WorldCat Identities

Cousins, Ian T.

Works: 13 works in 15 publications in 1 language and 20 library holdings
Genres: Academic theses 
Roles: Author, Other, Thesis advisor
Publication Timeline
Most widely held works by Ian T Cousins
Air-soil exchange of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) by Ian T Cousins( Book )

3 editions published in 1998 in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The European Collaborative Project SOLUTIONS developed models to provide diagnostic and prognostic capacity and fill data gaps for chemicals of emerging concern by Jos van Gils( )

1 edition published in 2019 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Computational material flow analysis for thousands of chemicals of emerging concern in European waters by Jos van Gils( )

1 edition published in 2020 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Screening organic chemicals for persistence in the environment and potential for long-range transport by Ian T Cousins( Book )

1 edition published in 2000 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in materials, humans and the environment( )

1 edition published in 2015 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Multi-pathway human exposure assessment of phthalate esters and DINCH( )

1 edition published in 2018 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Abstract: Phthalate esters are substances mainly used as plasticizers in various applications. Some have been restricted and phased out due to their adverse health effects and ubiquitous presence, leading to the introduction of alternative plasticizers, such as DINCH. Using a comprehensive dataset from a Norwegian study population, human exposure to DMP, DEP, DnBP, DiBP, BBzP, DEHP, DINP, DIDP, DPHP and DINCH was assessed by measuring their presence in external exposure media, allowing an estimation of the total intake, as well as the relative importance of different uptake pathways. Intake via different uptake routes, in particular inhalation, dermal absorption, and oral uptake was estimated and total intake based on all uptake pathways was compared to the calculated intake from biomonitoring data. Hand wipe results were used to determine dermal uptake and compared to other exposure sources such as air, dust and personal care products. Results showed that the calculated total intakes were similar, but slightly higher than those based on biomonitoring methods by 1.1 to 3 times (median), indicating a good understanding of important uptake pathways. The relative importance of different uptake pathways was comparable to other studies, where inhalation was important for lower molecular weight phthalates, and negligible for the higher molecular weight phthalates and DINCH. Dietary intake was the predominant exposure route for all analyzed substances. Dermal uptake based on hand wipes was much lower (median up to 2000 times) than the total dermal uptake via air, dust and personal care products. Still, dermal uptake is not a well-studied exposure pathway and several research gaps (e.g. absorption fractions) remain. Based on calculated intakes, the exposure for the Norwegian participants to the phthalates and DINCH was lower than health based limit values. Nevertheless, exposure to alternative plasticizers, such as DPHP and DINCH, is expected to increase in the future and continuous monitoring is required. Highlights: Diet is the major route of human exposure to phthalates and DINCH. Human risk related to phthalates and DINCH is low for the adult study population. Indoor environmental concentrations can be successfully linked to human body burden. Dermal uptake of phthalates needs further investigation
Perfluoroalkyl acids and their precursors in indoor air sampled in children's bedrooms( )

1 edition published in 2017 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Abstract: The contamination levels and patterns of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and their precursors in indoor air of children's bedrooms in Finland, Northern Europe, were investigated. Our study is among the most comprehensive indoor air monitoring studies (n=57) and to our knowledge the first one to analyse air in children's bedrooms for PFASs (17 PFAAs and 9 precursors, including two acrylates, 6:2 FTAC and 6:2 FTMAC). The most frequently detected compound was 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (8:2 FTOH) with the highest median concentration (3570pg/m 3). FTOH concentrations were generally similar to previous studies, indicating that in 2014/2015 the impact of the industrial transition had been minor on FTOH levels in indoor air. However, in contrast to earlier studies (with one exception), median concentrations of 6:2 FTOH were higher than 10:2 FTOH. The C8 PFAAs are still the most abundant acids, even though they have now been phased out by major manufacturers. The mean concentrations of FOSE/As, especially MeFOSE (89.9pg/m 3), were at least an order of magnitude lower compared to previous studies. Collectively the comparison of FTOHs, PFAAs and FOSE/FOSAs with previous studies indicates that indoor air levels of PFASs display a time lag to changes in production of several years. This is the first indoor air study investigating 6:2 FTMAC, which was frequently detected (58%) and displayed some of the highest maximum concentrations (13000pg/m 3). There were several statistically significant correlations between particular house and room characteristics and PFAS concentrations, most interestingly higher EtFOSE air concentrations in rooms with plastic floors compared to wood or laminate. Graphical abstract: Highlights: Indoor air measurements of 17 PFAAs and 9 precursors in 57 children's bedrooms. First study of 2-perfluorohexyl ethyl (meth)acrylate (6:2 FT(M)AC) in indoor air. Low levels of perfluorooctanesulfonamides/amidoethanols as result of phase-out. EtFOSE air levels higher in rooms with plastic floors compared to wood or laminate. Abstract : First indoor air measurements of PFAAs and their precursors including 6:2 fluoro-acrylate and 6:2 fluoro-methacrylate in children's bedrooms
Probing the relationship between external and internal human exposure of organophosphate flame retardants using pharmacokinetic modelling( )

1 edition published in 2017 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Abstract: Human external exposure (i.e. intake) of organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) has recently been quantified, but no link has yet been established between external and internal exposure. In this study, we used a pharmacokinetic (PK) model to probe the relationship between external and internal exposure data for three PFRs (EHDPHP, TNBP and TPHP) available for a Norwegian cohort of 61 individuals from 61 different households. Using current literature on metabolism of PFRs, we predicted the metabolite serum/urine concentrations and compared it to measured data from the study population. Unavailable parameters were estimated using a model fitting approach (least squares method) after assigning reasonable constraints on the ranges of fitted parameters. Results showed an acceptable comparison between PK model estimates and measurements (<10-fold deviation) for EHDPHP. However, a deviation of 10-1000 was observed between PK model estimates and measurements for TNBP and TPHP. Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis on the PK model revealed that EHDPHP results showed higher uncertainty than TNBP or TPHP. However, there are indications that (1) current biomarkers of exposure (i.e. assumed metabolites) for TNBP and TPHP chemicals might not be specific and ultimately affecting the outcome of the modelling and (2) some exposure pathways might be missing. Further research, such as invivo laboratory metabolism experiments of PFRs including identification of better biomarkers will reduce uncertainties in human exposure assessment. Graphical abstract: Highlights: Organophosphate flame retardant intake, metabolism and excretion was modeled. Predictions agree with measured metabolite urine and serum data for EHDPHP. TNBP and TPHP metabolite concentrations were under-predicted. Total intake for TNBP/TPHP is probably underestimated (at least 20 times). Unspecific TNBP/TPHP biomarkers could explain the model underpredictions. Abstract : The kinetic links between intake, body burden and excretion of organophosphate flame retardants is still poorly understood. Modelling results showed a good agreement between predicted body concentrations of metabolites for EHDPHP, however, TNBP and TPHP metabolite concentrations were underestimated, probably resulting from a combination of missing exposure routes and unspecific biomarkers
Can the use of deactivated glass fibre filters eliminate sorption artefacts associated with active air sampling of perfluorooctanoic acid?( )

1 edition published in 2017 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Abstract: Experimental work was undertaken to test whether gaseous perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) sorbs to glass fibre filters (GFFs) during air sampling, causing an incorrect measure of the gas-particle equilibrium distribution. Furthermore, tests were performed to investigate whether deactivation by siliconisation prevents sorption of gaseous PFOA to filter materials. An apparatus was constructed to closely simulate a high-volume air sampler, although with additional features allowing introduction of gaseous test compounds into an air stream stripped from particles. The set-up enabled investigation of the sorption of gaseous test compounds to filter media, eliminating any contribution from particles. Experiments were performed under ambient outdoor air conditions at environmentally relevant analyte concentrations. The results demonstrate that gaseous PFOA sorbs to GFFs, but that breakthrough of gaseous PFOA on the GFFs occurs at trace-level loadings. This indicates that during high volume air sampling, filters do not quantitatively capture all the PFOA in the sampled air. Experiments with siliconised GFFs showed that this filter pre-treatment reduced the sorption of gaseous PFOA, but that sorption still occurred at environmentally relevant air concentrations. We conclude that deactivation of GFFs does not allow for the separation of gaseous and particle bound perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) during active air sampling. Consequently, the well-recognised theory that PFCAs do not prevail as gaseous species in the atmosphere may be based on biased measurements. Caution should be taken to ensure that this artefact will not bias the conclusions of future field studies. Graphical abstract: Highlights: Gaseous PFOA partially sorbs to glass fibre filters (GFFs) during air sampling. The amount found on GFFs represents both gaseous and particulate PFOA. Traditional active air sampling cannot measure gas-particle partitioning of PFOA. We stress the importance of monitoring filter breakthrough. Siliconisation of GFFs can reduce but not eliminate sorption of PFOA. Abstract : Gaseous PFOA sorbs to glass fibre filters during high volume environmental air sampling and although this sorption can be reduced by deactivation of the filters it cannot be eliminated
Efficient removal of perfluorooctane sulfonate from aqueous film-forming foam solution by aeration-foam collection( )

1 edition published in 2018 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Abstract: Aqueous film-forming foams (AFFFs) used in fire-fighting are one of the main contamination sources of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) to the subterranean environment, requiring high costs for remediation. In this study, a method that combined aeration and foam collection was presented to remove PFOS from a commercially available AFFF solution. The method utilized the strong surfactant properties of PFOS that cause it to be highly enriched at air-water interfaces. With an aeration flow rate of 75mL/min, PFOS removal percent reached 96% after 2h, and the PFOS concentration in the collected foam was up to 6.5mmol/L, beneficial for PFOS recovery and reuse. Increasing the aeration flow rate, ionic strength and concentration of co-existing surfactant, as well as decreasing the initial PFOS concentration, increased the removal percents of PFOS by increasing the foam volume, but reduced the enrichment of PFOS in the foams. With the assistance of a co-existing hydrocarbon surfactant, PFOS removal percent was above 99.9% after aeration-foam collection for 2h and the enrichment factor exceeded 8400. Aeration-foam collection was less effective for short-chain perfluoroalkyl substances due to their relatively lower surface activity. Aeration-foam collection was found to be effective for the removal of high concentrations of PFOS from AFFF-contaminated wastewater, and the concentrated PFOS in the collected foam can be reused. Graphical abstract: Highlights: PFOS removal reached 96% after 2h with an aeration flow rate of 75mL/min. PFOS enrichment factor exceeded 8400 with the assistance of APG. High ionic strength accelerated the PFOS removal by aeration-foam collection. Aeration-foam collection is suitable for PFOS recovery from AFFF wastewater
Estimating children’s exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances by Kerstin Winkens( )

1 edition published in 2018 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are highly stable, surface active chemicals, which are water- and oil/stain-repellent. Because of their unique properties, PFASs are widely used in consumer products. Their application ranges from personal-care products, food packaging and textiles to interior materials, thus leading to a continuous human exposure to PFASs in every-day life. Possible exposure pathways are the ingestion of food, drinking water and dust; the inhalation of fine dust and air; as well as dermal absorption after contact with the products and dust. Despite the increasing number of monitoring studies, including measurement of concentrations in human exposure media and blood, childhood exposure is poorly understood. The state of current knowledge on childhood exposure was investigated in paper I, by reviewing existing PFAS literature on exposure media, on daily intakes via different exposure pathways and on levels in blood and serum. Subsequently, recommendations for future research needs were made and implications presented on the regulation and assessment of PFASs. For paper II, III and IV, a cohort of background-exposed Finnish children was followed throughout childhood. Indoor air and floor dust samples of their bedrooms were taken at the age of 10.5 years in 2014/2015 and analysed for a wide range of PFASs (paper II and III). The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) via these two media were calculated in paper III . The EDIs revealed that dust ingestion and air inhalation are of similar importance for the intake of single perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA), if the metabolism of PFAA precursors to PFAAs was included. The metabolism of precursors contributed considerably to the total intake of PFAAs via the inhalation of air (e.g. 38 % for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and 90 % for perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS)) and to the total intake of PFOS via the ingestion of dust (69 %; median values at the intermediate exposure scenario). In paper IV, the internal exposure during childhood was monitored by measuring serum concentrations, which were decreasing with age; and by calculating body burdens at 1, 6 and 10.5 years of age, which were constant or increasing, depending on the respective PFAS. These results demonstrated that it is crucial to account for growth dilution when studying exposure trends and PFAS intakes during childhood. This thesis contributes to a better understanding of children's exposure to PFASs, especially the internal exposure during childhood and the relative importance of both, indoor exposure pathways, as well as individual PFASs
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Audience level: 0.91 (from 0.86 for Air-soil e ... to 0.97 for Special is ...)

English (15)