WorldCat Identities

Centre Inter-universitaire de Recherche et d'Ingénierie des Matériaux (Toulouse / 1999-....).

Overview
Works: 99 works in 142 publications in 2 languages and 144 library holdings
Genres: Academic theses 
Roles: Other
Classifications: TN1000.8,
Publication Timeline
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Most widely held works by Centre Inter-universitaire de Recherche et d'Ingénierie des Matériaux (Toulouse / 1999-....).
Etude de la contribution de la technique spark plasma sintering à l'optimisation des propriétés mécaniques de l'alliage de titane TA6V by Ugras Kus( Book )

2 editions published in 2017 in French and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The cost prices of the titanium alloys limit their applications to strong added value fields. The decrease of the pieces shaping costs while mastering microstructures and mechanical properties is an important issue. Shaping processes from powder metallurgy as Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) can allow to reach these goals. The first moments of the sintering were studied according to the initial compactness of the granular body. When the latter is low, the area of necks between granules, highlighted by microtomography, are bigger. These observations can be explained by the fact that current densities at contact points are higher when the contact areas are lower. Furthermore, the very close final densities in spite of the different initial compactness let think that the mechanisms in action during sintering are different. An electro-thermal and mechanical modelling by finished element allowed to describe in a very realistic way the densification of the TA6V. The densification law of the material was configured by means of creep tests programmes performed dine the SPS chamber as well as of compaction tests of the granular body. Ways of improvement of the model were also proposed. In the last part of the word, a panel of microstructures obtained by SPS of TA6V as well as a scale transfer from the small cylindrical samples towards more massive and complex shapes was studied. Furthermore, the tensile properties of near-net-shape specimens were characterised. Domains (temperature and pressure) of dense, homogeneous and repeatable microstructures obtaining were identified. The scale transfer reveals that the SPS repeatability is both validated in terms of microstructures and mechanical properties of the densified specimens. Furthermore, tensile properties are at the same level as the forged materials, in particular an elongation at break of about 13%
La voie sol-gel pour la mise en oeuvre de barrières thermiques aéronautiques : optimisation du procédé et étude de leur comportement mécanique by Fabien Blas( Book )

2 editions published in 2016 in French and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The main objectives of this PhD are first to improve and optimise the elaboration protocol of thermal barrier coatings (TBC) manufactured by the sol-gel route and then to characterise their adhesion and investigate the possibility to enhance their lifetime. A preliminary study is focused on the selection and validation of a new dispersing agent to optimise the composite sol formulation before shaping TBC. Indeed, the new dispersant induced a microstructure allowing to significantly increase the cyclic oxidation lifetime of the system but also to simplify the elaboration process as the reinforcement step was suppressed. The parametric study of TBC surface microstructure proved that the initial micro-cracks network remained stable during ageing including the formation of a crack sub-network. To understand the damage mechanisms of sol-gel TBC and to compare them to those corresponding to industrial EB-PVD TBC, the method of interfacial indentation was developed to investigate the subtrate/top-coat interface. The apparent toughness values were determined to compare both BTSG and BTEB-PVD adhesions. From these results, phenomenological models for damage mechanisms were proposed. For BTEB-PVD, crack initiation and propagation are located at the top-coat/bond-coat interface, either on one side or the other side of the thermally grown oxide (TGO) depending of the conditions. For BTSG, the damage is a consequence of the release of the elastic strain energy stored in the system, increasing with the ageing temperature
Densification et caractérisation microstructurale de céramiques à base de ZnO obtenues par frittage SPS pour application thermoélectrique by Precious Manti Radingoana( Book )

2 editions published in 2019 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The thermoelectric application of ZnO is limited because of its high thermal conductivity. The present study focuses on the synthesis and spark plasma sintering of zinc oxide composites to get interesting thermoelectric properties. Pure and Al (2at %) doped ZnO powder were synthesized using co-precipitation followed by calcination. Further, the synthesized Al-doped ZnO powder was mixed with polyaniline (PANI) powder at concentrations of 0.75, 5 and 9 wt% PANI. The powders were sintered using Dr Sinter 2080 unit at various parameters: temperature (250-900°C), pressure (100-250 MPa), sintering atmosphere (air and vacuum), point of pressure application, holding time and current isolation. Densification and the microstructure properties of pure ZnO ceramics using spark plasma sintering (SPS) were successfully studied. It was illustrated that SPS can sinter to high densities irrespective of starting powder. Ceramics prepared from both synthetic and commercial ZnO powder could be fully densified above 99% at a temperature as low as 600°C. The sintering atmospheres (air and vacuum) and electric current (with or without) did not affect the densification. However, grain size difference of 7.8 µm was observed when sintering with or without current. A guide for controlling the densification and the grain size of ZnO ceramics obtained by spark plasma sintering of dried powders was developed. Annealing at 600°C does not have significant effect on the microstructure of ZnO ceramics, however, changes the oxygen stoichiometry, the resistivity of the pure ZnO ceramics increased by two orders of magnitude. As-sintered ceramics prepared from synthetic powder gave the best performance as compared to annealed ceramics with a ZT of 8x10-3 at 500°C because of low electrical resistivity and high Seebeck Coefficient. The high thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity of pure ZnO ceramic were improved by doping with 2 at% Al, the grain size reduced from 177 to 75 nm. Maximum relative density of 98.9% was achieved at a temperature of 650°C and a pressure of 250 MPa. The grain size of the sintered ceramics reduced from 5.4 µm to <1 µm. Secondary phases, ZnAl2O4 and Al2O3, are formed because of excess Al when the axial pressure was applied at room temperature and temperatures above 650°C. Al-doped ZnO ceramics slightly reduced the resistivity which caused a decrease in the absolute Seebeck Coefficient as a result of increased carrier concentration. [...]
Analyse du vieillissement d'un adhésif silicone en environnement spatial : influence sur le comportement électrique by Aurélien Roggero( Book )

2 editions published in 2015 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This PhD thesis falls within the technical field of electrostatic discharges occurring on the solar arrays of communications satellites in the geostationary orbit. Its main objective consists in assessing the evolutions of a space-used commercial silicone adhesive's electrical properties, and to correlate them with the evolutions of its chemical structure. The main components of this material have been identified, and neat samples (deprived of fillers) were elaborated so as to study the isolated polymer matrix. In order to assess the influence of filler incorporation, neat samples were systematically compared with the commercial ones in this study. The material's physicochemical structure in the initial state was characterized by studying its enthalpy relaxations, mechanical response, and by performing chemical analysis. Its electrical behavior (dipole relaxations and conductivity) was investigated thanks to an original experimental approach combining surface potential decay measurements, broadband dielectric spectroscopy, and thermally stimulated depolarization currents. Aging in the space environment was experimentally simulated by exposing the samples to high fluxes of high energy electrons. Chemical analysis (solid state NMR in particular) revealed the predominant crosslinking tendency of this material under ionizing radiations, and allowed to suggest degradation mechanisms at the microscopic scale. These structural evolutions also strongly impact its electrical behavior: a great increase in electrical resistivity has been observed with increasing ionizing dose. It is believed that electrical resistivity directly depends on the degree of crosslinking, which affects charge carrier mobility, in the theoretical frame of hopping and percolation models. The increase in resistivity is considerably more pronounced in the filled material, which could be associated with crosslinking occurring at the matrix-particles interface. Such crosslinks are thought to represent deeper traps for charge carriers. This work brought better understanding of aging phenomena in silicone elastomers exposed to the ionizing space environment. This knowledge will help predicting structural evolutions that may compromise vital properties such as adhesion, and the evolutions of intrinsic conductivity, a critical factor involved in the triggering of electrostatic discharges
Etude physico-chimique d'une nouvelle famille de matériaux mixtes ortho- et pyro-phosphates de calcium à visée biomédicale by Laëtitia Mayen( Book )

2 editions published in 2019 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The present work concerns the study of an amorphous hydrated calcium and sodium mixed ortho- and pyrophosphate materials which present an interest for biomaterial application in the case of bone regeneration due to the presence of orthophosphate ions (elementary brick of biological apatite formation) and pyrophosphate ions (hydrolysis phenomenon at low pH or by enzymatic activities in bone tissue). These materials are synthesis using soft chemistry protocol including a solution-gel transition and then to a solid state. The objective of this thesis is to study the effect of different synthesis parameters in order to determine the formation mechanism of the original materials and to describe their structure. In fact, we studied the effect of relative composition of initial solution on phosphate precursor (various ranges of molar ratios of ortho- and pyrophosphates) and the drying temperature effect during the last step of the synthesis protocol on the composition of the composition and the structure of the final material by using several complementary characterizations and at various scales (XRD, SEM, TEM, Raman spectroscopy, GTA/DTA, solid-state NMR and chemical analysis). Firstly, we showed that it is possible to control the composition of the final material using the composition of the initial phosphate precursor solution. The extreme compositions (100% pyro- and 100% ortho-) lead to a more or less crystallized phase such as a-canaphite and nanocrystalline apatite, respectively. On the other hand, all materials synthesised with an intermediate composition of phosphate precursor solution (mixed ortho- and pyro-) are amorphous and their compositions were used to propose a general chemical formula for theses amorphous hydrated calcium and sodium mixed ortho- and pyrophosphate materials. It has been possible to clarify certain hypotheses, such as the inhibitory effect of the pyrophosphate ions on the calcium orthophosphate crystallization (and vice-versa), which control the final structure of the material (amorphous or crystalline) and this control can be extended to a large range of composition. The solid-state NMR and the TEM highlight the colloidal formation of the materials and it can be relevant to compare them with Posner cluster model. In a second part, we showed that the drying temperature is a key parameter to control the hydration state of these materials but we can also use this parameter to understanding the internal hydrolysis reaction of the pyrophosphate ions into orthophosphate ions in the final material.[...]
Avancées récentes sur l'analyse des données d'impédance globale et développement de l'impédance électrochimique locale : application aux revêtements utilisés pour la protection contre la corrosion de l'alliage d'aluminium 2024 by Anh Son Nguyen( Book )

2 editions published in 2016 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The aim of this work is to obtain a better understanding of the degradation mechanisms, as a function of exposition time in an aggressive environment, of commercial coatings (epoxy-polyaminoamide waterborne paint) used in aeronautical industry for corrosion protection of 2024 aluminium alloy by global and local impedance techniques. The coatings formulated with either strontium chromate (SrCrO4) or Cr(VI)-free pigments were compared. The behavior of dry coatings (in contact with Hg) was close to that of an ideal capacitor and could be accurately modelled with the power-law model corresponding to a CPE (Constant Phase Element). Upon immersion in NaCl solution, the behavior of the wet coatings became progressively less ideal, i.e. farther from a capacitive behavior. The impedance data was analyzed with the Young model that take into account the exponential variation of the coating resistivity along its thickness. This analysis confirmed that penetration of water and ions occurs on different time scales. The former process is faster and affects permittivity more strongly than resistivity; the latter is slower and affects almost exclusively resistivity. The models allows to explain not only the CPE or pseudo-CPE behaviors observed on impedance diagrams but also to determine the coatings water uptake during the test which is in good agreement with gravimetric measurements. Then, the self-healing properties of artificially damaged coatings were studied by local electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (LEIS). The local diagrams and the mappings (2D or 3D) allowed self-healing processes for the chromated system or corrosion developments for the unchromated system to be observed. The present work proposed a methodology to develop and to characterize coatings containing environmentally friendly inhibitors, and particularly the self-healing process
Preparation of transition metal oxide thin films used as solar absorbers by Thi Ly Le( Book )

2 editions published in 2016 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The present thesis deals with the synthesis and structural characterization of transition metals doped cobalt and manganese based spinel oxides MxCo2-xMnO4 (with M = Ni, Cu, Zn and x = 0, 0.15, 0.30, 0.60), in relationships with their conduction and optical properties. These materials are good p-type semiconductors and light absorbers in the UV and visible regions, therefore interesting for photo-catalysis and photovoltaics. The first chapter is a brief overview of the energy context and nature of global warming, renewable energy resources and a literature review of materials used for solar cells including the newly studied system type based on all-oxide photovoltaics. Chapter two presents all the experimental methods and characterization techniques used for this research work. The inorganic polycondensation method optimized in our laboratory and used for synthesizing spinel oxide powders at low temperature (T < 120 °C) without complex organic agents is described. Then, the preparation of colloidal dispersions stabilized at room temperature using an azeotrope solution based on absolute ethanol and water only is described, in order to obtain homogenous oxide thin films by the dip-coating technique. The third chapter presents detailed results on the atomic and electronic structures of the materials under study performed by using a full density functional theory investigation thanks to a collaboration with the CEMES. First principles electronic structure calculations were performed for the first time to our knowledge over the whole spinel oxide solid solution range MnxCo3-xO4 (0 = x = 3), and compared with our experimental data. A small band gap of ~ 0.8 eV is calculated, due to metal-metal transitions in B sites. The experimental band gaps observed at 1.5 and 2.2 eV, which increase with the amount of manganese, would correspond to B-A and O-B transitions, respectively. The magnetic properties of these materials are also discussed. Chapter four shows the experimental details of the preparation and characterization of the spinel oxide powders, colloidal dispersions and thin films. All samples (Ni, Cu or Zn-doped Co2MnO4) are well crystallized with a single cubic spinel oxide phase. Nanoparticles are spherical and their diameters vary from 20 to 50 nm, doping with Zn, Ni to Cu, mainly due to steric effects. Homogenous oxide thin films were deposited on quartz, alumina, titanium nitride and platinum in order to measure their optical and electrical properties, and to increase the film compactness (thus electrical conductivity and light absorbance) after thermal treatment. Thin films are well preserved up to 900 °C in air and can handle higher temperatures (up to 1000 ºC) on platinum without reaction with the substrate. Chapter five deals with the optical and electrical properties of thin films before and after sintering. The optical properties were measured over a wide range of wavelengths (UV-VIS). The optical properties of spinel oxide thin films show two strong absorption band gaps for each composition at the UV front and close to 700 nm in wavelength. These band gaps are direct and mostly lower than 2 eV for the first band. Both band gaps increase with further doping and decrease after annealing. Thin film resistivity is about 105 .cm at room temperature and decreases with increasing temperature (a few tens of 20cm at 300 ºC). In parallel to the soft chemistry method and dip-coating technique used to prepare our spinel oxide thin layers, Pulsed Laser Deposition technique was used to prepare pure Co2MnO4 and Cu2O dense thin films. Their structural and optical main features are discussed
Conductivité, diffusivité, émissivité thermiques de composites poly (EtherKetoneKetone) - charges carbonées : fibres continues et particules by MiKe Coulson( Book )

2 editions published in 2018 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

L'objectif de ces recherches est l'amélioration du procédé de placement de fibre par dépose laser, appliqué à des composites Poly(EtherKetoneKetone) / fibre carbone continue. L'optimisation des paramètres de dépose implique l'étude de la stabilité de la matrice, ainsi que l'analyse du comportement thermique des composites. La conductivité et diffusivité thermiques, ainsi que l'émissivité sont les paramètres clés pour comprendre le comportement des transferts volumiques et surfacique dans ces matériaux. Des composites PEKK/particules de carbone ont été élaborés afin d'étudier l'effet de la morphologie du carbone sur les paramètres thermiques. L'émissivité des composites PEKK / fibres continues a été mesurée en comparant les radiations émises par le matériau et celle émises par un corps noir à la même température. La conductivité et la diffusivité thermiques, qui sont des paramètres intrinsèques au composite, augmentent avec le taux de charge et la température. Ces deux paramètres ont été étudiés en fonction de la Température, dans le cas de composite PEKK / fibre carbone continue et PEKK / particules de carbone pour plusieurs taux de charge
Développement d'un contact haute-fréquence pour les antennes à résonance cyclotronique ionique d'ITER : validation mécanique et matériaux by Zhaoxi Chen( Book )

2 editions published in 2018 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

L'objectif du projet ITER est de démontrer la faisabilité scientifique et technique de la fusion nucléaire à des fins énergétiques. Pour obtenir les réactions de fusion, un plasma chauffé à 150 millions de degrés doit être confiné par un champ magnétique de plusieurs teslas en quasi-continu. Pour obtenir ces températures, des antennes radiofréquences (RF) injectent des ondes électromagnétiques de forte puissance dans le plasma, en particulier entre 40 et 55 MHz aux fréquences de résonance cyclotron des ions. L'assemblage et la dilatation thermique en fonctionnement de ces antennes sont rendus possibles par des contacts électriques glissants. Ces contacts doivent supporter un courant RF crête de 2.25 kA en régime stationnaire, dans un environnement sous vide et pendant toute la durée de fonctionnement de l'antenne. De plus, les matériaux de ces contacts doivent être compatibles avec la température de 250°C utilisée pour l'étuvage de la machine pendant plusieurs milliers d'heures cumulées. Ces contacts RF sont donc des composants critiques pour les performances de l'antenne. Aucun contact électrique du commerce n'a jusqu'à présent été qualifié pour ces spécifications et un effort particulier a donc été porté dans le cadre de ce travail de thèse afin de développer une solution satisfaisante. Le choix des matériaux et des revêtements utilisés pour ces contacts a fait l'objet de la première partie de cette étude. Pour ce faire, un modèle multi-physique tenant compte des paramètres RF, mécaniques et thermiques a été développé. À la suite de cette étude, des premiers couples de matériaux et de revêtements ont été sélectionnés. Les propriétés d'échantillons représentatifs ont été caractérisées par des mesures réalisées au laboratoire CIRIMAT avant et après un vieillissement thermique simulé. Afin d'évaluer le comportement électrique et tribologique de ces paires de matériaux dans les conditions de fonctionnement d'ITER, un tribomètre sous vide a été spécifiquement conçu et utilisé pendant ce travail de thèse.[...]
Structure et propriétés physiques de composites à matrice biosourcée/fibres naturelles continues pour applications aéronautiques by Geoffrey Haddou( Book )

2 editions published in 2017 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

L'objectif de ce travail est de proposer des composites totalement biosourcés à application potentielle pour l'aménagement cabine et conforme aux exigences REACh. L'utilisation de fibres végétales comme renforts de matrices polymères est une voie prometteuse qui permet de réduire l'impact environnemental, tout en diminuant la masse. Une nouvelle matrice polyamide biosourcée synthétisée par Arkema - Polyamide méta-xylylène diamine 10 - a été utilisée pour cette étude. Une étude préliminaire de composites Polyamide 11/poudre de bambou a montré que l'introduction du renfort ne perturbait pas la structure physique de la matrice. De plus, l'optimisation des propriétés mécaniques s'effectue en l'absence d'agent de couplage. Les composites fibres continues de bambou/PA mXD 10 qui sont également mis en œuvre sans agent de couplage, ont des modules de cisaillement supérieurs à ceux des composites synthétiques de référence fibre de verre/matrice phénolique, avec un gain de masse de l'ordre de 50%
Fonctionnalisation de supports de SiC par imprégnation de sols et-ou de suspensions en vue d'améliorer les rendements de conversion d'échangeurs solaires by Jessica Mollicone( Book )

2 editions published in 2015 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The necessity of finding new energy sources leads to the development of concentrated solar thermal power plants and more particularly the one using towers. Air is used as a heat transfer fluid flowing in a receiver heated by concentrated sunlight. The absorber, located in the receiver, is the key element of these devices; it must both absorb solar radiation and have a low infrared emissivity to limit thermal radiation losses. This work is part of the OPTISOL project, which aim is to optimize the thermo-optical properties of a volumetric absorber. For this purpose, a silicon carbide foam was selected as the mechanical support of the absorber for its good resistance to high temperatures and for its ability to be efficient to absorb sunlight. Several laboratories have worked on this project and the role of CIRIMAT was, at first, to characterize these silicon carbide foams using conventional and less conventional techniques such as X microtomography. Secondly, silicon carbide foams have been functionalized by a selective oxide, YBaCuO, in order to optimize the spectral selectivity of the system. For this, liquid routes such as sol-gel or suspension techniques have been selected and a functionalization process was implemented for coating planar (pellet) and volumetric (porous foam) substrates. The spectral selectivity of the functionalized silicon carbide was studied by infrared-visible spectrometry and the results are promising since a decrease in the infrared emissivity was observed while maintaining a high absorptivity of solar radiation
Biomatériaux pour application chirurgicale : élaboration et fonctionnalisation pour une bioadhésion thermorégulée by Guillaume Conzatti( Book )

2 editions published in 2017 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Pancreatic surgery, which leads to 5 % of mortality and around 50 % of morbidity, is one of the most critical digestive operations. The most serious complication is the appearance of pancreatic fistulas (PFs), i.e. enzymatic leaks from the surgical sutures to the peritoneal environment that can lead to the life threatening of the patient. To date, no medical device is indicated for the prevention of these FPs. The aim of this project is to design and validate a biomaterial constituted of a matrix that will ensure the dual function of absorbent and antibacterial agent reservoir, on which a chemical grafting should confer thermoregulated bioadhesive properties. The first part of this work is devoted to the optimisation of the absorbent matrix, based on alginate and chitosan, already developed during a previous thesis. Three types of drying processes were compared: drying by evaporation, lyophilisation and drying in supercritical CO2 medium. These different processes led to materials with different internal structures and porosities. The impact of these structures was evaluated in terms of swelling capacity in various media, including a simulated pancreatic environment, but also in terms of enzymatic resistance and release of an active molecule. Taking into account the obtained results, drying by evaporation was identified as the most appropriate process. In a second part, poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) was synthesised by controlled polymerisation (RAFT) in order to be grafted onto the absorbent matrix surfaces. PNIPAM is a thermosensitive polymer with bioadhesive properties which depend on the temperature. This polymer is usually bioadhesive above its lower critical solution temperature (LCST), around 32 ° C. In this study, the molar mass and the grafting density of PNIPAM are the two main parameters studied for the surface modifications. Finally, the surface properties of the grafted matrices were characterised. In vitro, the materials showed thermosensitive bioadhesive properties, with a cellular bioadhesion mainly observed above the LCST. However, ex vivo tests exhibited higher bioadhesion on porcine organs at lower temperatures. This study led to the development of absorbent biomaterials with thermoregulated surface properties. Further understanding of the relationship between surface properties and in vivo bioadhesion would allow the optimisation of the thermoregulated surface properties
Réactivité dans les bains de prétraitement et mécanismes de croissance des couches de conversion au chrome trivalent sur un alliage d'aluminium 2024 by Xavier Verdalet-Guardiola( Book )

2 editions published in 2019 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Composants principaux des couches de conversion chimique sur le marché, les composés à base de chrome hexavalent vont être interdits par la réglementation européenne REACh à partir de l'année 2024. Depuis plusieurs années, les industriels du secteur aéronautique développent donc des solutions de substitution basées sur le chrome trivalent, moins toxique et moins néfaste pour l'environnement que le chrome hexavalent, tout en conférant des propriétés anticorrosion prometteuses aux alliages d'aluminium. Le déploiement des solutions de conversion chimique à base de CrIII à l'échelle industrielle a mis en évidence une sensibilité forte de ces procédés aux propriétés de surface des alliages d'aluminium. Ce projet de thèse vise à améliorer la robustesse du procédé de conversion au chrome trivalent en identifiant les paramètres de premier ordre contrôlant les performances anticorrosion des couches. Pour cela, des éléments de compréhension concernant les modifications de surface causées par la préparation de surface et les mécanismes de croissance de la couche ont été apportés. Les travaux de thèse ont été réalisés sur l'alliage d'aluminium 2024 largement employé dans le domaine aéronautique. Différents lots d'alliage, états de surface et états métallurgiques ont été considérés afin de déterminer l'impact de la métallurgie de l'alliage sur les propriétés de surface après préparation de surface ainsi que sur les propriétés anticorrosion de la couche formée. L'étude de la réactivité de l'alliage dans le bain de conversion chimique a ensuite permis de mettre en évidence les mécanismes de nucléation et croissance de la couche de conversion. Un modèle de formation de la couche en surface de l'alliage 2024-T3 a ainsi été proposé
Spark plasma sintering de composites base titane renforcés par des carbures pour applications en tribocorrosion by Glenda Tsholofelo Motsi( Book )

2 editions published in 2019 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The poor wear resistance of titanium and its alloys limit their application in which the combined effect of wear and corrosion may be encountered. In this regard, addition of ceramic phases in the form of whiskers (TiB) or particles (TiB2 and TiC) in titanium based matrix to form advanced titanium matrix composites (TMCs), can aid reduce material loss and prolong the service life. In this study TiB2, TiB and TiC based titanium composites were produced by reactive Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) of commercial pure titanium (CP-Ti) and B4C powders of varying particles sizes. It was realized that at 800°C set-point temperature the reaction had initiated due to the benefits of pulsed current in the SPS. SEM/FIB/TEM analysis on the material sintered at 800°C showed a continuous grey phase, constituted of clusters of partially reacted B4C particles segregated at Ti matrix grain boundaries. While at 1100°C, the reactants completely reacted and transformed into clusters of various compounds high in B and C (Ti-B and Ti-C). Microstructure homogenization was achieved at dwell times of 0-30 min to remove the formed clusters. Corrosion and tribocorrosion behaviour of CP-Ti and TMCs was investigated in solutions 3.5% molar of NaCl. The results showed that increasing amount of the reinforcing phases to 5wt% reduced the corrosion and tribocorrosion susceptibility of the TMCs sintered at 1100°C, as the open circuit potential values were positively shifted for Ti5wt%B4C. Severe surface damage with deep grooves in CP-Ti was observed in worn tracks indicating adhesive wear. No pulling out of TiB and TiC reinforcing phases was observed for Ti5wt%B4C, due to the strong interfacial bond strength with the Ti matrix
Study of early transition metal carbides for energy storage applications by Yohan Dall'Agnese( Book )

2 editions published in 2016 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

La demande urgente d'innovations dans le domaine du stockage de l'énergie est liée au développement récent de la production d'énergie renouvelable ainsi qu'à la diversification des produits électroniques portables qui consomment de plus en plus d'énergie. Il existe plusieurs technologies pour le stockage et la conversion électrochimique de l'énergie, les plus notables étant les batteries aux ions lithium, les piles à combustible et les supercondensateurs. Ces systèmes sont utilisés de façon complémentaire des uns aux autres dans des applications différentes. Par exemple, les batteries sont plus facilement transportables que les piles à combustible et ont de bonne densité d'énergie alors que les supercondensateurs ont des densités de puissance plus élevés et une meilleure durée de vie. L'objectif principal de ces travaux est d'étudier les performances électrochimiques d'une nouvelle famille de matériaux bidimensionnel appelée MXène, en vue de proposer de nouvelles solutions pour le stockage de l'énergie. Pour y arriver, plusieurs directions ont été explorées. Dans un premier temps, la thèse se concentre sur les supercondensateurs dans des électrolytes aqueux et aux effets des groupes de surface. La seconde partie se concentre sur les systèmes de batterie et de capacités à ions sodium. Une cellule complète comportant une anode en carbone et une cathode de MXène a été développées. La dernière partie de la thèse présente l'étude des MXènes pour les supercondensateur en milieu organique. Une attention particulière est apportée à l'étude du mécanisme d'intercalation des ions entre les feuillets de MXène. Différentes techniques de caractérisations ont été utilisées, en particulier la voltampérométrie cyclique, le cyclage galvanostatique, la spectroscopie d'impédance, la microscopie électronique et la diffraction des rayons X
Propriétés structurales, microstructurales et électriques du titanate de baryum dopé à l'yttrium pour l'élaboration des condensateurs multicouches by Ana Maria Hernández-López( Book )

2 editions published in 2018 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Le titanate de baryum dopé (BaTiO3, BT) avec des éléments de terres rares est utilisé comme diélectrique dans la fabrication de condensateurs céramiques multicouches (MLCC). L'oxyde de terres rares le plus couramment utilisé comme dopant dans la formulation commerciale de la poudre BT pour la fabrication de MLCC est Y2O3, car il a des propriétés similaires à celles de l'ajout de Ho2O3, Er2O3 ou Dy2O3 et il est moins coûteux. D'autres additifs, tels que Mn, Mg et Ca contribuent à la répartition globale des défauts électroniques pouvant être générés lorsque les ions dopants sont insérés dans le réseau, tandis que SiO2 est utilisé comme additif de frittage. La structure pérovskite du BT peut héberger une large gamme de dopants pouvant remplacer Ba ou Ti dans le réseau. Aussi, des phases secondaires, notamment celles connues sous le nom de pyrochlores Y2Ti2O7, associées à l'Y2O3 en tant que dopant BT, supposées être á l'origine des mécanismes de défaillance à long terme des MLCC, apparaissent. Le but de ce travail est de caractériser le BT dopé avec différentes concentrations d'Y2O3, en validant son éventuelle contribution à la formation de phases secondaires et en évaluant la fiabilité des MLCC préparées avec ce type de matériaux. Le rôle de Y2O3 a été évalué sur deux types de matières premières, le premier est du BaTiO3 pur (<100 ppm en Y) et le second est une formulation commerciale conçue pour les MLCC connus sous le nom de X7R (-55 °C et 125 °C, ±15 %) qui, entre autres éléments, contient déjà 1% en poids de Y2O3. Des poudres et des céramiques avec différentes concentrations d'Y3+, telles qu'Y2O3, de dopage (1% en poids à 20% en poids) ont été préparées puis traitées thermiquement ou frittées. Le traitement thermique de la poudre a été effectué à l'air, tandis que le frittage de la céramique (poudre compactée à 2 MPa) a été effectué à la fois dans l'air et dans une atmosphère réductrice (1310 °C à l'air pendant 3 h, deux étapes: 1310 °C puis 1150 °C 15 h et une atmosphère réductrice N2, H2, H2O à 1310 °C pendant 3 h). En ce qui concerne l'addition d'Y2O3, la transition de phase de tétragonal à un mélange de tétragonal et de cubique a été observée lorsque la concentration en Y2O3 augmentait dans la poudre traitée thermiquement et dans la céramique correspondante. [...]
Analyse des mécanismes de conduction thermique dans les composites structuraux PEEK/particules submicroniques d'argent by Lisa Rivière( Book )

2 editions published in 2016 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This work deals with the optimization of thermal transport mechanisms in polymer-based composites. It has been demonstrated that the introduction of conductive particles in a polymer matrix contributes to thermal conductivity enhancement. At macroscopic scale, resistive mechanisms are ruled by a complex set of parameters: constituents' nature, dispersed phase morphology and matrix/particles interactions. The influence of these parameters on PEEK/silver submicron particles composites has been studied. Experimental data have been compared to models to analyse the structural origin of thermal conductivity evolution. A global approach to study heat transport mechanisms imply the multiscale understanding of capacitive and diffusive contributions. Heat capacity, thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity have been studied as a function of particles content and temperature
Optimisation de la conductivité électrique transverse de composites structuraux PAEK-fils submicroniques d'argent/fibres de carbone continues avec ensimage conducteur by Jérémie Audoit( Book )

2 editions published in 2017 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This PhD thesis deals with the optimization of transverse electrical conductivity of Thermoplastic Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer. The influence of an electrically conductive sizing has been investigated. Silver nanoplates (AgNpts) have been successfully synthesized by a soft chemical reduction, with trisodiumcitrate (TSC) as surfactant. Silver nanoplates have been dispersed into a model matrix, percolation threshold has been determined near 5.9 % in volume fraction. This value is consistent with their moderate aspect ratio (between 12 and 28). Size and morphology of silver nanoplates are suitable for their dispersion in the sizing. Carbon fiber has been coated with conductive sizing. Carbon fiber will be further impregnated by a PAEK thermoplastic matrix. A higher conductivity level has been achieved by introducing silver nanowires in the PAEK matrix. Structural composites consisting of matrix-silver nanowires / continuous carbon fiber sized with conductive sizing have been elaborated. Their electrical conductivity reached 7 S.m-1 for a total silver volume fraction of 1 %.vol
Identification et analyse des marqueurs de vieillissement pour polymères isolants sous contrainte thermique en aéronautique by Victor Henri( Book )

2 editions published in 2020 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This work deals with the determination of ageing markers of high-performance polymers for electrical insulation applications in aeronautics. Most of power cables are made of a successive winding of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) PTFE and poly(imide) PI. This research is focused on the effects of thermal ageing on the physico-chemical structure of these polymers in order to link them to changes in thermomechanical and electrical behaviours. For PTFE, enthalpic and mechanical relaxations are strongly impacted by changes in chemical structure associated to a depolymerisation mechanism. The values of the enthalpy of crystallization and of the amplitude of the ß mechanical relaxation associated with the crystal/crystal transition, can be used as markers of thermal ageing for PTFE. For PI, changes in the chemical structure associated to the scission - recombination mechanism, highlight the formation of heterogeneities, modifying sorption process and electrical charge transport as measured in broadband dielectric spectroscopy. The evolution of the diffusion mechanism and of the activation energy of the electrical conductivity, constitute pertinent ageing markers for PI
Matériaux d'assemblage basse température pour applications électroniques : de l'intérêt des oxalates et formiates de métaux by Pierre Roumanille( Book )

2 editions published in 2018 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Due to environmental and health concerns, new regulations led to a restriction in the use of lead in electronic equipment. Joining materials (based on tin, silver, copper, bismuth ...) for surface-mount technology are subject to many development work in order to comply with regulatory and technical requirements. The potential of metal carboxylates in electronics has already been demonstrated in the development of metal-organic decomposition processes. The thermal decomposition under controlled atmosphere of such precursors leads to the creation of metal nanoparticles with an increased reactivity compared to that of micron sized particles. The use of nanomaterials is a seriously considered way for developing low temperature joining processes for electronics. It is based on the well-known decrease of melting and sintering temperatures of nanomaterials with particle size. In this context, this work of thesis presents the study of the controlled decomposition of metal-organic precursors intended to be integrated into a low-temperature lead-free joining process. The thermal behavior of several metal-organic precursors of tin and bismuth, as well as the influence of the decomposition atmosphere, were studied. The relationship between the metal particles size and their melting point has been emphasized, as well as the major influence of oxidation on the evolution of particles size and their ability to make reliable joints
 
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