Front cover image for The Columbia Documentary History of Race and Ethnicity in America

The Columbia Documentary History of Race and Ethnicity in America

All historians would agree that America is a nation of nations. But what does that mean in terms of the issues that have moved and shaped us as a people? This book illuminates the myriad ways in which immigration, racial, and ethnic histories have shaped the contours of contemporary American society.
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Introduction Acknowledgments Chapter 1. Ethnicity in Seventeenth-Century English America, 1600-1700, by Carol Berkin Documents 1. A Letter from a Gentleman of the City of New-York, 1698 2. The Beginning, Progress, and Conclusion of Bason's Rebellion in Virginia, In the Years 1675 and 1676 3. Edward Winslow, "Chapter 7," Good News from New England, 1624 4. Peter Schaghen to the Directors of the West India Company, 1626 5. Powhatan's Address to John Smith, 1609 6. Richard Frethorne to his father and mother, March 20, April 2 & 3, 1623 7. Reverend Samuel Smith to Ichabod Smith, January 1698/99 8. A Declaration or Confession of [Roger] Court Crotosse one of Col. John Wests Servants of some misdemeanors committed or done by him or other Servants belonging to the said Col. West, 1684 9. "Whereas Hugh Gwyn * " Minutes of the Council and General Court of Colonial Virginia, 9th of July 1640 10. John Rolfe to Sir Thomas Dale, 1614 11. Petition of Jewish Merchants to the Honorable Lords, Directors of the Chartered West India Company, Chamber of the City of Amsterdam, January 1655 12. The Case of Maria Negro, Court of Assistants, Boston, 1681 13. Declaration against the Proceedings of Nathaniel Bacon, 1676 14. "An Act Defining the Status of Mulatto Bastards," December 1662 15. Petition of Richard Saltonstall, 1645 16. The Remonstrance of the Inhabitants of Flushing, Long Island, against the Law Against Quakers and Subsequent Proceedings, January 1, 1658 17. William Bradford describes his encounter with Samoset, 1621 18. Rev. Johannes Megapolensis to the Classis of Amsterdam, March 18, 1655 19. Statement showing wherein Capt. Daniel Brodhead has exceeded the instruction given by the Honorable Richard Nicols, Governor General, April 25, 1667 20. Petition of Marylanders, November 20, 1690 and the Response to the Petition by John Coode and Kenelm Cheseldine, December 22, 1690 21. The Massachusetts Bible, 1663 22. Portrait of Princess Pocahontas, daughter of Powhatan 23. Benjamin Tompson, New England's Crisis, 1676 24. Vincent Bigot's Report, "Of the Piety and Devotion of the Christian Iroquois, 1677 25. The Testimony of Marmaduke Stevenson, 1659 Chapter 2. Ethnicity in Eighteenth-Century North America, 1701-1788, by Graham Russell Hodges Documents 1. Indian Women of Cabo San Lucas 2. Detailed Reports on the Salzburger Emigrants 3. The Life, History and Unparalled Sufferings of John Jea, the African Preacher 4. The Journal of Nicholas Collin, 1746-1831-Extract of the Most Noteworthy Transactions during My Incumbency as Rector at the Raccoon and Pensneck Congregations, From September 30, 1773 5. The Life of the Reverend Devereux Jarrett, Written by Himself; Excerpts 6. The Itinerarium of Dr. Alexander Hamilton 7. "A List of the Different Nations and Tribes of Indians in the Northern District of North America, with the number of their fighting men," early 1700s 8. J. Hector St. John Crevecoeur, "What is an American" 9. "It Was Not Smallpox"-report of Jean-Charles d'Arnaud, 1732 10. The Independent Reflector, William Livingston on Kings College, 1753 11. Thomas Jefferson - "Notes on the State of Virginia" 12. "A Gouging Match"; "A Backwoods Ball and Fight" 13. New York Colonial Muster Rools, 1755 14. Rev. Alexander Stewart to Rev. John Waring, 1764; James Francis to Rev. Alexander Stewart, 1764; Rev. Samuel Auchmuty to Rev. John Waring, 1761 15. Abigail Franks to Naphtali Franks 1743 16. Daniel Horsmanden, The New York Conspiracy, 1741 Chapter 3. The Limits of Equality: Racial and Ethnic Tensions in the New Republic, 1789-1836, by Marion R. Casey Documents 1. Sarah Cary to Samuel Cary, July 1792 2. Timothy Pickering to Anthony Wayne, 8 April 1795 3. "The New-York Society for the Information and Assistance of Persons Emigrating from Foreign Countries," New-York Register, 1795 4. "The Naturalization of Immigrants, 1795" 5. Edward Livingston, "Against the Alien Act, 1798" 6. Red Jacket, "Against White Missions Among the Indians" 7. United German Benefit Society, By-Laws of the United German Benefit Society: agreed upon at different meetings 8. "Act to Prohibit the Importation of Slaves March 2, 1807" 4. August Spies autobiography, 1886. 9. Max Farrand, ed, A Journey to Ohio in 1810: As Recorded in the Journal of Margaret Dwight 5. Thomas Nast, "This Is a White Man's Government" Harper's Weekly, September 5, 1868 10. "Petition of the Trustees of the Congregation of Shearith Israel, 1811" 11. William Sampson, The Catholic Question in America: Whether a Roman Catholic Clergyman be in any case compellable to disclose the secrets of Auricular Confession 12. Paul Cuffe, "Memorial Petition to Congress, 1813" 13. John Walker, A Critical Pronouncing Dictionary and Expositor of the English Language: in which not only the Meaning of Every Word is Explained and the Sound of Every Syllable Distinctly Shown, * To which are Prefixed Principles of English Pronunciation * Likewise, Rules to be Observed by the Natives of Scotland, Ireland and London, for Avoiding Their Respective Peculiarties 14. John Doyle, 25 January 1818 15. "The Shamrock Friendly Association" 16. Hezekiah Niles, "Editorial," Niles'Weekly Register, 8 August 1818 17. Jesse Torrey, A portraiture of domestic slavery in the United States: proposing national measures for the education and gradual emancipation of the slaves, without impairing the legal privileges of the possessor, and a project of a colonial asylum for free people of colour: including memoirs of facts on the interior traffic in slaves, and on kidnapping. 18. "Stockbridge, Maine," Report of the Select Committee of the Society for Propagating the Gospel Among the Indians and Others in North America 19. Catherine Brown, the Converted Cherokee: A Missionary Drama, founded on fact, written by a lady 20. Clear and Concise statement of New-York and the surrounding country: containing a faithful account of many of those base impositions which are constantly and uniformly practiced upon British emigrants by crafty, designing and unprincipled adventurers 21. Pennsylvania General Assembly, Resolutions relative to preventing the introduction of slavery into new states 22. "Diary of Catherine Maria Sedgwick, June 1821" 23. Travels by His Highness Duke Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach through North America in the Years 1825 and 1826 24. William Lloyd Garrison, The Liberator 25. Mathew Carey, Letters on the Colonization Society: with a view of its probable results * the origin of the Society, increase of the coloured population, manumission of slaves in thfsis country * addressed to C.F. Mercer 26. Bayard Tuckerman, ed. The Diary of Philip Hone, 1828-1851 27. Samuel F.B. Morse, Foreign Conspiracy Against the Liberties of the United States 28. Andrew Jackson, "Removal of Southern Indians to Indian Territory" 29. "Mass at S. Patrick's, 1836" 30. William L. Stone, The True History of Maria Monk, A Reprint of the Famous Report of Her Charges Chapter 4. Racial and Ethnic Identity in the United States, 1837-1877, by Michael Miller Topp Documents 1. Letter from Martin Weitz, Rockville, Connecticut, to his relatives in Schotten, Vogelsberg, Germany, July 29, 1855. 2. Letter from Angela Heck, New York, New York, to her relatives in Irrel, Trier, Germany, October 26, 1862. 3. German Society in Chicago, Annual Report, 1857-1858. 4. August Spies autobiography, 1886. 5. Thomas Nast, "This Is a White Man's Government" Harper's Weekly, September 5, 1868 6. John O'Sullivan, "Annexation," 1845 7. Bessie Conway or, The Irish Girl in America 8. Irish immigrant life in the United States 9. Dennis Kearney, "History of the American Working Classes," 1878 10. "An Act to Protect Free White Labor Against Competition With Chinese Coolie Labor, and to Discourage the Immigration of the Chinese into the State of California," 1862 6. "Atlanta Compromise": Booker T. Washington 11. Colonel Albert S. Evans, "A Cruise on the Barbary Coast," 1873 7. "Of Mr. Booker T. Washington and Others": W.E.B. Dubois 12. A sketch of the famous Chinese prostitute Ah Toy 8. Standing Bear's Protest 13. "The Chinese-Facts for Atlantic Papers." 14. The Page Law, 1875 15. Richard Henry Dana, "California and Its Inhabitants," 1840 16. Antoinio Maria Osio, "The History of Alta California," 1851 17. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, 1848 18. Juan Seguin, "Personal Memoirs," 1858 19. Juan Cortina organized a rebellion in the 1850s against Anglos in Texas 20. Solomon Northup provides an eyewitness account of a slave auction 21. Harriet Jacobs harrowing account of her life under slavery 22. Letter from James Henry Gooding to Abraham Lincoln, September 28, 1863 23. Letter from Hannah Johnson to Abraham Lincoln, July 31, 1863 24. "black codes" This set of codes is from St. Landry's parish in Louisiana 25. Letter from Jourdon Anderson to Colonel P.H. Anderson, August 7, 1865 26. Elias Hill testifying before the Congressional Committee Investigating the Ku Klux Klan, 1871 27. Little Bear, "The Sand Creek Massacre," 1864 Chapter 5. Race, Nation and Citizenship in Late Nineteenth-Century America, 1878-1900, by Mae M. Ngai Documents 1. "The Life Story of a Negro Peon" 2. Plessy v. Ferguson 3. "Southern Horrors." 4. The lynching of William Brooks [photograph] 5. "A Colored Complaint" 6. "Atlanta Compromise": Booker T. Washington 7. "Of Mr. Booker T. Washington and Others": W.E.B. Dubois 8. Standing Bear's Protest 9. Office of Indian Affairs, Field Matron's job description, 1892 10. "Omaha discuss allotment": A House of Our Own 11. Lone Wolf v. Hitchcock, 1903 12. "Kiansis I" 13. In re Rodriguez, 1897 14. Leong Shee's testimony, 1893 15. Contract between Mee Yung and Yut Kum: An Agreement Paper by the person Mae Yung 16. "Every Dog Has His Day" 1879 17. Chinese in Napa asylum, 1912 18. Robert Ferrari's autobiography 19. "How the Other Half Lives" 20. "Immigration Restriction" 1896 21-22 Queen Liliuokalani's defends her kingdom 23. "A Handbook on the Annexation of Hawaii" 24-25 "The White Man's Burden" and "Why Talk of the White Man's Burden?" 26. Bryan's "Savannah Interview" 1898 27. "To the Philippine People" 28. "Consent of the Governed" 29. "Mark Twain's Salutation to the Century" Chapter 6. The Critical Period: Ethnic Emergence and Reaction, 1901-1929, by Andrew R. Heinze Documents 3. W.E.B. DuBois, "Of Our Spiritual Strivings" 4. Geronimo: His Own Story, 1906 5. Genthe's Photographs of San Francisco's Old Chinatown 6. Leonard Covello, The Heart is the Teacher 7. George Kennan, "The Japanese in the San Francisco Public Schools," 1907 8. Theodore Roosevelt, Letter to Philander Knox, February 8, 1909 9. Forverts (Jewish Daily Forward), 1909 10. "Outside the Slaughter House", 1911 11. Horace M. Kallen, "Democracy Versus the Melting-Pot," 12. Wartime memos to Hugo Munsterbeg, 1914-1916 13. W.E.B. DuBois, "Close Ranks," The Crisis (July 1918) W.E.B. DuBois, "Returning Soldiers," The Crisis (May 1919) 14. Marcus Garvey, "National Anthem of Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League," 1918 15. Willa Cather, My Antonia, 1918 16. W.I. Thomas and Florian Znaniecki, The Polish Peasant in Europe and America 17. The Chicago Commission on Race Relations, The Negro in Chicago: A Study of Race Relations and a Race Riot, 1922 18. Carl C. Brigham, A Study of American Intelligence, 1923 19. Franz Boas, "The Question of Racial Purity" 1924 20. Gong Lum v. Rice, 1927 21. The Mexican Immigrant: His Life-Story, Autobiographic Documents Collected by Manuel Gamio, 1931 22. "Black and Blue" (recorded by Louis Armstrong, 1929; written by Fats Waller) Chapter 7. Changing Racial Meanings: Race and Ethnicity in the United States, 1930-1964, by Thomas A. Guglielmo and Earl Lewis Documents 1. Frances Perkins to Mr. Arthur Krock, April 22, 1940 2. Ashley Montagu, Man's Most Dangerous Myth: The Fallace of Race 3. Declaration of Intention (to Naturalize) for Joseph Imburgia, Chicago, IL, July 25, 1939 4. Helen Jackson Lee, Nigger in the Window 5. NAACP on black schoolteachers'fight for equal pay 6. George Streator to W.E.B. DuBois, April 18, 1935 7. Ella Earls Cotton, A Spark for My People 8. "That Thanksgiving Turkey," Chicago Defender, November 29, 1924 9. Chinese ILGWU activity in 1930s California 10. Mexican American Workers join the CIO 11. Social Security Board Posters, n.d. 12. Tydings-McDuffie Act, 1934 13. The Wheeler-Howard Act, 1934 14. Norfolk, VA. HOLC Ratings 15. United We Win 16. Photo of Navajo Marines, December 1943 17. Zoot Suit Riot 18. Japanese Internment during World War II 19. Japanese American Protests Internment: "Evacuation Was a Mistake" 20. Restrictive Covenant, Pittsfield Township, MI, November 27, 1941 21. Memorandum from Elmer Henderson to Will Maslow, December 20, 1944 22. FBI File of Isaac Alexander Wright 23. "Terrorism Against Negroes in Chicago Since V-J Day - August 1945 to April 1948 24. Jackie Robinson letter to President Dwight Eisenhower 25. March on Washington, 1963 Chapter 8. Racial and Ethnic Relations in America: 1865-2000, by Timothy J. Meagher Documents 1. Malcom X speech, 1954 2. Stokely Carmichael and Charles Hamilton, Black Power, 1967 3. Native American Graves and Repatriation Act, 1990 4. Hewy Newton interview and Black Panther platform 5. National Black Political Agenda - from The Gary Declaration 6. Molefi Asante The Afrocentric Idea 7. Vine Deloria, Jr., "This Country Was A Lot Better Off When the Indians were Running It" 8. "We Must Hold On to the Old Ways", 1969 9. El Plan de Aztlan 10. Preamble - La Raza Unida party 11. Asian American Political Alliance 12. Amy Uyematsu, "The Emergence of Yellow Power in America," 1969 13. Reparations for Japanese - American Internees, 1968 14. Jesse Jackson speech to Democratic Convention, 1984 15. Kerner Commission Report (National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders) 16. Nat Hentoff interview with Julius Lester, 1969 17. Michael Novak - The Rise of the Unmeltable Ethnics 18. Monsignor Geno Baroni and Mr. Muench testimony - National Conference of Catholic Bishops, 1975 19. Lee lacocca speech to Ethnic Heritage Council of the Pacific Northwest, 1984 20. Mario Cuomo speech, "Abraham Lincoln and our 'Unfinished Work,'" 1986 21. Michael MacDonald, All Souls: A Family Story From Southie 22. Immigration Reform and Control Act, 1986, and President Ronald Reagan's statement 25. Regents of the Univ. of California v. Bakke, 1978 26. President Lyndon Johnson speech, Commencement Address at Howard University, "To Fulfill These Rights," 1965 27. Report - "One Nation, Many People: A Declaration of Cultural Independence 28. Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. from The Disuniting of America 29. Oakland, CA School Board on Ebonies, 1996 30. California proposition 227 - Bilingual Education, 1998 31. L.A. riot - from L.A. Times, May 3, 15, 1992, Nov. 16, 19, 1992 32. Trial Transcript from the O.J. Simpson trial, 1995 33. Louis Farrakhan - "The Vision for the Million Man March" and "The Black Woman's Statement of Support for the Million Man March." 34. President Clinton's Commission on Race, Town Meeting, 1997 Conclusion Contributors Index