WorldCat Identities

Ashraf, Nava

Works: 53 works in 171 publications in 1 language and 1,074 library holdings
Genres: Case studies  Academic theses  Cross-cultural studies 
Roles: Author, Other, Editor
Classifications: HC411, 332.1752091724
Publication Timeline
Most widely held works by Nava Ashraf
Finding Missing Markets (And A Disturbing Epilogue) Evidence From An Export Crop Adoption And Marketing Intervention In Kenya by Nava Ashraf( )

13 editions published between 2008 and 2012 in English and held by 128 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In much of the developing world, many farmers grow crops for local or personal consumption despite export options that appear to be more profitable. Thus many conjecture that one or several markets are missing. This paper reports on a randomized controlled trial conducted by DrumNet in Kenya that attempts to help farmers adopt and market export crops. DrumNet provides smallholder farmers with information about how to switch to export crops, makes in-kind loans for the purchase of the agricultural inputs, and provides marketing services by facilitating the transaction with exporters. The experimental evaluation design randomly assigns pre-existing farmer self-help groups to one of three groups: (1) a treatment group that receives all DrumNet services, (2) a treatment group that receives all DrumNet services except credit, or (3) a control group. After one year, DrumNet services led to an increase in production of export oriented crops and lower marketing costs; this translated into household income gains for new adopters. However, one year after the study ended, the exporter refused to continue buying the cash crops from the farmers because the conditions of the farms did not satisfy European export requirements. DrumNet collapsed in this region as farmers were forced to sell to middlemen and defaulted on their loans. The risk of such events may explain, at least partly, why many seemingly more profitable export crops are not adopted
A Review of commitment savings products in developing countries by Nava Ashraf( Book )

9 editions published in 2003 in English and held by 106 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Many financial institutions in developing countries offer savings products. Yet, little has been done to assess systematically and quantitatively the relative merits of different product designs. This paper first examines different designs that provide incentives to clients to commit to save. Mechanisms are divided into depositside mechanisms that help clients make regular deposits, and withdrawal-side mechanisms that help clients restrict the use of their funds except for well-planned uses or emergencies. Then, using results from a short web-based survey of microfinance instititutions, we describe different commitment savings products in use around the world
Testing savings product innovations using an experimental methodology by Nava Ashraf( Book )

11 editions published between 2003 and 2004 in English and held by 103 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

References p. 34-35
Can higher prices stimulate product use? : evidence from a field experiment in Zambia by Nava Ashraf( )

14 editions published between 2006 and 2007 in English and held by 90 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The controversy over whether and how much to charge for health products in the developing world rests, in part, on whether higher prices can increase use. We test this hypothesis in a field experiment in Zambia using door-to-door marketing of a home water purification solution. Our methodology separates the screening effect of prices (charging more changes the mix of buyers) from the psychological effect of prices (charging more stimulates greater use for a given buyer). We find that higher prices screen out those who use the product less. The amount paid does not have a psychological effect on use, but there is some evidence that the act of paying increases use. We use our data to estimate an economic model of product use, simulate counterfactuals, and develop tentative implications for pricing policy
Evaluating the effects of large scale health interventions in developing countries : the Zambian malaria initiative by Nava Ashraf( )

8 editions published in 2010 in English and held by 80 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Since 2003, Zambia has been engaged in a large-scale, centrally coordinated national anti-Malaria campaign which has become a model in sub-Saharan Africa. This paper aims at quantifying the individual and macro level benefits of this campaign, which involved mass distribution of insecticide treated mosquito nets, intermittent preventive treatment for pregnant women, indoor residual spraying, rapid diagnostic tests, and artemisinin-based combination therapy. We discuss the timing and regional coverage of the program, and critically review the available health and program rollout data. To estimate the health benefits associated with the program rollout, we use both population based morbidity measures from the Demographic and Health Surveys and health facility based mortality data as reported in the national Health Management Information System. While we find rather robust correlations between the rollout of bed nets and subsequent improvements in our health measures, the link between regional spraying and individual level health appears rather weak in the data
Infrastructure, incentives and institutions by Nava Ashraf( )

11 editions published in 2016 in English and held by 75 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Cities generate negative, as well as positive, externalities; addressing those externalities requires both infrastructure and institutions. Providing clean water and removing refuse requires water and sewer pipes, but the urban poor are often unwilling to pay for the costs of that piping. Standard welfare economics teaches us that either subsidies or Pigouvian fines can solve that problem, but both solution are problematic when institutions are weak. Subsidies lead to waste and corruption; fines lead to extortion of the innocent. Zambia has attempted to solve its problem with subsidies alone, but the subsidies have been too small to solve the "last-mile problem" and so most poor households remain unconnected to the water and sewer system. In nineteenth-century New York, subsidies also proved insufficient and were largely replaced by a penalty-based system. We present a model that illustrates the complementarity between infrastructure and institutions and provides conditions for whether fines, subsidies or a combination of both are the optimal response. One point of the model is that the optimal fine is often not a draconian penalty, but a mild charge that is small enough to avoid extortion
Water, health and wealth by Nava Ashraf( )

7 editions published in 2017 in English and held by 70 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Providing clean water requires maintenance, as well as the initial connections that are typically measured. Frequently, the water supply fails in the developing world, especially when users don't pay the marginal cost of water. This paper uses the timing of frequent, unexpected water service outages in Lusaka, Zambia to identify the short-term impacts of piped water access on contagious disease, economic activity and time use. We use microdata from the primary water utility in the city on the timing and location of supply complaints to identify outages, matched to extensive administrative data across the city. Conditional on fixed effects for time and water service district within Lusaka, we find that increases in outages are associated with increased incidence of diarrheal disease, upper respiratory infections, typhoid fever and measles. We match outages to geolocated microdata on financial transactions from the largest mobile money provider in Zambia, and find that outages cause a reduction in financial transactions. Outages also increase the time that young girls spend at their chores, possibly at the expense of time they spend doing schoolwork. Imperfect infrastructure appears to burden the poor in ways that go far beyond obvious health consequences
Bride Price and Female Education by Nava Ashraf( )

7 editions published in 2016 in English and held by 66 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Although it is well known that traditional cultural practices can play an important role in development, we still have little understanding of what this means for development policy. To improve our understanding of this issue, we examine how the effects of school construction on girls' education vary with a widely-practiced marriage custom called bride price, which is a payment made by the husband and/or his family to the wife's parents at marriage. We begin by developing a model of educational choice with and without bride price. The model generates a number of predictions that we test in two countries that have had large-scale school construction projects, Indonesia and Zambia. Consistent with the model, we find that for groups that practice the custom of bride price, the value of bride price payments that the parents receive tend to increase with their daughter's education. As a consequence, the probability of a girl being educated is higher among bride price groups. The model also predicts that families from bride price groups will be the most responsive to policies, like school construction, that are aimed at increasing female education. Studying the INPRES school construction program in Indonesia, as well as a similar program in Zambia, we find evidence consistent with this prediction. Although the program had no discernible effect on the education of girls from groups without bride price, it had large positive effects for girls from groups with a bride price. The findings emphasize the importance of the marriage market as a driver of educational investment and provide an example of how the cultural context of a society can be crucial for the effectiveness of development policy
Savings in transnational households : a field experiment among migrants from El Salvador by Nava Ashraf( )

5 editions published in 2014 in English and held by 66 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We implemented a randomized field experiment that tested ways to stimulate savings by international migrants in their origin country. We find that migrants value and take advantage of opportunities to exert greater control over financial activities in their home countries. In partnership with a Salvadoran bank, we offered U.S.-based migrants bank accounts in El Salvador. We randomly varied migrant control over El Salvador-based savings by offering different types of accounts across treatment groups. Migrants offered the greatest degree of control accumulated the most savings at the partner bank, compared to others offered less or no control over savings. Impacts are likely to represent increases in total savings: there is no evidence that savings increases were simply reallocated from other savings mechanisms. Enhanced control over home-country savings does not affect remittances sent home by migrants
My policies or yours : have OECD agricultural policies affected incomes in developing countries? by Nava Ashraf( Book )

8 editions published in 2005 in English and held by 52 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper seeks to understand the impact of rich-country agricultural support policies on the poor. Using non-parametric analysis we establish the fact that the majority of poor countries are currently net food importers and have been for the past thirty years. Using a a cross-country regression framework we measure the overall impact of agricultural support policies in rich countries on average income per capita in poor countries. We find some evidence that OECD support polices are positively correlated with average incomes in food-importing countries and negatively correlated with average incomes in food-exporting countries. Using the national employment and household consumption and expenditure surveys from Mexico for the period 1991-2000, we examine the implications of a reduction in the price corn on Mexico's corn farmers. We find that the poorest corn farmers in Mexico are net consumers of corn and have been largely unaffected by changes in the price of corn. Middle income corn farmers saw their real income from corn farming fall by more than fifty percent. The real income of the largest corn farmers increased by fourty percent
Rule of law and female entrpreneurship by Nava Ashraf( )

6 editions published in 2019 in English and held by 48 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Commerce requires trust, but trust is difficult when one group consistently fears expropriation by another. If men have a comparative advantage at violence and there is little rule-of-law, then unequal bargaining power can lead women to segregate into low-return industries and avoid entrepreneurship altogether. In this paper, we present a model of female entrepreneurship and rule of law that predicts that women will only start businesses when they have both formal legal protection and informal bargaining power. The model's predictions are supported both in cross-national data and with a new census of Zambian manufacturers. In Zambia, female entrepreneurs collaborate less, learn less from fellow entrepreneurs, earn less and segregate into industries with more women, but gender differences are ameliorated when women have access to adjudicating institutions, such as Lusaka's "Market Chiefs" who are empowered to adjudicate small commercial disputes. We experimentally induce variation in local institutional quality in an adapted trust game, and find that this also reduces the gender gap in trust and economic activity
My Policies or Yours: Does OECD Support for Agriculture Increase Poverty in Developing Countries? by Margaret P McMillan( )

5 editions published in 2005 in English and held by 44 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper investigates the impact of rich-country agricultural support on the poor. Using non-parametric analysis we establish that the majority of poor countries are consistently net importers of food products that are heavily supported by OECD governments. Using a cross-country regression framework we measure the overall impact of agricultural support policies in rich countries on poverty and average incomes in poor countries. We find no support in the cross-country analysis for the claim that OECD polices worsen poverty in developing countries. To better understand what might drive these results, we turn to national employment and household consumption and expenditure surveys from Mexico. There are four important findings from the country case study: (1) the majority of the poorest corn farmers in Mexico report that they never sell any corn, (2) Mexico's own policies (signing NAFTA) have dramatically reduced the Mexican producer price of corn, (3) US corn subsidies have had a limited impact on this price and, (4) domestic policies have largely cushioned Mexican corn farmers from the drop in corn prices. Taken together, the evidence suggests that a reduction in rich-country agricultural support that raises world food prices is likely to hurt the poorest countries but may have little impact at all on the poorest farmers within these countries
Maternal Mortality Risk and Spousal Differences in the Demand for Children by Nava Ashraf( )

4 editions published in 2020 in English and held by 40 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Fertility decisions are often made by partners who may disagree. We develop a model in which an initial gender gap in ideal fertility prevents effective communication between spouses about the costs of childbearing incurred by women. This mechanism is likely to further widen the spousal disagreement over fertility in environments where maternal health risk is high and imperfectly observed. We design an intervention to experimentally vary exposure to information about maternal health costs to either the husband or the wife on a sample of approximately 500 couples in peri-urban Lusaka, in Zambia. At baseline, husbands display lower knowledge of maternal mortality and morbidity compared to their wives. At followup, about one year after the intervention, women whose husbands are treated experience a 43% reduction in the probability of being pregnant. Consistent with our hypothesis, men who are directly treated report lower desired fertility and have more accurate beliefs about their wife's desired fertility than the husbands of treated women. Couples in which the husband is treated also increase communication about family planning, and experience greater marital satisfaction
Essays at the intersection of behavioral and development economics by Nava Ashraf( )

3 editions published in 2005 in English and held by 20 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

No margin no mission? : a field experiment on incentives for pro-social tasks by Nava Ashraf( Book )

8 editions published between 2011 and 2012 in English and held by 13 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

A substantial body of research investigates the design of incentives in firms, yet less is known about incentives in organizations that hire individuals to perform tasks with positive social spillovers. We conduct a field experiment in which agents hired by a public health organization are randomly allocated to four groups. Agents in the control group receive a standard volunteer contract often offered for this type of task, whereas agents in the three treatment groups receive small financial rewards, large financial rewards, and non-financial rewards, respectively. The analysis yields three main findings. First, non-financial rewards are more effective at eliciting effort than either financial rewards or the volunteer contract. The effect of financial rewards, both large and small, is orders of magnitude smaller and not significantly different from zero. Second, non-financial rewards elicit effort both by leveraging intrinsic motivation for the cause and by facilitating social comparison among agents. Third, contrary to existing laboratory evidence, financial incentives do not crowd out intrinsic motivation in this setting
Female empowerment : impact of a commitment savings product in the Philippines by Nava Ashraf( Book )

7 editions published between 2006 and 2007 in English and held by 12 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Negotiating a better future : how interpersonal skills facilitate inter-generational investment by Nava Ashraf( )

3 editions published in 2018 in English and held by 9 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Using a randomized control trial, we examine whether offering adolescent girls non-material resources -- specifically, negotiation skills -- can improve educational outcomes in a low-income country. In so doing, we provide the first evidence on the effects of an intervention that increased non-cognitive, interpersonal skills during adolescence. Long-run administrative data shows that negotiation training significantly improved educational outcomes over the next three years. The training had greater effects than two alternative treatments (offering girls a safe physical space with female mentors and offering girls information about the returns to education), suggesting that negotiation skills themselves drive the effect. Further evidence from a lab-in-the-field experiment, which simulates parents' educational investment decisions, and a midline survey suggests that negotiation skills improved girls' outcomes by moving households' human capital investments closer to the efficient frontier. This is consistent with an incomplete contracting model, where negotiation allows daughters to strategically cooperate with parents
Testing savings product innovations using an experimental methodology by Nava Ashraf( Book )

1 edition published in 2003 in English and held by 6 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Is trust a bad investment? by Nava Ashraf( )

3 editions published in 2003 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Deposit collectors by Nava Ashraf( Book )

1 edition published in 2005 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

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Alternative Names
Nava Ashraf Canadian economist

Nava Ashraf economista canadiense

Nava Ashraf econoom

Nava Ashraf ekonomiste kanadeze

Ашраф, Нава

納瓦·阿什拉夫 加拿大經濟學家

English (134)