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NAVY PERSONNEL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTER SAN DIEGO CA

Overview
Works: 841 works in 884 publications in 1 language and 1,002 library holdings
Genres: Bibliographies 
Publication Timeline
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Most widely held works by NAVY PERSONNEL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTER SAN DIEGO CA
Microcomputer Network for Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT) Program Listing by Baldwin Quan( Book )

3 editions published in 1984 in English and held by 5 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Computerized adaptive testing (cat) offers the opportunity to replace paper-and-pencil aptitude tests such as the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery with shorter, more accurate, and more secure computer-administered tests. Its potential advantages need to be verified by experimental administration of automated tests to military recruit applicants whose subsequent training and job performance could be correlated with their cat performance. A hardware and software system was developed for experimental administration of computerized aptitude tests to military personnel. A network of microprocessors was used, with each testing station including an Apple iii personal computer. Eight such computers shared a 10 million byte Winchester disk containing the data base of items, programs, and examinee records. This report contains the system and user documentation. (Author/DWH)
Predicting Student Performance in a Computer-Managed Course Using Measures of Cognitive Styles, Abilities and Aptitudes by Pat-Anthony Federico( Book )

2 editions published in 1979 in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Measures of cognitive styles, abilities, and aptitudes from a sample of 166 Basic Electricity and Electronics School graduates were analyzed to determine if they were predictive of student achievement and times to complete instructional modules. Objectives of the research were to (1) identify measures of cognitive characteristics that may be predictive of student achievement in the first of 11 modules of the be/e School; (2) determine whether the predictor pattern changes across the rudimentary modules of be/e school; and (3) propose procedures for adapting instruction to student cognitive characteristics so as to improve student achievement and reduce the time to complete the basic modules. Graduates were measured on 24 cognitive characteristics. Using these data as predictors and module test scores and times to complete the modules as criteria, 22 stepwise regression analyses and two canonical analyses were computed. Results indicated that in seven of the eleven modules, measures of cognitive styles and/or abilities contributed more to the prediction of student achievement than did measures of cognitive aptitudes. In all 11 modules, measures of cognitive styles and/or abilities accounted for more of the variance in times to complete the modules than did measures of cognitive aptitudes, and shifts in predictor patterns were related to whether students were required to remember or use facts, concepts, principles, and/or rules. (Author/RAO)
Computer-Managed Instruction in the Navy IV. The Effects of Test Item Format on Learning and Knowledge Retention by Kathleen A Lockhart( Book )

2 editions published in 1981 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The relative effectiveness of multiple-choice (MC) and constructed-response (CR) test formats in computer-managed instruction (CMI) were compared using four test groups of 30 trainees each who were assigned nonsystematically from the basics course at the Propulsion Engineering School, Great Lakes Naval Training Center. Group A took module tests in the standard CR format with answer cues and then converted their answers to MC answer sheets for CMI scoring. Group B took CR tests with answer cues, but the research staff converted the answers. Group C took CR tests but without answer cues, and the staff converted the answers, while Group D took tests in the MC format. Before and after the tests, skills and knowledge were measured to compare factors such as learning, retention, time to complete the course, and attitudes. There were no differences in learning among the groups, but Group C, with the CR questions without cues, had the best retention, but took longer to complete the course and rated their tests as being more difficult than did students in the other groups. The attitude questionnaire and the results of ANOVAs comparing the groups on measures of learning are appended, and five references are provided. (Author/BK)
Mathematical Requirements in Navy Class " a"Electronics Schools by J Sachar( Book )

2 editions published between 1980 and 1981 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Instructors in 14 Navy electronics "a" schools (12 basic core and 2 advanced) were presented with a list of 70 mathematical skills and asked to indicate: (1) how important they were to successful school performance, and (2) whether they were prerequisite, reviewed, or taught in the "a" schools. They were also asked to state the number and type of performance aids used in the course and during the exam. Responses showed that of the 70 skills surveyed, 19 do not appear in any basic core course and 2 more do not affect performance. Although the skills rated as affecting performance are generally considered as prerequisite in all schools, many students require review in these skills for successful performance. Across all schools, the most important skills are: (1) addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division of numbers; (2) squares and square roots of positive numbers; (3) addition and subtraction of like units; (4) multiplication and division of like and/or unlike units; (5) substitution of known values into a given formula; and (6) transpositions of algebraic expressions. Performance aids are permitted in all courses but one, both during the course and during exams. (Author/MP)
Instructor's Role in Individualized Training A Survey of Two Computer-Managed Courses by Kirk A Johnson( Book )

2 editions published in 1982 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In order to provide detailed descriptions of instructors' activities in courses taught by individualized instruction and to identify some of the factors responsible for variations in those activities, records were made of instructor behavior in two computer-managed Navy courses. Within each course, jobs differed considerably in kinds and patterns of activities and total demands on the instructor. Most of the specialized jobs in one course had nominal parallels in the other, but the activities observed in these parallel jobs were quite different. Most instructors spent the major part of their time in brief, relatively routine interactions; complex tutorial interactions were rare. Findings suggest that differences in course design affect demands on the instructor and that systematic tradeoffs have not always been made between such demands and training effectiveness. It is recommended that a single set of student-instructor ratios not be used to compute instructor authorizations for all such courses and that instructor training courses avoid creating unrealistic expectations of actual job performance. Since instructor roles vary so widely, considerable caution should be exercised in selecting a common core curriculum for such courses. (Author/LMM)
An Evaluation of Individualized, Job-Specific Maintenance Training by Kirk A Johnson( Book )

2 editions published in 1982 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

A study evaluated the efficiency of job-specific training in military technical areas other than electronics. It sought to determine whether individualized, computer-managed instruction (cmi) can be used to avoid some of the administrative difficulties common to more conventional forms of job-specific training, and it sought to determine the cost-effectiveness of this form of instruction. Individualized, job-specific courses were developed for three organizational-level billets in an a-7e squadron--power plant maintenance technician, structures/hydraulics maintenance technician, and plane captain. The courses were supported by the Navy's cmi system. Students, trained in the job-specific courses, tended to do better than conventionally-trained counterparts on a series of written and performance tests. They were rated about the same by supervisors on the job. Training time for the power plant and structures/hydraulics maintenance technicians were reduced by about one half. For plane captains, the reduction was only about 10 percent. Use of cmi alleviated many administrative difficulties. It was suggested that the initial high cost of material development could be offset in the future by training time reductions. Appendixes include outlines of course content and results of tests and questionnaires. (Ylb)
Men and Women in Ships Preconceptions of the Crews by Carol S Greebler( Book )

2 editions published in 1982 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Preintegration attitudes and expectations of 1936 men and 346 women assigned to six Navy ships were measured before the women reported aboard. Results showed that the majority of men believed integration would improve crew morale, but would impact negatively on discipline and increase interpersonal conflict. Lower ranking men favored integration, although they held the most traditional attitudes toward the roles of women and expected women would receive preferential treatment in job assignments, physically demanding work, and disciplinary action. Men working in departments where women are rarely found held traditional attitudes toward women's roles and were pessimistic about integration. The women were most concerned with profanity, proving themselves, and resentment from men
Managing for organizational quality : theory and implementation : an annotated bibliography by Nida Backaitis( Book )

2 editions published in 1990 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This bibliography is intended to provide recommended readings and videotapes on managing organizations for quality improvement. The target audience consists primarily of managers and leaders for quality in the Department of Navy activities. The aim of this volume is to bring together a collection of materials drawn from a wide variety of sources, some of which are not typically associated with quality improvement. This is because the Navy Personnel Research and Development Center has long recognized the need for an understanding and application of principles and concepts from such areas as organizational change, leadership team functioning, reward systems, statistical thinking, and accounting to effect a major transformation in organizations. The integration of theories and knowledge from these areas will serve as the basis for orienting an organization toward quality and for designing organizational systems for the future. The document is divided into 11 sections that include such titles as: (1) "The Competitive Position of U.S. Industry"; (2) "The Quality Philosophy and Management Principles for Improvement of Quality, Productivity, and Competitive Position"; (3) "The Management of Organizational Change and Transformation"; and (4) "The Roles of Management and Leadership in Improvement of Organizational Quality." (RR)
Influence of Fallible Item Parameters on Test Information During Adaptive Testing by C. Douglas Wetzel( Book )

2 editions published in 1983 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Computer simulation was used to assess the effects of item parameter estimation errors on different item selection strategies used in adaptive and conventional testing. To determine whether these effects reduced the advantages of certain optimal item selection strategies, simulations were repeated in the presence and absence of item parameter estimation errors. Results showed that item parameter estimation errors had little effect on the efficiency and measurement precision of the adaptive test item selection strategies studied. Strategies that explicitly made optimal use of item parameters for item selection were superior to a less optimal strategy, even when item parameters were fallibly estimated. It appears that errors in the item parameter estimates do not reduce the psychometric advantages of these 'optimal' strategies. Item selection strategies that explicitly employ optimization criteria should be regarded as preferable to simpler strategies that do not. Further development of psychometric procedures for the CAT system should focus on the former type of strategy. (Author)
Shipboard Instruction and Training Management with Computer Technology A Pilot Application by John A Dollard( Book )

2 editions published in 1980 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

To determine if computer technology could improve shipboard instruction and training, an Automated Shipboard Instruction and Management System (ASIMS) was used for computer-managed instruction (CMI) aboard USS GRIDLEY (CG 21) during 1975-77. ASIMS comprised a NOVA 1200 minicomputer with support peripherals, a Computer Integrated Instruction (CII) system in General Damage Control (GDC), and a Shipboard Training Administration System (STAS). CII GDC provided off-line instruction integrated with on-line computer testing, diagnostics, and prescriptives. STAS provided a generalized File Management and Information Retrieval System (FMS) that facilitated control of shipboard files, records, and reports. Posttest scores indicated that graduates of the CMI course significantly outperformed groups trained under conventional shipboard methods. CMI was proved technically and operationally feasible aboard ship and it was shown that commercial, off-the-shelf minicomputer systems can support both a CMI capability and limited nontactical ADP functions. A cost-effectiveness study was beyond the scope of the project
System Design Characteristics and User Skills A Literature Review by Dennis Sullivan( Book )

2 editions published in 1981 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Because the Navy needs tools to assess the personnel implications of proposed equipment and system designs, a literature search was conducted in 1978 to determine how hardware design engineers perceive the relationships between system design characteristics and the skills of the system operator and maintenance personnel. Recent studies conducted by the human resources research community were reviewed, especially research on the design process and skill information needs of designers, job performance, the analysis and measurement of skills, and the presentation of human resources information. It was found that engineers were responsive to human resources constraints when such constraints were presented as design requirements, but that they consistently ranked human resources data as less important than other aspects of system design. This publication presents the literature review and recommends that, in defining the techniques needed to communicate human resources data to design engineers, research be directed toward developing a better understanding of how engineers perceive the relationship between design characteristics and resulting skill implications, and that specific operational definitions of skills applicable to Navy ratings and pay grades be developed in terms and formats readily understandable to and directly usable by hardware designers. A 46-item bibliography is provided. (ESR)
Methods for Improving the User-Computer Interface. Technical Report by Patrick H Mccann( Book )

2 editions published in 1983 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This summary of methods for improving the user-computer interface is based on a review of the pertinent literature. Requirements of the personal computer user are identified and contrasted with computer designer perspectives towards the user. The user's psychological needs are described, so that the design of the user-computer interface may be designed to accommodate them. Development of the user-computer interface is discussed in terms of the user's physical, perceptual, and conceptual contacts with the system, and the ideals of the system design--transparency and visibility to the user--are described. Twenty-one dialogue principles identified by a review of dialogue design studies are listed. Additional topics include work station design guidelines and some relevant variables that should be considered in the operator's physical environment. Further research is suggested that will explore the characteristics of efficacious menu selection, develop a theory of the operator, determine the best locus of control for dialogue features, provide guidelines for improving system documentation, and improve user work station habitability. Twenty-four references are listed. (Author/LMM)
Job-Oriented Basic Skills (Jobs) Program for the Acoustic Sensor Operations Str and by Paula Kabance U'ren( Book )

2 editions published in 1983 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

An effort was undertaken to develop a job-oriented basic skills curriculum appropriate for the acoustic sensor operations area, which includes members of four ratings: ocean systems technician, aviation antisubmarine warfare operator, sonar technician (surface), and sonar technician (submarine). Analysis of the job duties of the four ratings revealed that sensor operations for acoustic analysis and continued on-the-job study are critical job requirements. The basic requirements for acoustic sensor operations consisted of skills in mathematics, reading, study skills, and memorization. The acoustic prerequisite requirements were skills in science, conceptual understanding of mechanical operations and relationships, and problem solving. Course objectives and instructional specifications were developed based upon the training requirements. (The seven-page narrative is followed by these appendixes: a sample job analysis survey; the basic skills survey; the acoustic prerequisite skills survey; terminal objectives and sample test items; and instructional specifications that detail, for each topic area, objectives, instructional media method, strategy specifications, instance specifications, and testing.) (Ylb)
The Instructional Quality Inventory (IQI) A Formative Evaluation Tool for Instructional Systems Development by William E Montague( Book )

2 editions published in 1983 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Reviewed is the development and evaluation of the instructional quality inventory (IQI), a systematic methodology for reviewing the three major products of the Instructional Systems Design process--objectives, test items, and instruction--before conducting student tryouts. The empirically based instructional design support system aids developers in choosing instructional alternatives based on cost/benefits and specific resource limitations. The objective of this report, which is intended for course designers and developers and those managing instructional development, was to describe the development and evaluation of the instructional quality inventory (IQI). The intent is to improve the quality of the materials, thereby increasing the effectiveness of later student tryouts. (PN)
Computer-Based and Paper-Based Measurement of Recognition Performance by Pat-Anthony Federico( Book )

2 editions published in 1989 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

To determine the relative reliabilities and validities of paper-based and computer-based measurement procedures, 83 male student pilots and radar intercept officers were administered computer and paper-based tests of aircraft recognition. The subject matter consisted of line drawings of front, side, and top silhouettes of aircraft. Reliabilities for both modes of testing were estimated by deriving internal consistency indices, using an odd/even item split. Prior to testing, subjects learned to recognize the aircraft silhouettes using two media: (1) paper-based form structured as a study guide; and (2) computer-based form using flash ivan in the training mode. A stepwise multiple discriminant analysis was performed to determine how well the two testing modes distinguished among two groups of subjects expected to differ in their recognition of aircraft silhouettes. Computer-based and paper-based measures were not significantly different in reliability or internal consistency. The paper-based measure of average degree of confidence in recognition judgments was more reliable than the computer-based measure. The average degree of confidence measured by the two modes was more equivalent than the measures of recognition test scores. The discriminative validities of the two measures were about the same for distinguishing groups above or below the mean average curriculum grade. Using the pooled within-groups correlations between the discriminant function and computer-based or paper-based measures, the former had superior discriminative validity than the latter. Statistics associated with the canonical correlation suggested that the predictive validity of computer-based measures approximates that of paper-based measures. Four tables present study data. A 54-item list of references is included. (Sld)
Computer-Managed Instruction in the Navy III. Automated Performance Testing in the Radioman "A" School by Marc Hamovitch( Book )

2 editions published in 1981 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The third in a series on Navy Computer Managed Instruction (CMI), this report describes how the automated scoring of teletypewriting tests affects training in a system for automated performance testing (APT) which was implemented in the teletypewriter (TTY) portion of the Radioman "A" School in San Diego. The system includes a computer-generated Error Distribution Report (EDR) which provides detailed feedback on student typing errors. The objectives of this study were to determine whether test-related activities take less time under APT than under manual testing conditions, and to determine whether training time can be reduced by different applications of EDR use. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the time required to perform test-related activities under manual scoring as compared to those performed under automated testing conditions. Results indicated that testing under the APT procedures was faster than manual testing and grading, and that a majority of students favored the CMI system in general, and the APT program in particular. Fourteen references are listed. (MER)
Computer-Managed Instruction Stability of Cognitive Components by Pat-Anthony Federico( Book )

2 editions published in 1984 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

To ascertain changes in cognitive correlates of learning as students advance through hierarchical instruction, 24 individual difference measures were obtained from 166 Navy trainees who had completed a computer-managed course in electricity and electronics. Principal component analysis and varimax rotation were computed for cognitive characteristics, producing factor scores that were used in multiple regression analyses to predict achievement in 11 modules of instruction. During acquisition of course content, cognitive components sampled shifted noticeably in importance throughout the curriculum. The results have implications for aptitude-treatment-interaction (ATI) research, transition from novice to expert, crystallized and fluid intelligence, task demands of instruction, and computer-managed mastery learning
Effects of Questions and Instructions on Learning from Text by John Ellis( Book )

2 editions published in 1983 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Four experiments were conducted to determine if giving students specific instructions about the nature of the textual material and the final test is as effective as giving them practice questions in learning from text. In all experiments, subjects were randomly assigned to one of four groups: a read-only control group, a practice-questions group, an instructions, and a practice-questions-instructions group. Results of the experiments indicated that instructions can be as effective and, in some cases, more effective than practice questions in learning from text, instructions control/focus student processing and attention as well as do practice questions, and the best instructional strategy is a combination of instructions and practice questions. (Author)
Feasibility of Modelling the Supply of Older Age Accessions by George Thomas( Book )

2 editions published in 1983 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The feasibility of modelling the supply of 22- to 29-year-old enlistees was assessed. Key issues concerned the availability of data and the development of an appropriate methodology for making enlistment supply projections for 22- to 29-year-olds. The current status of supply modelling was reviewed, with particular attention being given to the decision context of the enlistment choice. It was found that ample data are available for modelling the supply of 20- to 29-year-old enlistees. Military, civilian, and civilian/military data sets were identified that would be useful for better understanding the enlistment decision. It was determined that it is feasible to model the supply of older-aged enlistees, and procedures for undertaking such supply modelling were suggested. (Ylb)
Computer-Managed Instruction Crystallized and Fluid Intelligence by Pat-Anthony Federico( Book )

2 editions published in 1985 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Twenty-four measures of crystallized intelligence (G sub c) and fluid intelligence (G sub f) were obtained for samples of graduates and failures of an innovative instructional situation in which computer-managed mastery learning was used to teach elementary electricity and electronics. Seven stepwise multiple discriminant analyses and associated statistics were computed to determine which linear combinations of G sub f and G sub c measures would optimally separate the two groups. Corresponding classification functions derived for the discriminant analyses were applied to the data to evaluate the effectiveness of differentiating failures and graduates. The results did not substantiate the hypothesis that G sub f measures would be associated more strongly with student success in a new instructional situation than would G sub c measures. Contrary to theory, the findings suggest that some unconventional educational environments are not necessarily dysfunctional for more able students. In these situations, they can just as easily exercise and exploit those skills developed and applied in more traditional instructional settings. (Author)
 
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