WorldCat Identities

LERMAB - Laboratoire d'Études et de Recherche sur le MAtériau Bois - EA 4370

Overview
Works: 75 works in 77 publications in 2 languages and 77 library holdings
Roles: Other, Degree grantor
Publication Timeline
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Most widely held works by LERMAB - Laboratoire d'Études et de Recherche sur le MAtériau Bois - EA 4370
Étude de l'association d'une colonne d'absorption à un séchoir convectif à basse température : influence de l'absorbeur sur la cinétique et la qualité du chauffage by Laurent Chrusciel( Book )

2 editions published in 1998 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Ce mémoire rend compte de travaux de recherches conduits sur une installation constituée d'un séchoir convectif à bois basse température associé à une colonne d'absorption dont la fonction est de déshumidifier l'air de séchage sur une boucle de recirculation du séchoir. L'absorbeur est de type venturi et l'absorbant est un liquide organique, le triéthylène glycol (teg). L'objectif de l'étude est d'évaluer les performances de l'installation à travers les deux paramètres que sont la cinétique de séchage et la qualité du bois sèche. Un modèle macroscopique simple, représentant les échanges de matière entre le bois et l'air pendant le séchage, a ainsi été développé. Il est caracterisé par un coefficient global de transfert de matière dont les variations en fonction des principaux paramètres opératoires ont été précisées. Ce coefficient est l'outil de mesure de la cinétique moyenne de séchage d'un lot de bois au cours d'un cycle complet. Il permet ainsi d'évaluer l'influence du débit de TEG, du débit d'air traversant l'absorbeur et de la température de l'air sur le fonctionnement de l'installation. Dans le domaine de fonctionnement considéré, l'utilisation de l'absorbeur améliore la cinétique de séchage d'environ 65% : cette performance est peu influencée par les trois paramètres étudiés. La qualité du bois sèche est estimée par la mesure des défauts de séchage à savoir le nombre et la dimension des fissures ainsi que les déformations (flêches de face et de front). Des cycles de séchage ont été conduits sur du hêtre et du sapin. Les résultats montrent que l'utilisation de l'absorbeur est pénalisante sur la qualité du bois sèche. Toutefois, l'accélération de la cinétique de séchage ne se traduit pas par une augmentation du même ordre de grandeur des défauts. En particulier lors du séchage du sapin, la qualité du bois est peu affectée par l'utilisation de l'absorbeur. Enfin, la quantité totale de produits organiques présente dans l'air de séchage est évaluée à l'aide d'un détecteur à ionisation de flamme. Les essais réalisés montrent que la concentration en composés organiques de l'air de séchage est en moyenne divisée par un facteur 7 lorsque l'absorbeur fonctionne. La synthèse de l'ensemble des résultats conduit à penser que l'installation étudiée semble mieux adaptée au séchage des essences résineuses
Développement de matériaux composites fibreux hautes perfomances à matrice bio-sourcée by Alix Sauget( Book )

2 editions published in 2014 in French and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

La mutation de nos activités industrielles vers le développement durable est l'un des plus gros enjeux humains du 21ème siècle. L'utilisation de la biomasse dans divers domaines tels que l'énergie, la construction et les matériaux est une réponse face à la raréfaction des ressources fossiles et face aux risques écologiques. Les objectifs de cette thèse sont de créer de nouveaux matériaux les plus bio-sourcés possibles et d'optimiser les propriétés de ces matériaux en vue d'une éventuelle utilisation industrielle. Les travaux présentés ici traitent de la fabrication de matériaux composites à renforts de fibres naturelles, ayant pour matrice des résines bio-sourcées. Les ressources végétales principalement étudiées ici sont les tannins, utilisés pour la réalisation de : - Composites à matrice tannin - hexamine - Composites à matrice tannin - résorcine - aldéhyde Les tannins végétaux ont également été étudiés pour la conception de bio-plastiques tannin - alcool furfurylique pouvant être appliqués à la fabrication de composites. Les panneaux composites ont été réalisés en laboratoire et analysés mécaniquement en se basant sur des méthodes normatives européennes. Les résines ont également été caractérisées à l'aide de diverses techniques telles que l'analyse thermomécanique (TMA) ou la spectroscopie de masse MALDI-ToF. Au final, ces travaux ont permis de réaliser des matériaux composites hautement bio-sourcés, aux propriétés homogènes et reproductibles satisfaisant en outre les exigences d'emploi de plusieurs normes européennes
Développement de stratifiés de papiers imprégnés à base de résine de tannin de mimosa et d'alcool furfurylique by Ummi Hani Binti Abdullah( )

1 edition published in 2014 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Resin impregnated papers have been widely used in manufacturing laminates for wood panels. Generally, paper impregnation involves melamine formaldehyde, melamine urea formaldehyde and urea formaldehyde resin. However, these materials are expensive when used in high quantity and derived from non renewable resources. Therefore, in this work we prepared tannin furanic resin impregnated paper to replace melamine formaldehyde and urea formaldehyde in the paper impregnation. Tannin furanic resin composed of two main natural materials: a) mimosa tannins which is non-toxic, environmentally friendly and relatively inexpensive to substitute the synthetic resin and b) furfuryl alcohol obtained by catalytic reduction of furfural, a natural compound obtained by the hydrolysis of sugars derived from agricultural waste. Tannins are naturally occurring phenolic compounds extracted from the bark trees that have been used industrially for many years as wood panel adhesives but no distance work have been done to study their potential in paper laminates. In this work, we studied: 1) The gel time between mimosa and pine tannin with furfuryl alcohol without the addition of formaldehyde from pH 1 to pH 11 2) The MALDI-TOF and NMR of mimosa tannin with furfuryl alcohol 3) The surface quality of the plywood overlaid with mimosa tannin- furfuryl alcohol resin 4) 10-ply high pressure laminates (HPL) were prepared with mimosa tannin- furfuryl alcohol resin. The surface quality of the HPL and the mechanical properties of plywood overlaid with this HPL were examined. 5) 10-ply high pressure laminates were prepared with mimosa tannin- furfuryl alcohol resin in the acid condition. The surface quality of the prepared HPL were compared with PF
Développement de matériaux composites écologiques à base de résines de tannins et de renforts de fibres végétales by Arnaud Nicollin( )

1 edition published in 2014 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Tannins are plant chemicals that show a good reactivity and so they can replace similar products from oil chemistry. This is the case for condensed tannins that have reactivity mechanism similar to that of the phenol. They have been used for several years in wood glues, but no in depth study have been carried out on their potential in composite manufacturing. The work presented here can be split into three projects aiming at the development of composite materials of high performances using both tannin based resins and natural fibers reinforcement. 1. The first project aims to develop a thermosetting composite based on the same tannin/hexamine resin already as glue for particleboards. A previous study shown that it was feasible but numerous problems needed to be solved in order to obtain a reliable and competitive manufacturing process. 2. The goal of the second project is the study and the development of composites which matrix is based on a copolymer of tannin and furfuryl alcohol. Furanic resins show good properties and their capability to react with phenolic compounds makes them potential candidates for the manufacturing of high performances composites. 3. The last project's objective is the production of acetylated tannins by using similar methods than that used for lignin, to check if they present the same thermoplastic behavior and if yes, to test them in composite manufacturing
Effet de la variabilité intra et interspécifique du bois sur les procédés de traitement thermique by Joël Hamada( )

1 edition published in 2016 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

In the context of sustainable development which has seen the introduction of the biocides directive BPD 98/8/CE in the EU, innovative wood preservation practices such as Heat Treatment (HT) become relevant. Wood HT, also termed wood thermal modification, is a physical modification technology by which wood is heated at around 200 °C in an inert atmosphere. The main purpose of the treatment is to improve the biological durability and dimensional stability of wood. Current studies on thermally modified wood (TMW) quality are focusing on treated material, on treatment conditions or on species effect on the end-product characteristics. Relatively little is known about the effect of intrinsic wood properties on its thermal modification. As wood properties vary especially under the influence of human activities through sylviculture, this thesis studied the effect of European oak and silver fir wood density and chemical composition on their thermal modification kinetic. An X rays computed tomography (CT) and densitometer were used to characterize wood samples. Boards were heat-treated by conduction under vacuum using a pilot furnace, whereas sawdust samples underwent thermo-gravimetric analysis under nitrogen. The analysis allowed finding intra- and interspecific variations, especially within growth rings and along radial direction (from pith to bark). Forest management impacted heat modification kinetic of the studied samples, especially in silver fir where fast grown wood was more sensitive to treatment. The finding will be used as additional information to the wood industry which will account for homogeneity of loadings destined to heat treatment
Contribution à la modélisation et à l'optimisation de systèmes énergétiques multi-sources et multi-charges by Mohamed Mladjao Mouhammad Al Anfaf( )

1 edition published in 2016 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

La demande énergétique mondiale continue d'augmenter. Les prix des énergies fossiles sont instables et incertains. La libéralisation du marché électrique et une conscience environnementale des acteurs mondiaux sont des leviers au développement des énergies renouvelables. Ces dernières se développent à un rythme rapide dans le monde. Elles ont atteint une maturité technique qui leur permet de devenir un segment important de l'industrie de l'énergie. Leur insertion dans le mix énergétique pose de nouveaux défis par rapport aux sources d'énergie traditionnelles. Avec un potentiel abondant encore sous-exploité, le photovoltaïque et l'énergie éolienne sont avantageux sur le plan économique et environnemental. Cependant, leur caractère intermittent diminue leur efficacité énergétique lorsqu'elles sont exploitées individuellement. L'utilisation de systèmes hybrides (multi-sources) combinant ces sources d'énergie renouvelables, le réseau de distribution national (réseau électrique historique) et les systèmes de stockage classiques, est généralement considérée par tous comme solution d'avenir, à la fois efficiente et fiable. Il est alors nécessaire de repenser la structure des réseaux électriques et des marchés de l'énergie, ainsi que des changements dans les méthodes de gestion de réseau. Dans ce contexte, l'apport envisagé avec ce travail de thèse est de contribuer à la modélisation et l'optimisation de systèmes multi-sources multi-charges pour alimenter aussi bien des sites isolés « énergie de proximité » (campus, village) que des sites étendus tels que des régions françaises à travers leur interconnexion « pooling ». Différents scenarii de gestion et différentes configurations des systèmes sont modélisés, testés et comparés pour analyser l'efficacité et la robustesse de chaque cas de figure. Une analyse technico-économique complète est réalisée, dans le but d'étudier la faisabilité de chaque système. Pour démontrer la validation de ces modèles, des études ont été réalisées sur un campus Universitaire Français, un micro-réseau au Mali et trois régions Françaises. Ces dernières ont fait l'objet d'application à un modèle original d'interconnexion basé sur les réseaux de Pétri pour l'aide à la décision en termes de configurations du réseau et le contrôle des flux d'énergie échangés entre des territoires producteurs-consommateurs interconnectés sans système de stockage
Étude des voies de valorisation des déchets ménagers au Bénin : cas de la ville d'Abomey-Calavi by Melhyas Kple( )

1 edition published in 2015 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Generaly in West Africa, the waste management is a priority problem mainly for the cities which welcome a growing population. It is the case of the city of Abomey-Calavi, that has no organized system of waste management. To allow an optimized management of waste, an overall policy based on tangible and demonstrated elements must be implemented. It is so essential to analyze the problem and its characteristics, to test various envisaged solutions, and to optimize the viable systems. The objective of this study is to provied solutions for the waste treatment of Abomey-Calavi. It is so a question of studying the problem, since the characterization of waste until the proposal of appropriate solutions and the conditions of their implementation. The methods tested in this study are based on thermochemical ways (Pyrolysis, Combustion and Gasification). The heterogeneous nature of waste does not allow their study in laboratory (more expensive and not representative). Thus, a model waste (MW: wood 88 %, Cardboard 7 %; Plastic 5 %) was established and based on the typological characterization of the waste of the city and the chemical assumptions. The study of the pyrolysis was realized in two parts. Slow pyrolysis in TGA and fast pyrolysis. TGA shows that the fast pyrolysis of the model waste can be made only at temperatures above 500°C. In the continuity of the results obtained in pyrolysis, a study of air gasification was made on the wood and the model waste at temperature of 800°C in a fluidized bed reactor. The tests allowed to observe that the results on these two types of fuels are very close. A simple model for the production of gas, condensable and of char during the gasification in fluidized bed was developed.The study of the combustion of MW in the boiler of LERMAB shows that the combustion is better when it is made in a reactor of high power. Compared with the results obtained on the wood, the combustion of the combustible mixture (MW) in the boiler does not present negative effects. These results seem very interesting for the choice of a better way of thermochemical treatment of the waste of the city of Abomey-Calavi. Finally, a waste management chain of HSW of the city of Abomey-Calavi is proposed in three parts and based on a mixed biological - thermochemical process preceded by the sorting
Analyse et conception d'un outil de coupe pour la valorisation des sous produits d'élagage des haies : démarche intégrée d'innovation et de prototypage by Alexandre Rougié( )

1 edition published in 2009 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

NOREMAT is specialized in the manufacturing of equipments for the maintenance of road verges. Its issue is to continuously propose profitable equipments to its customers. The company also wishes to design, thanks to scientific research, a new trimming concept offering more cost-efficient and ecological solutions. After a series of preliminary steps (analysis of French hedges, waste valorization options, design suggestion, analysis of trimming phenomena), a prototype was designed. This new tool fulfills three major functions: it cuts hedges economically and safely, it crushes the wastes into heating chips and collects them. Based upon the study of chips formation and the control of cutting parameters during the branches processing, this new tool offers a better trimming in comparison with the existing devices, while requiring less energy, adding value to waste products and protecting its surrounding area. Regarding scientific contribution, these researches have lead to a better understanding of the chip's building up in the specific case of flexible elements trimming
Amélioration des performances mécaniques des assemblages bois sur bois vissés par préparation des interfaces : application à la réalisation d'éléments de structure by Stéphane Girardon( )

1 edition published in 2014 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Plank bonding connection is used to produce efficient structural timber. The bonding achieves excellent rigidity and connection resistance. However, these products are often pollutants and are incompatible with industrial production rates due to the pressing time. Their performances collapse when the adhesive connection is replaced by rodlike fasteners, such as nails, screws or wooden dowels, but these connections allow a quick assembly. In these assemblies the contact surfaces between planks are not used for transmitting loads. The purpose of this study is to point out how mechanical preparation of the interfaces improves the performance of timber connections. The aim is to produce structural members without volatile organic compounds (VOC), achievable by an industrial robot allowing for flexibility, and using mixed wood local species. The first part of this study consists in identifying and analyzing reconstituted wood systems, as well as showing how to conduct a design by taking into account the partial composite action of connectors. This part explains that the chosen behavior of the mechanical connections in reconstituted systems is frequently very imprecise and leads to significant differences in design. The second part describes a methodology to overcome this lack, developed from the nonlinear modeling of a beamtype component. This approach leads to determine the fastener's secant stiffness for an exact linear calculation for engineers. The outcome of this methodology is the quantification of the fastener's secant stiffness by a related behavior rather than a general normative behavior. Due to the flexibility of members, a third part presents a reflection on the use of the contact surfaces for transmitting loads. The plank interfaces were machined in order to obtain grooves. This binding allows the transmission of shear and torsion forces in the intersection plane of the planks. Maintaining the contact is managed by the development of a wooden conical screw. To validate these principles, test campaigns were carried out to measure the performance of the groove, the wooden conical screw and their simultaneous use. The last section deals with the implementation of the improved assembly in structural members in order to confirm its potential. The first element type is a castellated beams and the second one is a bracing wall. Experimental results are compared with numerical models including the nonlinear grooved screwed connection behavior. Furthermore, these full scale elements validate the feasibility by an industrial robot
Compréhension des mécanismes de déstabilisation des substances dissoutes et colloïdales contenues dans les mélanges de pâtes à papier recyclée et mécanique : proposition de solutions pour limiter le nombre de casses stickies by Cédric Cael( )

1 edition published in 2012 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Lors de la fabrication de pâtes à papier, désencrée et mécanique, des substances dissoutes et colloïdales sont libérées dans les eaux du procédé. Celles-ci peuvent dans certaines conditions se déstabiliser et former des agglomérats collants, appelés « stickies ». La présence de ces agglomérats engendre des perturbations lors de la formation de la feuille sur la machine à papier, notamment des casses. Les travaux présentés dans cette thèse montrent l'impact du taux d'extractibles, obtenue de manière automatisée grâce à la mise en place d'un capteur, sur l'apparition des casses d'origine stickies. D'autre part, le vieillissement de la pâte désencrée a été identifié comme une des causes des modifications physico-chimiques de la pâte, conduisant à la déstabilisation des substances dissoutes et colloïdales des pâtes mécanique et désencrée lors la phase de mélange. Enfin, des solutions ont été proposées afin de limiter le phénomène d'agglomérations des substances dissoutes et colloïdales et par conséquent de diminuer le nombre de casses sur la machine
Condensed tannins extraction from grape pomace : characterization and utilization as wood adhesives for wood particleboard by Ping Lan( )

1 edition published in 2012 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The extraction of condensed tannins from grape pomace was examined using water medium in the presence of different bases as catalyst (NaOH, Na2CO3, NaHCO3 and Na2SO3). Two different extraction processes and the influence of 4 parameters (i.e., temperature, reaction time, chemical reagents and concentration of the chemical reagents) on the tannin extracts yields and properties were studied. The tannin fractions were characterized by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, carbon nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry ( MALDI-TOF ). It was demonstrated that it is possible to extract reactive tannins from grape pomace in basic medium. The tannin extracts obtained by precipitation in acidic conditions display a high phenolic content (Stiasny number higher 95%) but low water solubility and low reactivity toward formaldehyde because of the formation of catechinic acid phlobatannins during the acidification step. The tannins extracts obtained by lyophilization of the liquid, despite of their lower phenolic contents, displayed promising properties for adhesive applications. The optimum temperature of the extraction process was 100 °C, reaction time was 120 min; the best concentration of reagent was 10% (w/w). It was also shown that addition of sulphite ions during the extraction step improved the process :y the introduction of a sulfonic group through sulfitation increased both tannin solubility and reactivity as a result from the opening of the heterocyclic ring during extraction The structure of grape pomace sulfited tannin extracts did not present noticeable discrepancy exception of the ratio of the opening pyran ring which was different as a function of the catalyst used. The opening of pyran ring during the tannins extraction seem to be more important by using Na2CO3 and NaHCO3 than when using NaOH. The FT-IR bands assigned to aromatic ring vibration and carbonyl groups were stronger and no bands attributed to sulfited groups were tested detected in acidified tannins compared to lyophilized tannins. The TG2 results showed that the weight lost of these tannin extracts mainly composed of two steps. The first step starts from room temperature to 200 °C. It is attributed to the mass lost of water and some easy-degraded small low molecules. The secondly steps which is the mainly degradation step of tannin extract samples from 200 to 400 °C. The results from 13C-NMR showed that condensed tannin extracts from grape pomace were consistent with dominant procyanidin units with a minor amount of prodelphinidin units that are linked together by a C4-C8 bond. Relatively low carbonhydrate and high catechinc acid content was observed in acidified tannins compared to lyophilized tannins. It was shown by MADI-TOF experiments that grape pomace tannin extracts are mainly composed of flavoinoid oligomers up to 6 repeating units in lyophilized tannins and 10 repeating units in acidified tannins respectively, with dominant procyanidin units. A small proportion of substitution with glucose and gallic acid was detected in procyanidin units of polyflavonoid oligomers. The degree of polymerization of acidified tannins is higher than lyophilized tannins. Two different formulations (nonfortified tannin adhesive and fortified with addition of 20% of polymeric 4, 4'-diphenyl methane diisocyanate (p-MDI)) were used to press one layer wood particle board. It was shown that the nature of the extraction reagent (NaOH, Na2CO3 or NaHCO3) greatly impacts the properties of the resins and the mechanical properties of the panel internal bonding strengths. The particleboards bonded by the tannins extracted using Na2CO3 as catalyst give the best performance and were good enough to pass relevant international standard specifications for interior grade panels. Formaldehyde emission of these panels was below the European Norm requirements (<= 6.5 mg/ 100g panel)
Biocomposites : composites de hautes technologies en renfort de fibres naturelles et matrice de résines naturelles by Raphaël Kueny( )

1 edition published in 2013 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

This thesis was carried out within the LERMAB and the CETELOR and about the development of more than 98% biobased composites materials. Bast fibre type flax, hemp, kenaf and jute were selected, characterized chemically and physically. Nonwovens reinforcements are defined here as a superposition of cohesive webs products by pneumatic carding and consolidation by needling. The process we have chosen during this work allowed us to understand and to highlight the importance of the quality of the fibers on the mechanical and structural properties of the materials developed. Reinforcements made initially in a weight range from 200 to 800 g/m² in single, double or triple thicknesses have then been optimized to preserve the mechanical properties of the fibers and allow good accessibility of the impregnating resin. To limit the factors of complications, the process parameters have been limited for all fibers and composites. Fibers have been used singly or in mixtures, and impregnated by a matrix of natural tannin from mimosa and hexamine (as a hardener) or by synthetic resin of epoxy. Biocomposites with a rate of fibre mass over 50%, and density between 0.9 and 1.2 were obtained. Elasticity Modulus reach 6 GPa flexural and tensile. For strenght, averages reach 42 MPa and 75MPa respectively in tensile and bending
Valorization of beech wood through development of innovative and environmentally friendly chemical modification treatments by Mahdi Mubarok( )

1 edition published in 2019 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

In this study, improvement of physical and biological durability properties of European beech (Fagus sylvatica) has been performed through different bulking impregnation treatments. The first modification was based on the impregnation of vinylic derivatives of glycerol or polyglycerol as additive followed with different thermal modification conditions in the opened system (OHT) or in the closed system (HPS). The second modification was based on the in-situ polyesterification of sorbitol and citric acid at different concentrations and curing temperatures in the opened system. Various physical, chemical, mechanical, and biological durability properties of the modified woods were evaluated, including certain properties during modification. The results have disclosed that certain treatments can improve significantly physical and biological durability properties of wood against decay (white rot, brown rot, and soft rot fungi) and termites attacks in comparison to untreated wood or thermally modified woods
Nouveaux composés gélifiants supramoléculaires biosourcés : synthèse et caractérisation des gels dérivés by Cherryl Mirabelle Zang Ondo( )

1 edition published in 2021 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Ce travail de thèse s'inscrit dans la poursuite de travaux débutés lors de thèses précédentes du laboratoire sur la conception de molécules amphiphiles gélifiantes de faible poids moléculaire, permettant d'obtenir des gels supramoléculaires. Le premier objectif de cette étude correspondait à la synthèse de dérivés originaux associant 3 types de composés biosourcés, en l'occurrence le glucose, de lysine et d'acide gras de longueur de chaîne variable, issus tous les trois de la biomasse végétale, avec le glucose issu de la biomasse ligno-cellulosique, la lysine en tant que sous-produit de l'industrie sucrière et les acides gras, des huiles végétales. La méthode de synthèse proposée est une méthode directe pour chacune des étapes et permet d'éviter toutes méthodes de protection/déprotection. Le deuxième objectif a été de mettre en évidence les propriétés gélifiantes de ces différents composés, en faisant varier le solvant et la concentration. De nombreux gélifiants ont montré des propriétés ambidextres, gélifiant l'eau et les solvants organiques. Les propriétés des gels supramoléculaires qui en découlent ont été caractérisées par différentes techniques au niveau macroscopique pour déterminer les températures de dé-gélification, telles que la méthode du tube inversé ou encore la rhéologie, et au niveau microscopique, telles que la microscopie. Les interactions existant entre les molécules et susceptibles d'être responsables de la formation du gel ont été mises en évidence par différentes spectroscopies (RMN, IR, ...), ce qui a permis de conclure que le processus de gélification est gouverné à la fois par des interactions hydrophobes et des liaisons hydrogène
Classement mécanique des bois de structure. Prise en compte des singularités dans la modélisation du comportement mécanique by Joffrey Viguier( )

1 edition published in 2015 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The methods described in Eurocode 5 must be applied to the calculation of timber structures. The application of these methods requires prescribers to use wood whose mechanical properties are guaranteed. To assign a board to a class, three properties must be guaranteed: the density, the modulus of elasticity (MOE) and bending strength (MOR). The determination of the density and MOE is already mastered; the remaining technological obstacle concerns the prediction of MOR. The possibility to improve the prediction by measuring singularities (knot or slope of grain) or keeping the traceability of forest data has been investigated. Strength grading is governed by standards and the predictions quality of mechanical properties is not sufficient to evaluate the grading efficiency. Therefore the efficiency between different technologies has been compared on species with high harvest potential in France (Douglas fir, spruce and oak). The problems encountered when glulam beams are split have been analyzed. Particularly, the strength loss caused by the splitting process has been detailed and compared to the normative recommendations
Développement de trois différents types de matériaux innovants à base de tannins by Marion Thébault( )

1 edition published in 2014 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Tannins are chemical extracts which represent a natural alternative to chemicals as phenol or resorcinol which are from oil resources. They are already used industrially for the synthesis of adhesives used for the manufacture of wood-based products such as particleboards and plywood, but generally always used with formaldehyde as a hardener to improve their mechanical strengths. The first products developed in this thesis are adhesive resins for the manufacture of particleboards, synthesized from Radiata Pine tannins and less hazardous aldehydes obtained by reacting sunflower oil with ozone then with a reducing agent. The study has focus first on the conditions of the ozonolysis, whose parameters are numerous, and the analysis of the oils obtained, then on the synthesis of resins with solutions of tannins. Some of these resins have been used to manufacture particleboards that have been tested in dry internal bond strength. Then the subject has been oriented toward the development of rigid tannin/furanic-based foams as part of an industrial multi-material project. Several formulations have been tested to achieve the objectives of a specification, whose first purpose is to obtain foam panels homogeneous, low in density and with good mechanical properties. The innovation has been to make these foams in a particleboard press. Finally, a new route to manufacture tannin-based polyurethane polymers has been tested by using less hazardous chemicals in replacement of isocyanates, conventionally used in the industry. The synthesis is made by a first carbonatation step of tannins hydroxyl groups and then by a reaction with hexamethylenediamine. Spectrometric analyzes have shown that the products obtained do have urethane linkages. The study led to the exploration of the use of tannins reacted with ammonia to replace hexamethylenediamine to obtain new "non isocynates" polyurethanes with more bio-based and environment-friendly chemicals
Caractérisation expérimentale et modélisation du panneau composite bois-ciment by Mengya Li( )

1 edition published in 2018 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Lightweight concretes made from wood fibres and Portland cement paste are a new alternative for the reduction of the environmental impact of buildings. They are used in sustainable constructions as secondary elements for their thermal, hydric and mechanical performance. However, the generalisation of their use is not possible without resolving certain scientific obstacles related to their characterisation. Hence the aim of the present work, which is to contribute towards their characterisation through experimentation and numerical simulation. The Young's modulus and tensile strength were measured through flexural and compression tests. A numerical model has also been developed to predict the behaviour of specimens under bending test as well as their structural response when used as permanent formwork. In particular, the model helps to choose the optimum parameters for a better design of the formwork system. The study of the hygrothermal behaviour of the wood-cement material was carried out using both experimental work and simulation. The equations of coupled heat and moisture transfers for a porous medium have been implemented in the Comsol Multiphysics® software. The developed model has been applied and validated on several dynamic responses resulting from hygro-thermal tests carried out in the laboratory. The obtained physico-thermal properties of the wood-cement composite material were then incorporated into the Abaqus code via a Umatht user subroutine to simulate its high temperature behavior. The temperature profiles are evaluated and compared with the charring tests performed using a radiant panel on samples exposed to a uniform heat flux of 6kW/m². The simulations show that the developed model is able to predict the temperature profiles, the area and the depth of the charred layer during fire exposure
Modélisation thermomécanique de la paroi des greniers de stockage de céréales en banco by Clément Labintan( )

1 edition published in 2018 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The storage of cereals is done in rural areas in northern Benin in earth silo that have a limited capacity. The numerous attempts to introduce modern shops have been rejected by the population. This work aims to study the possibility of increasing the storage volume of Yom type silo without changing its architectural form, nor the clay-straw-nere composite. The experimental characterization of the mechanical behaviour of the banco, the construction material of these silo made it possible to define the best dosage for maximum characteristics. By varying the proportion of straw and decoction of nere, the influence on the raw earth of the straw and the decoction is highlighted. The simulation of grain action (filling and discharging) on the silo wall and the analysis of the induced deformations shows that there is a possibility of building larger earth silo. A parametric optimization of the dimensions was made. The effect of successive heating on the silo wall has been considered by modelling heat transfer. The modelling of the temperature profiles in various silo-oriented sections shows that the flow is well damped and the ambient conditions in the attic guarantee good conservation. It is therefore possible to build earth silo with large storage capacity that could be used as community silo or cereal banks for village cooperatives. This solution would solve the problem of food insecurity in rural areas
Étude du comportement et du renforcement d'appuis sollicités en compression selon un angle donné du bois lamellé-collé by Damien Lathuillière( )

1 edition published in 2015 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The objective of this study is to understand and model the behaviour of glulam beam solicit compression at given angle to the grain including reinforcement of self-tapping screw. Experimental results show that the tests in the absence of reinforcement operate on the association between the compression strength and the shear strength associated with three factors based on geometric data. This association is translated by a geometric calculation of effective length taking into account the lengths of overhang and interactions. In the presence of reinforcement, the test works on the association of the effective length reflecting a spreading effect and the effort takes by reinforcing screws. An approach is proposed to choose between the two failures modes observed on a screw called; the withdrawal of the screw and the buckling of the screw. However, the effort made by the screws can be translated by a geometric calculation of effective length for integrating third failure mode called "Compression in a plane formed by the screw tips". This objective has therefore enabled the development of a final dimensioning rule for the elements under compression at a given angle with or without reinforcements
Valorisation chimique de la biomasse oléagineuse d'origine béninoise : Lophira lanceolata et Carapa procera by Guévara Nonviho( )

1 edition published in 2015 in French and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The chemical composition of wild oilseeds, such as Lophira lanceolata (Ll) and Carapa procera (Cp) of Benin is mostly unknown. Yet they undergo crafted transformations for food, cosmetic and therapeutic purposes. This study aims to characterize their seeds, hulls and woods. From these crops, different oils have been extracted. One of them has been produced in rural area according to aqueous ancestral method. On the whole, oils of Ll have presented an interesting nutritional profile. They are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (> 50% m/m: mass for mass), especially that extracted by artisanal process. Beyond its good chemical properties, it provides essential fatty acids, phytosterols such as lupeol and more tocols compounds. Roasting and the use of enzymes have also assessed the impact of these methods on the chemical composition of LI seeds. Differently, Cp oil's has an abundant presence of MUFA, tocotrienols (85.56% w/w) and the richest composition in lanosterol (28.03%, m/m). The seeds cakes, hulls and wood of both species showed various distributions on chemical components (extractives, hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin). The characterization of hemicelluloses from different parts of plants has shown that they are essentially glucuronoxylans type. Extractives also offered a wide range of compounds mostly appreciated for industrial and pharmaceutical purposes. The chemical composition of the shells of Lophira was rich in organic compounds such as lignin (32.13%, dry weight) so their biosorbent capacity was evaluated. They showed methylene blue good adsorption capacity in aqueous solution, which highlighted their potential use in the purification of wastewater
 
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Alternative Names
Laboratoire d'Études et de Recherche sur le MAtériau Bois (Épinal)

Laboratoire d'Études et de Recherche sur le MAtériau Bois - UMR 1093

Laboratoire d'Études et de Recherche sur le MAtériau Bois (Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy)

LERMAB

Languages
French (20)

English (2)