (R2=0.56, n=119, p<0.05), modulated by hydro-climatic conditions and groundwater contribution. In small streams, DOC concentrations were dependent on the soil organic carbon stock. For the main stem, a long-term analysis (1970-2015) showed that pCO2 tracked urban pollution, decreasing from the 2000s after improvement of wastewater treatment. The validation of the IC module newly implemented in Riverstrahler showed that IC inputs to the Seine River dominated the overall carbon budget (1138 ktC yr-1 on average for the period 2010-2013) of which less than 2% was produced from biogeochemical processes (27 ktC yr-1). In addition, CO2 outgassing represented 30% of IC outputs while exports to the estuary represented 69% of IC outputs. OC inputs were comparatively lower, accounting only for 104 ktC yr-1. Analysis of the biogeochemical processes of the Seine River showed a negative net ecosystem production (NEP), the river being mostly heterotrophic. In order to complete the modeling of the fate of carbon in the Seine River, the Riverstrahler model was combined with the estuarine C-GEM model, towards an integrated approach to the Land-to-Ocean Aquatic continuum. Representing 34% of the river mirror area, the estuary thus contributes ~23% of the CO2 emitted from the whole estuary-river aquatic continuum (estimated at 445 kt C for the year 2010). In addition, analyses of available institutional databases and measurements of other GHGs (CH4 and N2O) enabled estimation of aquatic emissions at 3.7% of the Seine basin total emissions (2,276 ktCO2 equivalent yr-1), dominated by CO2 (95.3%), while agricultural (14,295 ktCO2 equivalent yr-1) and urban emissions (44,713 ktCO2 equivalent yr-1) accounted for 23.3% and 73.0%, respectively. A historical reconstruction of agricultural emissions for the whole of France (1850-2014) estimated that, among the 114,000 ktCO2 equivalent yr-1 emitted by the agricultural sector, 22% were represented by CO2, 49% by CH4 and 29% by N2O. Finally, two contrasting scenarios were explored (horizon 2040). The first, characterized by the current trend towards specialization and intensification, predicted an almost 1.5-fold increase in agricultural emissions. While the second, characterized by a transition to organic agriculture and dietary change, would reduce current emissions by about 50%
The Molecular structure of the Insoluble Organic Matter (MOI) deposited from organic plasma : Comparison with IOM isolated from carbonaceous meteorites by Katarzyna Biron( )

1 edition published in 2016 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Carbonaceous meteorites are the most primitive objects of the solar system. They contain up to 4% of carbon, mainly occurring as insoluble organic matter (IOM). This IOM contains key information about the organo-synthesis processes taking place in the Solar System, which are so far poorly understood. A statistical model was recently proposed for the IOM molecular structure along with a possible synthesis pathway for its hydrocarbon backbone (Derenne and Robert, 2010).The first aim of this work was to test experimentally this pathway using an organic plasma as a source of CHx radicals. This device allowed the formation of both soluble and insoluble OM. The IOM was analyzed through the same techniques as those previously used for the chondritic IOM, revealing numerous similarities between both materials and thus supporting the proposed pathway. Moreover, NanoSIMS analyses revealed large isotopic variations at a sub-micrometric spatial resolution that are commensurable with those observed in chondritic IOM.Then, the source of heteroatoms (N and O) into the IOM was experimentally investigated through the addition of heteroelement-containing precursors to the hydrocarbonaceous radicals. As for nitrogen, two types of precursors were considered: hexylamine as a source of nitrogen hydrides and N2. Although both precursors led to nitrogen incorporation in the IOM, nitrogen hydrides seem to be more relevant based on the nitrogen speciation. Two types of experiments were performed to investigate the potential source of oxygen in the chondritic IOM. They were designed to address the two main scenarios proposed in the literature to account for the origin of the oxygen in the chondritic IOM: either aqueous alteration on the asteroidal parent body or O incorporation during the organo-synthesis in the primitive solar nebula. When the aqueous alteration is mimicked, the chemical composition of the SOM and IOM makes this pathway a reasonable source of the chondrite oxygen moieties. In contrast, no evidence for direct incorporation of O from OH radicals could be brought
Perceptions, réglementations et mesures de la qualité des eaux de surface en France, 1854-1964. Le cas des eaux de la ville de Versailles by Tatiana Dmitrieva( )

1 edition published in 2017 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The Seine River pollution both in Paris and its suburbs has been already the subject of several studies. Few studies compare perceptions that physicians, engineers, hygienists or managers might have of the quality of water resources, and the evolution of their state. This confrontation makes it possible to analyze over the long term the effectiveness of the responses made to improve quality. We have achieved this here for the city of Versailles and its waters. The first part of this work describes perceptions of river water quality by experts between 1854 and 1964 based on an analysis of hygiene and urban sanitation reviews, showing the evolution of quality indicators and of regulations. In the 19th century, Versailles has the peculiarity of being essentially fed by water from the Seine thanks to the Marly machine, through a service directly dependent on the State, consequences of its royal past. But as the water quality of the Seine River deteriorates because of the discharges from the Paris sewers, the various administrations, local and national, have to solve the question of water supply and asked for the help of experts to ensure its quality. The chemical and bacteriological analyzes carried out on waters lead to stopping the use of the Seine waters in 1894 in favor of the Marly-Croissy water table. At the same time, Versailles rejected its wastewater into two low-flowing streams: Marivel and Gally. Epidemics and complaints accompany the deterioration of their state. The numerous experiments carried out show the interest in the quality of surface water and at the same time the absence of the political will and the technical limits to improve it, leading to their sacrifice for more than 100 years
Polarisation provoquée : expérimentation, modélisation et applications géophysiques by Feras Abdul Samad( )

1 edition published in 2017 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The physical mechanisms responsible for the induced polarization response over the frequency range (from 1 mHz to 20 kHz) are not completely understood. In particular, within the framework of this thesis, two subjects have been addressed. The origin of the signal observed at high frequency (HF) (>1 kHz) was analyzed by carrying out Spectral IP measurements on tap water samples. A phase deviation from the expected response has been observed at HF. The resulted deviation in phase appears to be dependent on the measuring electrode type (potential electrodes) and conductivity of the medium. A model based on an equivalent electrical circuit and designed to represent HF response, has been proposed to correct these effects. The mechanism responsible for the polarization in a medium containing semi-conductor grains has been investigated by analyzing the dependence of the relaxation time. We carried out experimental measurements on a sand medium containing different types of semi-conductors. The spectral response was studied by varying the concentration and type of the electrolyte, the size and content of semi-conductor grains. By using the finite element method, a 2D numerical simulation based on Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations was performed in time and frequency domains. The experimental results are qualitatively in accordance with numerical simulation. It showed a comparable decrease in the relaxation time when increasing the electrolyte concentration. Finally, field measurements on a paleo-mining site containing semi-conductor grains have been acquired. Time-domain IP measurements allowed us to define the zones of slag in the site and led to estimate the slag volume
Monitoring spatio-temporal water redistribution in the subsurface with seismic methods by Lara Antonia Blazevic( )

1 edition published in 2020 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

La caractérisation et la surveillance des systèmes d'eau souterraine sont fondamentales pour la conservation et la gestion des ressources en eau souterraine. Dans cette intention, l'hydrogéophysique fournit une série de méthodes non invasives pour étudier l'environnement souterrain peu profond et les processus qui s'y déroulent sur plusieurs échelles. Les applications hydrogéophysiques à méthode dites time-lapse sont notamment utiles pour surveiller la dynamique de l'eau et suivre les variations temporelles de la teneur en eau. Largement dominées par des méthodes électriques et électromagnétiques, ces applications sont de plus en plus explorées avec des méthodes sismiques. Le signal sismique dépend des propriétés mécaniques du milieu qui sont à leur tour affectées par les changements de teneur en eau. Par conséquent, les réponses sismiques sont également influencées par les propriétés et variables hydrologiques. Néanmoins, les complexités liées à la description du comportement mécanique de matériaux peu profonds et partiellement saturés limitent la caractérisation quantitative de la subsurface et la dynamique de l'eau associée par les méthodes sismiques. Dans ce travail, nous étudions l'évolution temporelle des réponses sismiques en fonction des variations de teneur en eau par la méthode de time-lapse acquise sur le terrain. Nous analysons à la fois les données et les paramètres inversés et nous comparons ensuite les tendances résultantes avec des relations pétrophysiques établies. De cette façon, nous montrons que les inversions sismiques en time-lapse des données de réfraction de l'onde P et les changements correspondant à la vitesse de propagation des ondes permettent la reconnaissance des chemins d'écoulement préférentiels de l'eau dans la subsurface, mettant ainsi en évidence le potentiel des méthodes sismiques pour surveiller les processus hydrologiques et les écoulements non saturés. De manière générale, on observe un fossé d'observations entre les estimations quantitatives de la teneur en eau obtenue par les paramètres sismiques inversés et les corrélations qualitatives, jusqu'à présent dominantes, reliant la vitesse sismique aux relations pétrophysiques théoriques. Cet écart d'observation pourra être comblé par de nouvelles études sismiques en time-lapse sur le terrain. À la suite des progrès récents d'équipement et techniques sismiques, les relations pétrophysiques à l'échelle du terrain joueront un rôle important dans le développement de méthodes sismiques pour des applications hydrologiques
The fate of 13C labelled root and shoot litter in soil and earthworm casts : a multidisciplinary approach based on a mesocosm experiment by Alix Vidal( )

1 edition published in 2016 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Le sol représente un puits de carbone important, dont les entrées et les sorties sont gouvernées par de nombreux facteurs biotiques et abiotiques. Nous nous intéressons à deux facteurs biotiques essentiels : la qualité de la litière, principale source des MOS; et les vers de terre, ingénieurs clés des sols tempérés. Nous étudions le devenir de parties racinaires et aériennes, marquées au carbone 13, dans le sol et des turricules de Lumbricus terrestris, au cours d'une expérimentation en mésocosmes d'une année. Nous utilisons une approche pluridisciplinaire à différentes échelles spatio-temporelles pour quantifier, localiser et caractériser le carbone organique incorporé dans le sol et les turricules, pendant les 54 semaines d'expérimentation. La composition chimique des parties racinaires et aériennes a un impact significatif sur le devenir du carbone dans le sol et semble influencer la palatabilité de la litière pour les vers de terre. Après une année d'expérience, la contribution des racines, par rapport aux parties aériennes est plus importante dans le sol et les turricules. Les interactions physiques semblent également jouer un rôle important dans la formation et l'évolution des turricules. Les vers de terre minimisent l'effet contrasté des parties racinaires et aériennes sur le carbone du sol et des turricules. Les invertébrés du sol doivent être pris en compte lors de l'étude des processus d'incorporation, de décomposition et de stabilisation du carbone dans le sol. Les microorganismes jouent un rôle essentiel dans la décomposition de la litière et semblent contribuer au carbone stable du sol, et ce particulièrement dans les turricules
Représentation de l'urbanisation dans la modélisation hydrologique à l'échelle du bassin versant by Mohamed Saadi( )

1 edition published in 2020 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

In order to determine the hydrological impact of future urban development, hydrological modeling is very useful because it allows obtaining hydrological scenarios from urbanization scenarios by considering climate variability. Despite the current diversity of applicable hydrological models to urbanized catchments, those models were generally tested on few catchments, which raises the question of their robustness. The objective of this thesis is to look for a hydrological model structure that is able to reproduce the rainfall-runoff relationship for a large sample of urbanized catchments, located in France and the United States, and characterized by a wide variety of urban sprawl. To do so, we started from an hourly conceptual model structure (GR4H) which was not specifically developed nor tested on highly urbanized catchments. We followed four steps: (1) The collection and preparation of a large sample of data for more than 2000 catchments located in France and the United States. The analysis of the variability of event runoff ratio for 852 US catchments showed the dependence of catchment response not only on mean total impervious area (TIA), but also on antecedent soil moisture conditions regardless of the level of urban sprawl in the catchment; (2) The test of the starting model structure on highly urbanized catchments. This step showed the ability of GR4H parameters to reflect the behavioral specificities of urbanized catchments; (3) The regionalization of GR4H parameters in order to relate them to the fraction of urban cover in the catchment. The obtained regression relationships performed well but showed weak sensitivity to change in the fraction of urban cover, which impeded their use for scenario prediction; (4) The step-by-step modification of the GR4H model structure by including excess rainfall on impervious surfaces, and by varying the partitioning between quick flow and slow flow depending on each catchment. The evaluation of these modifications on 273 urbanized catchments indicated an improvement in reproducing the observed flows in comparison to the original structure, especially during dry and flooding periods. The added parameters showed a strong dependence on the mean total impervious area. This thesis work illustrates a constructive modeling approach by which we have succeeded in both (1) improving the representation of urbanization within the model and (2) obtaining better simulation of catchment response. An effort of regionalizing the new model structure using measures of urban landscape fragmentation will allow to better estimate the impact of different urban planning schemes on the hydrological behavior at the catchment scale
Host-parasites transfer of micropollutants and eco-physiological consequences on a freshwater fish : case study of chub-acanthocephalan model by Noëlie Molbert( )

1 edition published in 2020 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

L'exposition à des mélanges complexes de substances chimiques dans l'environnement peut avoir de graves conséquences pour les animaux sauvages. En milieux naturels, ces organismes sont également affectés par de nombreux autres facteurs de stress, y compris le parasitisme. L'exposition chimique et l'infection parasitaire ont toutes deux été bien étudiées et documentées, mais dans de nombreux cas, elles ont été étudiées indépendamment l'une de l'autre. Cependant, il est crucial d'évaluer simultanément leur effet combiné étant donné que certains parasites peuvent interférer sur le devenir des polluants chez leur hôte grâce à leur capacité de bioaccumulation. Sur la base d'une étude de terrain, complétée par une approche expérimentale, j'ai étudié le devenir et les conséquences de six familles de contaminants organiques, et certains de leurs métabolites, dans un système hôte-parasite composé d'un poisson d'eau douce et de son parasite intestinal, Pomphorhynchussp. issus de la Marne, en France. Plus précisément, j'ai cherché à savoir si ces vers intestinaux étaient capables d'accumuler des substances toxiques et comment leur présence affectait la réponse au stress de leur hôte exposé aux contaminants environnementaux, à différents échelles biologiques à l'aide de biomarqueurs généraux (télomère, lysozyme, peroxydase, antioxydants, dommages oxydatifs, microbiote intestinal, indices de Fulton et hépatosomatique). Nous avons démontré que ces vers intestinaux étaient capables d'accumuler des contaminants organiques, de détoxifier leurs hôtes et que leurs effets sur l'hôte basculaient de négatifs à positifs à mesure que l'exposition aux contaminants organiques augmentait
De la neige au débit : de l'intérêt d'une meilleure contrainte et représentation de la neige dans les modèles by Philippe Riboust( )

1 edition published in 2018 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Snow models are often dependent on the hydrological model they are coupled with, which can promote higher performance on runoff simulation at the expense of snow state simulations performances. The objective of this thesis is to make the calibration of the snow model more independent from the calibration of the hydrological model, while remaining easily usable for runoff forecasting. Calibrating snow model on observed snow data would on one hand improve the robustness of the snow model parameters and on the other hand improve the snowpack modelling. In the first part of this manuscript, we modified the semi-distributed CemaNeige degree-day model so that it can explicitly simulate the watershed snow cover area. This modification coupled with the calibration of the model on snow cover area data and on river runoff data significantly improved the simulation of the snow cover area by the model without significantly deteriorating the runoff performances. Then we started the development of a new point scale snow model. It is based on a radiation model, which simulates incoming radiations from daily temperature range data, and a snowpack model. The snowpack model solves the heat equations within the snowpack by using a spectral representation of the temperature profile. This representation simulates the temperature profile and gradients using fewer state variables than a vertical discretization of the snowpack. In order to be able to use point scale snow observations in the model, it should be distributed on the watershed
Étude de l'impact simultané des propriétés électriques, diélectriques et magnétiques du sous-sol sur la mesure géophysique par méthode électromagnétique inductive dans le domaine temporel (TDEM) by Cécile Finco( )

1 edition published in 2019 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The geophysical electromagnetic inductive method in the time domain (TDEM) is used in fields such as hydrology or in mining exploration. It allows the establishment of electrical resistivity models of the subsurface. Using this methods with reduced acquisition loops with a width of only a few meters, makes the measurement more sensitive to additional parameters : the dielectric permittivity and the magnetic permeability. The present research work aims to acquire a small-loop TDEM sounding and to extract not only an electical resistivity model but also an estimation of the dielctric permittivity and of the magnetic viscosity. The acquisition of a small-loop TDEM sounding implies a increased sensitivity to the response from the acquisition system itself, in part because of the reduced distance between the transmission and reception loops. Simulations aiming to reproduce this system response have been carried out to be able to take it into account during the data processing step. A specific acquisition geometry is then proposed to ease the multi-parameter interpretation of the TDEM data. The effects from the electric, dielectric and magnetic properties of the ground are overlapping on the measurements in the central configuration. Using different geometry with lower sensivities to dielectric permittivity and magnetic viscosity should make the contribution of each parameter easier to isolate. These methological developments were then tested with field measurement on the test site of Garchy (Nièvre, France)
Développement d'une approche « time-lapse » des méthodes sismiques pour l'hydrogéophysique et la compréhension de la dynamique des hydrosystèmes by Marine Dangeard( )

1 edition published in 2019 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The characterization and understanding of hydrosystems is part of the "Critical Zone" (CZ) study. They consist in an important issue for the management and protection of surface water and groundwater resources. Geophysics and hydrogeophysics are among the tools for studying this fraction of the CZ and its processes. The near-surface seismic methods are suggested for the imaging of the CZ in order to describe its geometry and the nature of its compartments. Since seismic methods are based on the mechanical properties of the medium, the measured signal is also influenced by the water content: its analysis therefore makes it possible to describe its spatial variation. The time-lapse application of this approach is proposed here in order to follow the temporal variations in the water content of the hydrosystems. A processing workflow based on a statistical study is developed to ensure the significance of the temporal variations in the data with respect to measurement errors. It is shown that when the time-lapse variations are greater than the estimated errors, they reflect the hydrological behaviors of the structures identified and provide new information on their dynamics. Quantifying these results by inverting the seismic data recorded at each time step is however not obvious, even in the knowledge of measurement errors, in particular due to a lack of prior information. In these cases, the posterior uncertainties may be too high to compare the temporal variations of the inverted parameters. However, when the study area is particularly constrained, a thorough inversion at each time step of the data estimated as significant by our approach is possible. In this case, we suggest a method of interpolation of the depth of the saturated zone in the vicinity of known water table levels, from the seismic images. This information can then be used to constrain the hydrodynamic modeling by proposing: (i) a "high resolution" definition of the geometry of the hydrogeological compartments and their facies and (ii) new boundary and initial conditions
Exposition humaine aux perturbateurs endocriniens par inhalation : caractérisation de la contamination de l'air intérieur par analyses chimiques et biologiques in vitro by Stéphanie Laborie( )

1 edition published in 2015 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The objective of this project was to develop a bio-analytical approach leading to the assessment of the inherent hazard of the indoor air multi-contamination. Chromatographic methods combined with mass spectrometry were developed and validated for 62 target molecules known or suspected as endocrine-disrupting (ED) compounds. The ED potential was assessed by cellular bioassays measuring perturbations of transcriptional activity. The data showed that the predominant families of compounds in indoor air were in the following descendant order: phthalates > musks > alkylphenols > parabens. The ED contaminants were mainly present in gaseous phase, and the most contaminated locations were the day nursery and the house. An estrogenic, thyroid and anti-androgenic potential was attributed to indoor air. In agreement with its contamination profile, the biological activity of the latter was concentrated predominantly in the gaseous phase, and tended to be higher in the day nursery and the house. An effect-directed analysis (EDA) was carried out to identify the target chemicals responsible for the ED effects of indoor air. The following chemicals were identified as being potentially responsible for the observed ED effects: phthalates, methyl-paraben, alkylphenols, cypermethrin and synthetic musks. This work provides both knowledge about the inherent hazard of the indoor air multi-contamination and exposure data useful in health risk assessment
 
moreShow More Titles
fewerShow Fewer Titles
Audience Level
0
Audience Level
1
  Kids General Special  
Audience level: 0.90 (from 0.87 for Le systèm ... to 1.00 for Approches ...)

Alternative Names
METIS (Paris)

UMR 7619

UMR7619

Languages
French (12)

English (8)